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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Measuring Alternative Work Arrangements for Research and Policy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25822.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Measuring Alternative Work Arrangements for Research and Policy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25822.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Measuring Alternative Work Arrangements for Research and Policy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25822.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Measuring Alternative Work Arrangements for Research and Policy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25822.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Measuring Alternative Work Arrangements for Research and Policy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25822.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Measuring Alternative Work Arrangements for Research and Policy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25822.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Measuring Alternative Work Arrangements for Research and Policy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25822.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Measuring Alternative Work Arrangements for Research and Policy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25822.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Measuring Alternative Work Arrangements for Research and Policy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25822.
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Prepublication copy, uncorrected proofs Berlingieri, G. (2014). Outsourcing and the Rise of Services. Working Paper No. 1199. London: London School of Economics and Political Science, Centre for Economic Performance. Berlinski, S. (2008). Wages and contracting out: Does the law of one price hold? British Journal of Industrial Relations 46(1): 59–75. Bernhardt, A. (2014). Labor Standards and the Reorganization of Work: Gaps in Data and Research. Working Paper No. 100-114. Berkeley: University of California, Institute for Research on Labor and Employment (IRLE). Available: https://irle.berkeley.edu/files/2014/Labor-Standards-and-the-Reorganization-of- Work.pdf. Bernhardt, A., E. Appelbaum, S.N. Houseman, and R. Batt. (2016). Domestic Outsourcing in the United States: A Research Agenda to Assess Trends and Effects on Job Quality. Working Paper #102-16. University of California Berkeley: Institute for Research on Labor and Employment (IRLE). Available: http://irle.berkeley.edu/domestic-outsourcing-in-the-u-s- a-research-agenda-to-assess-trends-and-effects-onjob-quality/. Bernhardt, A., and S.N. Houseman. (2017). Memorandum—Data Needs for Research on Domestic Outsourcing in the United States. Working Paper, W.E. Upjohn Institute. Bernhardt, A., M.W. Spiller, and N. Theodore. (2013, July). Employers gone rogue: Explaining industry variation in violations of workplace laws. ILR Review 66(4): 808–832 (Cornell University, ILR School). Bloom, N., E. Brynjolfsson, L. Foster, R. Jarmin, M. Patnaik, I. Saporta-Eksten, and J. Van Reenen. (2017). What Drives Differences in Management? NBER Working Paper No. 23300. Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. (2018). Codebook for 2018 Survey of Household Economics and Decision-making. Washington, DC. Available: https://www.federalreserve.gov/consumerscommunities/files/SHED_2018codebook.pdf. ______. (2019a). Report on the Economic Well-being of U.S. Households in 2018. Washington, DC. Available: https://www.federalreserve.gov/publications/2019-economic-well-being- of-us-households-in-2018-description-of-the-survey.htm. ______. (2019b). Survey of Household Economics and Decision-making. Washington, DC. Available: https://www.federalreserve.gov/consumerscommunities/shed.htm. Bollinger, C.R., B.T. Hirsch, C.M. Hokayem, and J.P. Ziliak. (2019). Trouble in the tails? What we know about earnings nonresponse 30 years after Lillard, Smith, and Welch. Journal of Political Economy 127(5). Borgschulte, M., H. Cho, and D. Lubotsky. (2019, November). Partisanship and Survey Refusal. NBER Working Paper No. 26433. Available: https://www.nber.org/papers/w26433.pdf. Bracha, A., and M.A. Burke. (2017, November). How Big is the Gig? Federal Reserve Bank of Boston. Unpublished Working Paper. Available: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/321228231_How_Big_is_the_Gig. ______. (2018). Wage inflation and informal work. Current Policy Perspectives, 18(2). Available: https://www.bostonfed.org/publications/current-policy- perspectives/2018/wage-inflation-and-informal-work.aspx. Brown, J.D., J.S. Earle, and K.M. Lee. (2019). Who Hires Non-Standard Labor? Evidence from Employers. Available: http://conference.iza.org/conference_files/Statistic_2019/lee_k26929.pdf. 80

