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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Reopening K-12 Schools During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Prioritizing Health, Equity, and Communities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25858.
×

References

CHAPTER 1

National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. (2017). Communities in Action: Pathways to Health Equity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/24624.

CHAPTER 2

Bailey, L.C., Razzaghi, H., Burrows, E.K., Bunnell, H.K., Camacho, P.E.F., Christakis, D.A., Eckrich, D., Kitzmiller, M., Lin, S.M., Magnusen, B.C., Newland, J., Pajor, N.M., Ranade, D., Rao, S., Sofela, O., Zahner, J., Bruno, C., and Forrest, C.B. (2020). Multi-Center Observational Study of 17,148 Pediatric Patients Tested for SARS-CoV-2 Virus across the United States: A Report from PEDSnet.

Bi, Q., Wu, Y., Mei, S., Ye, C., Zou, X., Zhang, Z., Bi, Q., Wu, Y., Mei, S., Ye, C., Zou, X., Zhang, Z., Liu, X., Wei, L., Truelove, S.A., Zhang, T., Gao, W., Cheng, C., Tang, X., Wu, X., Wu, Y., Sun, B., Huang, S., Sun, Y., Zhang, J., Ma, T., Lessler, J., and Feng, T. (2020). Epidemiology and transmission of COVID-19 in 391 cases and 1,286 of their close contacts in Shenzhen, China: A retrospective cohort study. The Lancet Infectious Diseases. Available: https://www.thelancet.com/journals/laninf/article/PIIS1473-3099(20)30287-5/fulltext.

Castagnoli, R., Votto, M., Licari, Castagnoli, R., Votto, M., Licari, A., Brambilla, I., Bruno, R., Perlini, S., Rovida, F., Baldanti, F., and Marseglia, G.L. (2020). Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in children and adolescents: A systematic review. JAMA Pediatrics. Published online April 22, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2020.1467.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020a). Cases, Data, and Surveillance. A Weekly Surveillance Summary of U.S. COVID-19 Activity. (Updated July 1). Available: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/cases-updates/index.html.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Reopening K-12 Schools During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Prioritizing Health, Equity, and Communities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25858.
×

_____. (2020b). Community, Work & School: Considerations for Schools. (Updated May 19). Available: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/schools-childcare/schools.html.

_____. (2020c). Cases, Data, and Surveillance. COVIDView Weekly Summary. (Updated July 3). Available: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/covid-data/covidview/index.html.

_____. (2020d). Community, Work & School: General Business Frequently Asked Questions. (Updated May 3). Available: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/general-business-faq.html.

_____. (2020e). Your Health: People Who Are at Higher Risk for Severe Illness. (Updated June 25). Available: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/need-extra-precautions/people-at-higher-risk.html.

DeBiasi, R.L., Song, X., Delaney, M., Bell, M., Smith, K., Pershad, J., Ansusinha, E., Hahn, A., Hamdy, R., Harik, N., Hanisch, B., Jantausch, B., Koay, A., Steinhorn, R., Newman, K., and Wessel, D. (2020). Severe COVID-19 in children and young adults in the Washington, DC, metropolitan region. The Journal of Pediatrics. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2020.05.007.

Gostic, K.M., Kucharski, A.J., and Lloyd-Smith, J.O. (2015). Effectiveness of traveller screening for emerging pathogens is shaped by epidemiology and natural history of infection. ELife. https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05564.

Inglesby, T.V. (2020). Public health measures and the reproduction number of SARS-CoV-2. JAMA Insights. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.7878.

Jing, Q.L., Liu, M.J., Yuan, J., Zhang, Z.B., Zhang, A.R., Dean, N.E., Jing, Q.L., Liu, M.J., Zhang, Z.B., Dean, N.E., Luo, L., Ma, M., Longin, I., Kenah, E., Lu, Y., Ma, Y., Fang, N.J., Yang, Z.C., and Yang, Y. (2020). Household secondary attack rate of COVID-19 and associated determinants. medRxiv. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.04.

Kelvin, A.A., and Halperin, S. (2020). Covid-19 in children: The link in the transmission chain. The Lancet Infectious Diseases. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30236-X.

