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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. A Population Health Perspective on Middle School Success: Activities, Programs, and Policies: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25807.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. A Population Health Perspective on Middle School Success: Activities, Programs, and Policies: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25807.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. A Population Health Perspective on Middle School Success: Activities, Programs, and Policies: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25807.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. A Population Health Perspective on Middle School Success: Activities, Programs, and Policies: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25807.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. A Population Health Perspective on Middle School Success: Activities, Programs, and Policies: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25807.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. A Population Health Perspective on Middle School Success: Activities, Programs, and Policies: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25807.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. A Population Health Perspective on Middle School Success: Activities, Programs, and Policies: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25807.
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Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. A Population Health Perspective on Middle School Success: Activities, Programs, and Policies: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25807.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. A Population Health Perspective on Middle School Success: Activities, Programs, and Policies: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25807.
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Page R9
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. A Population Health Perspective on Middle School Success: Activities, Programs, and Policies: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25807.
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Page R10
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. A Population Health Perspective on Middle School Success: Activities, Programs, and Policies: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25807.
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Page R11
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. A Population Health Perspective on Middle School Success: Activities, Programs, and Policies: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25807.
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Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. A Population Health Perspective on Middle School Success: Activities, Programs, and Policies: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25807.
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Page R13
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. A Population Health Perspective on Middle School Success: Activities, Programs, and Policies: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25807.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

A Population Health Perspective on Middle School Success Activities, Programs, and Policies Carla Alvarado and Lauren Savaglio, Rapporteurs Roundtable on Population Health Improvement Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice Health and Medicine Division PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS   500 Fifth Street, NW   Washington, DC 20001 This activity was supported by contracts between the National Academy of ­Sciences and the Association of American Medical Colleges, BlueCross BlueShield of North Carolina, The California Endowment (#10003309), Dartmouth-­Hitchcock Medical Center, Geisinger, Department of Health and Human Services (#10003388), ­ aiser K Permanente (#10002957), Nemours, The Rippel Foundation/ReThink Health, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (#10002897), Samueli Foundation, and Wake Forest Baptist Health. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organiza- tion or agency that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-XXXXX-X International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-XXXXX-X Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/25807 Additional copies of this publication are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2021 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. A population health perspective on middle school success: Activities, programs, and policies: Proceedings of a workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/25807. PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institu- tion to advise the nation on issues related to science and ­ echnology. Members t are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the char- ter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was estab­ished in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of ­ ciences to l S advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, E ­ ngineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and a ­ dvice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in ­ atters of science, engineering, and medicine. m Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engi­eering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the n study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typi- cally include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task. Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opin- ions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies. For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo. PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

PLANNING COMMITTEE ON A POPULATION HEALTH PERSPECTIVE ON MIDDLE SCHOOL SUCCESS: ACTIVITIES, PROGRAMS, AND POLICIES1 CHRISTINE THIELEN (Chair), Association for Middle Level Education KIMBERLY CHARIS, National Association of State Boards of Education ANNE DEBIASI, Trust for America’s Health JOAQUIN TAMAYO, EducationCounsel DIANE WHITMORE SCHANZENBACH, Northwestern University JOANNA WILLIAMS, University of Virginia Health and Medicine Division Staff ALINA BACIU, Roundtable Director CARLA ALVARADO, Program Officer HARIKA DYER, Senior Program Assistant (starting April 2020) ROSE M. MARTINEZ, Senior Board Director, Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice 1 The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine’s planning commit- tees are solely responsible for organizing the workshop, identifying topics, and choosing s ­ peakers. The responsibility for the published Proceedings of a Workshop rests with the workshop rapporteurs and the institution. v PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

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ROUNDTABLE ON POPULATION HEALTH IMPROVEMENT1 SANNE MAGNAN (Co-Chair), Senior Fellow, HealthPartners Institute JOSHUA M. SHARFSTEIN (Co-Chair), Associate Dean for Public Health Practice and Training, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health PHILIP M. ALBERTI, Senior Director, Health Equity Research and Policy, Association of American Medical Colleges JOHN AUERBACH, Executive Director, Trust for America’s Health CATHY BAASE, Chair, Board of Directors, Michigan Health Improvement Alliance; Consultant for Health Strategy, The Dow Chemical Company RAYMOND BAXTER, President and Chief Executive Officer, Blue Shield of California Foundation DEBBIE I. CHANG, Senior Vice President, Policy and Prevention, Nemours MARC N. GOUREVITCH, Professor and Chair, Department of Population Health, New York University Grossman School of Medicine GARTH GRAHAM, President, Aetna Foundation GARY R. GUNDERSON, Vice President, Faith Health, School of Divinity, Wake Forest University WAYNE JONAS, Executive Director, Integrative Health Programs, H&S Ventures, Samueli Foundation ROBERT M. KAPLAN, Professor, Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University DAVID A. KINDIG, Professor Emeritus of Population Health Sciences, Emeritus Vice Chancellor for Health Sciences, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin–Madison MICHELLE LARKIN, Associate Vice President, Associate Chief of Staff, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation PHYLLIS D. MEADOWS, Senior Fellow, Health Program, The Kresge Foundation BOBBY MILSTEIN, Director, ReThink Health JOSÉ T. MONTERO, Director, Office for State, Tribal, Local, and Territorial Support, Deputy Director, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 1 The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine’s forums and round- tables do not issue, review, or approve individual documents. The responsibility for the pub- lished Proceedings of a Workshop rests with the workshop rapporteurs and the institution. vii PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

