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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Acronyms and Abbreviations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Reflecting Sunlight: Recommendations for Solar Geoengineering Research and Research Governance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25762.
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Page 309
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Acronyms and Abbreviations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Reflecting Sunlight: Recommendations for Solar Geoengineering Research and Research Governance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25762.
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Page 310
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Acronyms and Abbreviations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Reflecting Sunlight: Recommendations for Solar Geoengineering Research and Research Governance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25762.
×
Page 311
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Acronyms and Abbreviations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Reflecting Sunlight: Recommendations for Solar Geoengineering Research and Research Governance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25762.
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Page 312

Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

APPENDIX E Acronyms and Abbreviations AIE aerosol indirect effect AOD aerosol optical depth CAA Clean Air Act CBD Convention on Biological Diversity CCAC Climate and Clean Air Coalition to Reduce Short-Lived Climate Pollutants CCN cloud condensation nuclei CCT cirrus cloud thinning CDR carbon dioxide removal CLIVAR Climate and Ocean—Variability, Predictability, and Change CLRTAP Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution CO2 carbon dioxide CPT Climate Process Team CWA Clean Water Act DECIMALS Developing Country Impacts Modelling Analysis for Solar Radiation Management DOE U.S. Department of Energy EIS environmental impact statement ENMOD Convention on the Prohibition of Military or Any Other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques EPA U.S. Environmental Protection Agency FAA Federal Aviation Administration FACE Free-Air CO2 Enrichment FDAAA Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act FDAMA Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act FIREX-AQ Fire Influence on Regional to Global Environments and Air Quality GAO U.S. Government Accountability Office GeoMIP Geoengineering Modeling Intercomparison Project GEOSS Group on Earth Observations GHG greenhouse gas 309 PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

APPENDIX E GLENS Geoengineering Large Ensemble GT gigaton IAC InterAcademy Council IAM integrated assessment model IAP InterAcademy Partnership IAP2 International Association for Public Participation ICH International Council for Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use ICMJE International Committee of Medical Journal Editors ICTRP International Clinical Trials Registry Platform INP ice nucleating particle IP intellectual property IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change IR infrared ISC International Science Council ISSCR International Society for Stem Cell Research LBA Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia LC/LP London Convention and London Protocol LES large eddy simulation MCB marine cloud brightening MLS Microwave Limb Sounder MSPES Multi-Site Public Engagement with Science–Synthetic Biology NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration NCAR National Center for Atmospheric Research NDC nationally determined contribution NEPA National Environmental Policy Act NGO nongovernmental organization NIH National Institutes of Health NOAA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration NPP net primary production NSF National Science Foundation NSTC National Science and Technology Council ODA Ocean Dumping Act OECD Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development 310 PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

Appendix E OSTP Office of Science and Technology Policy POC pocket of open cells R&D research and development RCP Representative Concentration Pathway RF radiative forcing RRI responsible research and innovation SAI stratospheric aerosol injection SCAR Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research SCoPEx Stratospheric Controlled Perturbation Experiment SDGs United Nations Sustainable Development Goals SG solar geoengineering SPICE Stratospheric Particle Injection for Climate Engineering SRM solar radiation management SRMGI Solar Radiation Management Governance Initiative SSP Shared Socioeconomic Pathway TRIPS Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights UN United Nations UNCLOS UN Convention on the Law of the Sea UNEA UN Environment Assembly UNEP UN Environment Programme UNESCO UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization UNFCCC UN Framework Convention on Climate Change USDA U.S. Department of Agriculture USGCRP U.S. Global Change Research Program UT upper troposphere UV ultraviolet WCRP World Climate Research Programme WHO World Health Organization WIPO World Intellectual Property Organization WMO World Meteorological Organization WMRA Weather Modification Reporting Act 311 PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

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Reflecting Sunlight: Recommendations for Solar Geoengineering Research and Research Governance Get This Book
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Climate change is creating impacts that are widespread and severe for individuals, communities, economies, and ecosystems around the world. While efforts to reduce emissions and adapt to climate impacts are the first line of defense, researchers are exploring other options to reduce warming. Solar geoengineering strategies are designed to cool Earth either by adding small reflective particles to the upper atmosphere, by increasing reflective cloud cover in the lower atmosphere, or by thinning high-altitude clouds that can absorb heat. While such strategies have the potential to reduce global temperatures, they could also introduce an array of unknown or negative consequences.

This report concludes that a strategic investment in research is needed to enhance policymakers' understanding of climate response options. The United States should develop a transdisciplinary research program, in collaboration with other nations, to advance understanding of solar geoengineering's technical feasibility and effectiveness, possible impacts on society and the environment, and social dimensions such as public perceptions, political and economic dynamics, and ethical and equity considerations. The program should operate under robust research governance that includes such elements as a research code of conduct, a public registry for research, permitting systems for outdoor experiments, guidance on intellectual property, and inclusive public and stakeholder engagement processes.

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