Li, W., Zhang, B., Lu, J., Liu, S., Chang, Z., Peng, C., Liu, X., Zhang, B., Ling, Y., Tao, K., and Chen, J. (2020). Characteristics of household transmission of COVID-19. Clinical Infectious Diseases. https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa450.

Lu, X., Zhang, L., Du, H., Zhang, J., Li, Y.Y., Qu, J., Zhang, W., Wang, J., Bao, S., Li, Y., Wu, C., Liu, H., et al. (2020). SARS-CoV-2 infection in children. New England Journal of Medicine. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMc2005073.

Ludvigsson, J.F. (2020). Systematic review of COVID-19 in children shows milder cases and better prognosis than adults. Acta Paediatrica. https://doi.org/10.1111/apa.15270.

NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. (2020). Percent of patients testing positive for COVID-19 by ZIP code in New York City as of April 24, 2020. New York: Author. Available: https://www1.nyc.gov/assets/doh/downloads/pdf/imm/covid-19-data-map-04242020-1.pdf.

Prather, K.A., Wang, C.C., and Schooley, R.T. (2020). Reducing transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Science. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.abc6197.

Rasmussen, S.A., and Thompson, L.A. (2020). Coronavirus disease 2019 and children: What pediatric health care clinicians need to know. JAMA Pediatrics. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2020.1224.

Resolve to Save Lives: An Initiative of Vital Strategies. (2020). Box It In: Next Steps for Reopening Society. New York: Vital Strategies. Available: https://resolvetosavelives.org/timeline/box-it-in.

Stokes, E.K., Zambrano, L.D., Anderson, K.N., Marder, E.P., Raz, K.M., Felix, S.E.B., Tie, Y., and Fullerton, K.E. (2020). Coronavirus disease 2019 case surveillance—United States, January 22–May 30, 2020. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. http://doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6924e2.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Reopening K-12 Schools During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Prioritizing Health, Equity, and Communities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25858.
×

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2020). Coronavirus disease 2019 in children—United States, February 12–April 2, 2020. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. http://doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6914e4.

U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2020). Coronavirus Treatment Acceleration Program (CTAP). Washington, DC: Author. Available: https://www.fda.gov/drugs/coronavirus-covid-19-drugs/coronavirus-treatment-acceleration-program-ctap.

Verdoni, L., Mazza, A., Gervasoni, A., Martelli, L., Ruggeri, M., Ciuffreda, M., Bonanomi, E., and D’Antiga, L. (2020). An outbreak of severe Kawasaki-like disease at the Italian epicentre of the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic: An observational cohort study. The Lancet. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31103-X.

World Health Organization. (2019). Non-pharmaceutical Public Health Measures for Mitigating the Risk and Impact of Epidemic and Pandemic Influenza. Geneva, Switzerland: Author. Available: https://www.who.int/influenza/publications/public_health_measures/publication/en.

Zachariah, P., Johnson, C.L., Halabi, K.C., Ahn, D., Sen, A.I., Fischer, A., Banker, S.L., Giordano, M., Manice, C.S., Diamond, R., Sewell, T.B., Schweickert, A.J., Babineau, J.R., et al. (2020). Epidemiology, clinical features, and disease severity in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in a children’s hospital in New York City, New York. JAMA Pediatrics. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2020.2430.

Zhang, J., Litvinova, M., Liang, Y., Wang, Y., Wang, W., Zhao, S., Wu, Q., and Merler, S., Viboud, C., Vespignani, A., Ajelli, M., and Yu, H. (2020). Changes in contact patterns shape the dynamics of the COVID-19 outbreak in China. Science. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.abb8001.

CHAPTER 3

Alexander, D., and Lewis, L. (2014). Condition of America’s Public School Facilities: 2012–13. NCES #2014-022. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education.

Allen, J.G., Eitland, E., Klingensmith, L., MacNaughton, P., Cendeno Laurent, J., Spengler, J., and Bernstein, A. (2017). Schools for Health: How School Buildings Influence Student Health, Thinking, and Performance. Cambridge, MA: Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health.

American Academy of Pediatrics. (2020). COVID-19 Planning Considerations: Guidance for School Re-entry. Itasca, IL: Author.