KAREN MURPHY, Executive Vice President and Chief Innovation Officer, Founding Director, Steele Institute for Health Innovation, Geisinger MARY PITTMAN, President and Chief Executive Officer, Public Health Institute RAHUL RAJKUMAR, Senior Vice President and Chief Medical Officer, BlueCross BlueShield of North Carolina LOURDES J. RODRIGUEZ, Director, Community-Driven Initiatives at Dell Medical School, Associate Professor, Department of Population Health, The University of Texas at Austin PAMELA RUSSO, Senior Program Officer, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation MYLYNN TUFTE, State Health Officer, North Dakota Department of Health HANH CAO YU, Chief Learning Officer, The California Endowment Health and Medicine Division Staff ALINA BACIU, Roundtable Director CARLA ALVARADO, Program Officer HARIKA DYER, Senior Program Assistant (starting April 2020) ROSE M. MARTINEZ, Senior Board Director, Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice Consultant LAUREN SAVAGLIO, Rapporteur viii PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

Reviewers This Proceedings of a Workshop was reviewed in draft form by indi- viduals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineer- ing, and Medicine in making each published proceedings as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the charge. The review com- ments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this proceedings: MARICE ASHE, ChangeLab Solutions JOHANNA ROSENTHAL, Cardea Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the content of the proceedings nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this proceedings was overseen by NANCY FUGATE WOODS, University of Washington. She was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this proceedings was carried out in accor- dance with standards of the National Academies and that all review com- ments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the rapporteurs and the National Academies. ix PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

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Contents ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS xiii 1 INTRODUCTION 1 Workshop Objectives, 1 Opening Remarks, 1 Organization of the Workshop and Proceedings, 2 2 TO THRIVE IN MIDDLE SCHOOL AND BEYOND, AND THE MIDDLE SCHOOL YEARS, A 360 VIEW 5 To Thrive in Middle School and Beyond, 5 The Middle School Years, a 360 View, 8 Discussion, 14 3 REMARKS FROM THE MAYOR OF OAKLAND AND MIDDLE SCHOOL INSIDE OUT 15 Remarks from the Mayor of Oakland, 15 Middle School Inside Out, 17 Discussion, 27 4 MULTISECTOR SUPPORT FOR THE MIDDLE SCHOOL EXPERIENCE 29 What It Is Like to Be in Middle School, 30 Multisector Support, 30 Discussion, 42 xi PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

xii CONTENTS 5 THE BIG PICTURE 45 Discussion, 47 6 REFLECTIONS ON THE DAY AND CLOSING REMARKS 51 APPENDIXES A References 55 B Workshop Agenda 59 C Biosketches of Speakers, Moderators, and Planning Committee Members 63 PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

Acronyms and Abbreviations ACE adverse childhood experience ADHD attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder AMLE Association for Middle Level Education BCPS Broward County Public Schools CHSC Center for Healthy Schools and Communities DCPS Washington DC Public Schools GSA Gay–Straight Alliance LA Los Angeles LESD Lawndale Elementary School District MCPS Montgomery County Public Schools PBL project-based learning RJOY Restorative Justice for Oakland Youth SAAF Strong African American Families program SEL social-emotional learning UWNCA United Way of the National Capital Area xiii PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

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On December 5, 2019, the Roundtable on Population Health Improvement of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine convened a workshop to explore the factors that affect the health and well-being of middle-school-aged adolescents. The workshop included presentations on the risk factors of poor physical, social, and emotional outcomes and their prevalence; the identification of resilience factors; current policies and programs designed to support middle school success and address issues of equity and financing as they apply to these; and how the health and human services sectors can support and align with the education sector to promote health and well-being in middle school. This publication summarizes the presentations and discussions that took place during the workshop.

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