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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Guidelines to Incorporate the Costs and Benefits of Adaptation Measures in Preparation for Extreme Weather Events and Climate Change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25847.
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24 References Alexander, L.V. et al. “Global observed changes in daily climate extremes of temperature and precipitation.” Journal of Geophysical Research. Vol. 111, No. D5. (2006). Coley, Nathaniel. "Spotlight on Benefit-Cost Analysis." Public Roads Vol. 75, No. 5. Online: (2012). Federal Highway Administration. Climate Change & Extreme Weather Vulnerability Assessment Framework. Online: amework/fhwahep13005.pdf. (2012). Federal Highway Administration. Emergency Relief Manual. Online: (2013). Federal Highway Administration. Hydraulic Engineering Circular No. 17, 2nd Edition Highways in the River Environment – Floodplains, Extreme Events, Risk, and Resilience. Online: (2016). Federal Highway Administration. MnDOT Flash Flood Vulnerability and Adaptation Assessment Pilot Project. Online: 2015_pilots/minnesota/final_report/index.cfm. (2014). Frazier, E. R. Sr., T. P. Talvitie, J. L. Western, P. G. Bye, G. A. Owen, and M. C. Smith. NCHRP Web- Only Document 233: Mainstreaming Transportation Hazards and Security Risk Management: CAPTA Update and Implementation. Transportation Research Board. Online: management-capta-update-and-implementation. (2017). Knutson. T. et al. “Tropical Cyclones and Climate Change.” Nature Geoscience. Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 157- 163. Online: (2010). Meyer, M., M. Flood, J. Keller, J. Lennon, G. McVoy, C. Dorney, K. Leonard, R. Hyman and J. Smith. NCHRP Report 750: Strategic Issues Facing Transportation, Volume 2: Climate Change, Extreme Weather Events, and the Highway System: Practitioner’s Guide and Research Report. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies. Online: (2014). Rao, K. Climate Change and Housing: Will a Rising Tide Sink All Homes? Online: (2017). Trenberth, K. et al. “Observations: Surface and Atmospheric Climate Change.” In: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Online: (2007). U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Sea Level Change Calculator (2017.55). Online: (2017)

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Guidelines to Incorporate the Costs and Benefits of Adaptation Measures in Preparation for Extreme Weather Events and Climate Change Get This Book
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Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is useful for climate change response and adaptation, and if used properly, it has great potential for long-range planning. CBA should help agencies navigate the spectrum of decisions from mitigation and greenhouse gas reduction to adaptation: where does investing public funds generate the most public good?

The TRB National Cooperative Highway Research Program's NCHRP Web-Only Document 271: Guidelines to Incorporate the Costs and Benefits of Adaptation Measures in Preparation for Extreme Weather Events and Climate Change is published as a companion document to NCHRP Research Report 938. It includes two frameworks that were developed for the project to allow practitioners to conduct CBAs to a level of detail they deem appropriate; a sketch-level analysis can serve as a screening tool to evaluate if adaptation is even appropriate, while a more detailed climate resilience analysis can help to answer the question, “How much can I spend on an adaptation project and have it remain cost-effective?”

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