American Enterprise Institute. (2020). School District Responses to the COVID-19 Pandemic: Round 6, Ending the Year of School Closures. Washington, DC: Author.

Bohrnstedt, G., Kitmitto, S., Ogut, B., Sherman, D., and Chan, D. (2015). School Composition and the Black–White Achievement Gap: Methodology Companion. NCES #2015-032. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education.

Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2018). A look at elementary and secondary school employment on the Internet. The Economics Daily. Available: https://www.bls.gov/opub/ted/2018/alook-at-elementary-and-secondary-school-employment.htm.

Cellini, S.R., Ferreira, F., and Rothstein, J. (2010). The value of school facility investments: Evidence from a dynamic regression discontinuity design. The Quarterly Journal of Economics. https://doi.org/10.1162/qjec.2010.125.1.215.

Clotfelter, C.T., Ladd, H.F., Vigdor, J.L., and Wheeler, J. (2007). High poverty schools and the distribution of teachers and principals. North Carolina Law Review, 85(5), 1345–1380.

Conlin, M. and Thompson, P.N. (2017). Impacts of new school facility construction: An analysis of a state-financed capital subsidy program in Ohio. Economics of Education Review, 59(C), 13–28.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Reopening K-12 Schools During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Prioritizing Health, Equity, and Communities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25858.
×

EdTrust and Digital Promise. (2020). With Schools Closed and Distance Learning the Norm, How Is Your District Meeting the Needs of Its Students? Ten Questions for Equity Advocates to Ask About Distance Learning. Washington, DC: Author. Available: https://edtrust.org/resource/10-questions-for-equity-advocates-to-ask-about-distance-learning.

Federal Highway Administration. (2019). Children’s Travel to School: 2017 National Household Travel Survey. FHWA NHTS Brief. Available: https://nhts.ornl.gov/assets/FHWA_NHTS_%20Brief_Traveltoschool_032519.pdf.

Filardo, M. (2016). State of Our Schools: America’s K–12 Facilities 2016. Washington, DC: 21st Century School Fund.

Filardo, M., Vincent, J.M., and Sullivan, K. (2019). How crumbling school facilities perpetuate inequality. Phi Delta Kappan. https://doi.org/10.1177/0031721719846885.

Filardo, M., Vincent, J.M., Sung, P., and Stein, T. (2006). Growth and Disparity: A Decade of U.S. Public School Construction. Washington, DC: Building Educational Success Together.

Gross, B., and Opalka, A. (2020). Too Many Schools Leave Learning to Chance During the Pandemic. Bothell, WA: Center on Reinventing Public Education, University of Washington.

Hanushek, E.A., and Rivkin, S.G. (2006). School Quality and the Black–White Achievement Gap. NBER Working Paper #12651. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. Available: http://www.nber.org/papers/w12651.pdf.

Kober, N., and Rentner, D.S. (2020). History and Evolution of Public Education in the U.S. Washington, DC: Center on Education Policy.

Learning Policy Institute. (2018). Understanding Teacher Shortages: 2018 Update. Palo Alto, CA: Author.

Martorell, P., Stange, K., and McFarlin, I. (2016). Investing in schools: Capital spending, facility conditions, and student achievement. Journal of Public Economics, 40(C), 13–29.

Maxwell, L.E. (2016). School building condition, social climate, student attendance and academic achievement: A mediation model. Journal of Environmental Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvp.2016.04.009.

McFarland, J., Hussar, B., Zhang, J., Wang, X., Wang, K., Hein, S., Diliberti, M., Forrest, E., Cataldi, E., Bullock Mann, F., and Barmer, A. (2019). The Condition of Education 2019. NCES #2019-144. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education.

Nagler, M., Piopiunik, M., and West, M. (2017). Weak markets, strong teachers: Recession at career start and teacher effectiveness. Journal of Labor Economics. https://doi.org/10.1086/705883.

National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. (2019a). Monitoring Educational Equity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/25389.

_____. (2019b). Shaping Summertime Experiences: Opportunities to Promote Healthy Development and Well-Being for Children and Youth. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/25546.

_____. (2019c). The Promise of Adolescence: Realizing Opportunity for All Youth. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/25388.

National Research Council. (1998). Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/6023.