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Prepublication copy, uncorrected proofs Farber, H. (1999). Alternative and part-time employment arrangements as a response to job loss. Journal of Labor Economics 17(4, pt. 2): S142–S169. ______. (2017). The role of unemployment in the rise in alternative work arrangements. American Economic Review: Papers and Proceedings 107(5): 388–392. Farrell, D., and F. Greig. (2016a). Paychecks, Paydays, and the Online Platform Economy: Big Data on Income Volatility. Washington, DC: JPMorgan Chase & Co. Institute. Available: https://www.jpmorganchase.com/corporate/institute/document/jpmc-institute-volatility-2- report.pdf. ______. (2016b). The Online Platform Economy: Why Growth Has Peaked. Washington, DC: JPMorgan Chase & Co. Institute. Available: https://www.jpmorganchase.com/corporate/institute/document/jpmc-institute-online- platform-econ-brief.pdf. Farrell, D., F. Greig, and A. Hamoudi. (2018). The Online Platform Economy in 2018: Drivers, Workers, Sellers, Lessors. JPMorgan Chase & Co. Institute. Washington, DC. Available: https://www.jpmorganchase.com/corporate/institute/document/institute-ope-2018.pdf. Foster, L., C. Grim, J. Haltiwanger, and Z. Wolf. (2019). Innovation, productivity dispersion, and productivity growth. In Measuring and Accounting for Innovation in the 21st Century, edited by C. Corrado, J. Haskel, J. Miranda, and D. Sichel. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Freeman, R. (2014). The subcontracted labor market. Perspectives on Work 18(3): 38–42. Fugiel, P.J., and S.J. Lambert. (2019). On-demand and on-call work in the United States. Chapter 6 in Zero Hours and On-Call Work in Anglo-Saxon Countries, edited by M. O’Sullivan, J. Lavelle, J. McMahon, L. Ryan, C. Murphy, T. Turner, and P. Gunnigle. Springer Publishing. Furman, J., and P. Orszag. (2018). A firm-level perspective on the role of rents in the rise in inequality. In Toward a Just Society: Joseph Stiglitz and Twenty-First Century Economics, edited by M. Guzman. New York: Columbia University Press. General Accounting Office. (2015). Contingent Workforce: Size, Characteristics, Earnings, and Benefits. GAO-15-168R. Washington, DC. Available: http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-15-168R. Golden, L. (2015, April). Irregular Work Scheduling and Its Consequences. Briefing Paper No. 394, Economic Policy Institute. . Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2597172 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2597172. Goldschmidt, D., and J.F. Schmieder. (2017). The rise of domestic outsourcing and the evolution of the German wage structure. The Quarterly Journal of Economics 132(3): 1165–1217. Grabell, M., J. Larson, and O. Pierce. (2013). Temporary work, lasting harm. Online article published on the ProPublica website, December 18. Available: https://www.propublica.org/article/temporary-work-lasting-harm?utm_campaign=get- involved&utm_source=youtube&utm_medium=video&utm_term=temp-land. Hall, J.V., and A.B. Krueger. (2018). An analysis of the labor market for Uber’s driver-partners in the United States. ILR Review 71(3): 705–732. Halpern-Manners, A., and J.R. Warren. (2012). Panel conditioning in longitudinal studies: Evidence from labor force items in the Current Population Survey. Demography 49(4): 1499–1519. doi: 10.1007/s13524-012-0124-x. Henao, A., and W.E. Marshall. (2019). An analysis of the individual economics of ride-hailing drivers. Transportation Research 130: 440–451. 82

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Business structures, employment relationships, job characteristics, and worker outcomes have changed in the United States over the last few decades—in some ways unpredictably. A high level of interest exists among policy makers and researchers in addressing concerns about the future of work in the United States. These concerns are heightened by the perceived fracturing of relationships between workers and employers, the loss of safety net protections and benefits to workers, the growing importance of access to skills and education as the impacts of new technologies and automation are felt, and the market-based pressure that companies face to produce short-term profits, sometimes at the expense of long-term value.

These issues, as well as related ones such as wage stagnation and job quality, are often associated with alternative work arrangements (AWAs)—which include independent-contractor and other nonemployee jobs, work through intermediaries such as temporary help agencies and other contract companies, and work with unpredictable schedules—although they also pertain to many standard jobs. A better understanding of the magnitude of and trends in AWAs, along with the implications for job quality, is needed to develop appropriate policies in response to the changing nature of work.

Measuring Alternative Work Arrangements for Research and Policy reviews the Contigent Worker Supplement (CWS) of the Current Population Survey (CPS) for the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) in the U.S. Department of Labor. The CWS provides key measures of temporary (contingent) work, alternative work arrangements, and the “gig” economy. Disagreements, however, exist among researchers, policy makers, and other stakeholders about the definitions and measures of these concepts and priorities for future data collection. The report also reviews measures of employment, earnings, and worker well-being in temporary and alternative work arrangements that can be estimated using household survey data, such as those generated by the CWS, as well as measures that can be produced using administrative, commercial, and combined data sources. The comparative advantages and complementarities of different data sources will be assessed, as well as methodological issues underpinning BLS’s measurement objectives.

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