Neilson, C.A., and Zimmerman, S.D. (2014). The effect of school construction on test scores, school enrollment, and home prices. Journal of Public Economics. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpubeco.2014.08.002.

Office of Civil Rights, U.S. Department of Education. (2014). Dear Colleague Letter: Resource Comparability. Washington, DC: Author. Available: https://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ocr/letters/colleague-resourcecomp-201410.pdf.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Reopening K-12 Schools During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Prioritizing Health, Equity, and Communities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25858.
×

Owens, A., Reardon, S.F., and Jencks, C. (2016). Income segregation between schools and school districts. American Educational Research Journal, 53(4), 1159–1197.

Phelps, C., and Sperry, L.L. (2020, June 11). Children and the COVID-19 pandemic. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy. Advance online publication. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/tra0000861.

Rachfal, C.L., and Gilroy, A.A. (2019). Broadband Internet Access and the Digital Divide: Federal Assistance Programs. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service.

Taie, S., and Goldring, R. (2020). Characteristics of Public and Private Elementary and Secondary School Teachers in the United States: Results from the 2017–18 National Teacher and Principal Survey First Look. NCES #2020-142. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education.

Uline, C., and Tschannen-Moran, M. (2008). The walls speak: The interplay of quality facilities, school climate, and student achievement. Journal of Educational Administration. https://doi.org/10.1108/09578230810849817.

U.S. Government Accountability Office. (2020). School Districts Frequently Identified Multiple Building Systems Needing Updates or Replacement. Washington, DC: Author.

Will, M. (2020, May 9). Are teachers and principals in your state at high risk for COVID-19?: See analysis. Education Week. Available: https://blogs.edweek.org/edweek/District_Dossier/2020/05/how_many_teachers_and_principals_high_risk_covid_19_each_state.html.

Willgerodt, M.A., Brock, D.M., and Maughan, E.D. (2018). Public school nursing practice in the United States. The Journal of School Nursing. https://doi.org/10.1177/1059840517752456.

CHAPTER 4

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020a). Interim Guidance for Administrators of U.S. K–12 Schools and Child Care Programs to Plan, Prepare, and Respond to Coronavirus Disease 2019. Atlanta, GA: Author. Available: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/schools-childcare/guidance-for-schools.html.

_____ (2020b). Schools and Childcare: Checklist for Parents. Atlanta, GA: Author. Available: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/downloads/schools-checklist-parents.pdf.

_____ (2020c). Interim Considerations for K–12 School Administrators for SARS-CoV-2 Testing. Atlanta, GA: Author. Available: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/schools-childcare/k-12-testing.html.

Cheney, C. (2020, April 23). ‘It’s alarming!’ Coronavirus Pandemic Hitting Rural Communities Hard. Available: https://www.healthleadersmedia.com/clinical-care/its-alarming-coronavirus-pandemic-hitting-rural-communities-hard.

Eisenhauer, C.M., and Meit, M. (2016). Rural Public Health. National Rural Health Association Policy Brief. Available: https://www.ruralhealthweb.org/getattachment/Advocate/Policy-Documents/NRHARuralPublicHealthPolicyPaperFeb2016.pdf.aspx?lang=en-US.

National Research Council. (1996). Understanding Risk: Informing Decisions in a Democratic Society. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/5138.

Southern Regional Education Board. (2020). K–12 Playbook in Progress: Considering Strategies for Reopening Schools. Atlanta, GA: Author. Available: https://www.sreb.org/k12playbook.

Vohs, K.D., Baumeister, R.F., Schmeichel, B.J., Twenge, J.M., Nelson, N.M., and Tice, D.M. (2008). Making choices impairs subsequent self-control: A limited-resource account of decision making, self-regulation, and active initiative. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.94.5.883.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Reopening K-12 Schools During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Prioritizing Health, Equity, and Communities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25858.
×

CHAPTER 5

Anderson, K.P., and Ritter, G.W. (2017). Disparate use of exclusionary discipline: Evidence on inequities in school discipline from a U.S. state. Education Policy Analysis Archives. https://doi.org/10.14507/epaa.25.2787.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020). Reopening Guidance for Cleaning and Disinfecting Public Spaces, Workplaces, Businesses, Schools, and Homes. Atlanta, GA: Author. Available: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/reopen-guidance.html.

Eccles, J., Midgley, C., Wigfield, A., Buchanan, C.M., Reuman, D., Flanagan, C., and MacIver, D. (1993). Development during adolescence: The impact of stage-environment fit on young adolescents’ experiences in schools and in families. American Psychologist, 48(2), 90–101.

Jones, E., Young, A., Clevenger, K., Salimifard, P., Wu, E., Lahaie Luna, M., Lahvis, M., Lang, J., Bliss, M., Azimi, P., Cedeno-Laurent, J., Wilson, C., and Allen J. (2020). Healthy Schools: Risk Reduction Strategies for Reopening Schools. Cambridge, MA: Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health.

Melnick, H., and Darling-Hammond, L. (with Leung, M., Yun, C., Schachner, A., Plasencia, S., and Ondrasek, N.). (2020). Reopening Schools in the Context of COVID-19: Health and Safety Guidelines from Other Countries Policy Brief. Palo Alto, CA: Learning Policy Institute.

The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (2020). The Heirarchy of Controls. (Updated January 13, 2015). Available: https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/hierarchy/default.html.

Perencevich, E.N., Diekema, D.J., and Edmond, M.B. (2020). Moving personal protective equipment into the community: Face shields and containment of COVID-19. Journal of the American Medical Association. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.7477.

U.S. Government Accountability Office. (2018). K–12 Education: Discipline Disparities for Black Students, Boys, and Students with Disabilities. GAO #18-258. Washington, DC: Author.

van Doremalen, N., Bushmaker, T., Morris, D.H., Holbrook, M.G., Gamble, A., Williamson, B.N., Tamin, A., Harcourt, J.L., Thornburg, N.J., Gerber, S.I., Lloyd-Smith, J.O., de Wit, E., and Munster, V.J. (2020). Aerosol and surface stability of SARS-CoV-2 as compared with SARS-CoV-1. The New England Journal of Medicine, 382(16), 1564–1567. 10.1056/NEJMc2004973.

Will, M. (2020). What needs to change inside school buildings? EdWeek. Available: https://www.edweek.org/ew/articles/2020/06/11/what-needs-to-change-inside-school-buildings.htm.

CHAPTER 6

Hsiang, S., Allen, D., Annan-Phan, S., Bell, K., Bolliger, I., Chong, T., Druckenmiller, H., Yue Huang, L., Hultgren, A., Krasovich, E., Lau, P., Lee, J., Rolf, E., Tseng, J., and Wu, T. (2020). The effect of large-scale anti-contagion policies on the COVID-19 pandemic. Nature. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2404-8.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Reopening K-12 Schools During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Prioritizing Health, Equity, and Communities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25858.
×
Page 79
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Reopening K-12 Schools During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Prioritizing Health, Equity, and Communities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25858.
×
Page 80
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Reopening K-12 Schools During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Prioritizing Health, Equity, and Communities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25858.
×
Page 81
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Reopening K-12 Schools During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Prioritizing Health, Equity, and Communities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25858.
×
Page 82
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Reopening K-12 Schools During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Prioritizing Health, Equity, and Communities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25858.
×
Page 83
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Reopening K-12 Schools During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Prioritizing Health, Equity, and Communities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25858.
×
Page 84
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The COVID-19 pandemic has presented unprecedented challenges to the nation's K-12 education system. The rush to slow the spread of the virus led to closures of schools across the country, with little time to ensure continuity of instruction or to create a framework for deciding when and how to reopen schools. States, districts, and schools are now grappling with the complex and high-stakes questions of whether to reopen school buildings and how to operate them safely if they do reopen. These decisions need to be informed by the most up-to-date evidence about the SARS-CoV-2 virus that causes COVID-19; about the impacts of school closures on students and families; and about the complexities of operating school buildings as the pandemic persists.

Reopening K-12 Schools During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Prioritizing Health, Equity, and Communities provides guidance on the reopening and operation of elementary and secondary schools for the 2020-2021 school year. The recommendations of this report are designed to help districts and schools successfully navigate the complex decisions around reopening school buildings, keeping them open, and operating them safely.

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