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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Teaching K-12 Science and Engineering During a Crisis. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25909.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Teaching K-12 Science and Engineering During a Crisis. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25909.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Teaching K-12 Science and Engineering During a Crisis. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25909.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Prepublication Copy Uncorrected Proofs Teaching K-12 Science and Engineering During a Crisis Jennifer Self Board on Science Education Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education Based on the following reports of the National Academies of Sciences, Medicine, and Engineering: A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas Developing Assessments for the Next Generation Science Standards Guide to Implementing the Next Generation Science Standards Science and Engineering for Grades 6-12: Investigation and Design at the Center English Learners in STEM Subjects PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 This activity was supported by Grant No. G-20-57849 from the Carnegie Corporation of New York and the President’s Committee. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-XXXXX-X International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-XXXXX-X Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/25909 Cataloging-in-Publication OR Library of Congress Control Number: Additional copies of this publication are available for sale from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2020 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Teaching K-12 Science and Engineering During a Crisis. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: https://doi.org/10.17226/25909.   PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS  

        The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org.                         PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS  

      Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task. Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies. For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo.   PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS  

BOARD ON SCIENCE EDUCATION Adam Gamoran (Chair), William T. Grant Foundation (President), New York, NY Megan Bang, Learning Sciences, Northwestern University Vicki L. Chandler, Dean of Faculty, Minerva Schools at Keck Graduate Institute Sunita V. Cooke, Superintendent/President, MiraCosta College Rush D. Holt, former Chief Executive Officer, American Association for the Advancement of Science (retired) Cathy Manduca, Science Education Resource Center, Carleton College John Mather (NAS), NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Tonya Matthews, STEM Learning Innovation, Wayne State University William Penuel, School of Education, University of Colorado Boulder Stephen L. Pruitt, President, Southern Regional Education Board K. Renae Pullen, K–6 Science Curriculum-Instructional Specialist, Caddo Parish Schools, LA K. Ann Renninger, Social Theory and Social Action, Swarthmore College Marcy H. Towns, Department of Chemistry, Purdue University Heidi Schweingruber, Director   PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS  

Contents 1 Introduction 2 Foundational Principles Principle 1: Maintain a focus on the Framework’s vision for high quality science and engineering education 1.a) Learning science and engineering is essential for all students at all grade levels, 1.b) Instruction focuses on student engagement with real-world phenomena and problems, and 1.c) The three dimensions (practices, crosscutting concepts, and disciplinary core ideas) need to be integrated during learning and instruction. Principle 2: Prioritize relationships, equity and the most vulnerable students. Principle 3: Families and communities aare critical assets for science and engineering learning Principle 4: Adjusting to changing learning environments and recovering from disrupted learning as an ongoing process that takes time. 3 Prioritizing Relationships and Equity How are relationships between educators and students and among students themselves being built, maintained, and strengthened? How are relationships being built, maintained, and strengthened among educators, families, and communities? How are students’ individual needs being met? How are teachers’ individual needs being met? How are inequities related to students’ access to broadband, devices, and instructional supports being recognized and addressed? Next steps to Consider 4 Adjusting Instruction in Changing Environments How are the assets of each learning environment being leveraged? Assets of home and school Assets of synchronous and asynchronous learning How are instructional norms and expectations being established? How can remote instruction support student sense-making and problem solving? How can educators support student collaboration and discussion in remote environments? How is student agency being fostered? How can investigations and design be done in remote environments? How can technological tools be incorporated effectively? Next steps to Consider 5 Managing and Modifying the Scope of Content and Curriculum How can instructional time be used most effectively?   PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS  

How can instruction be organized to focus on the most conceptually meaningful student work? How can students build toward more than one science or engineering learning goal at one time? How can learning be coordinated within and between grade levels? How can phenomena or solutions to problems be investigated in students’ homes or communities? How can students build toward more than one academic discipline at one time in elementary school? Who is involved in planning for and supporting curriculum modifications? Next Steps to Consider 6 Monitoring Learning for Continuous Improvement How should any unfinished learning from spring 2020 be addressed? How can remote and online classroom assessment be adjusted to support student learning? How can students be supported to give and receive constructive feedback from both their peers and their teachers? How can education systems establish and maintain communication and feedback routines? Next Steps to Consider 7 Supporting Collaborations and Leveraging Partnerships What support is most useful for teacher’s learning that furthers their professional practice? How are supportive networks being leveraged? How are informal learning environments and community partnerships being incorporated? Next Steps to Consider Appendix: Online Resources About the Author Acknowledgments   PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS  

List of Examples Box 3-1 Connecting with 1st-Grade Students Box 3-2 An ESL Teacher, Her Students, and Their Families Box 3-3 Making a Chemistry Class Accessible to All Students Box 3-4 Building Relationships and Practicing Self-Care Box 3-5 Building Community During Remote Teacher Professional Learning Box 3-6 Social Justice and Racial Equity as the Priority Box 4-1 Engaging Students in Science Remotely Box 4-2 Giving Students Choices in Their Work Box 4-3 Identifying Materials for Investigations Box 5-1 Focusing on Meaningful Work Box 5-2 Problem Solving with Seeds Box 5-3 Community Engagement through Surveys Box 5-4 Learning Engineering and Language Arts Together Box 5-5 Science Supporting Literacy for Young Children Box 6-1 Sharing Student Artifacts Box 6-2 Using Video for Feedback Box 6-3 Peer Feedback for Improving Students’ Understanding Box 7-1 A Virtual Teacher Learning Community Box 7-2 Twitter Conversations for Learning Box 7-3 Connecting Preservice Teachers to K–12 Students   PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS  

Preface In spring 2020, schools throughout the country were faced with an unprecedented challenge: continue to teach the nation’s K-12 students without having them physically present in the classroom. Never before have such drastic and widespread changes to instruction been required. While remote instruction had long been on the rise, it was the exception rather than the rule. The COVID-19 pandemic changed all that. States and districts rose to the challenge. They worked overtime to reimagine systems and processes, and teachers were asked to rapidly shift their approaches to instruction and respond creatively to the demands of remote teaching. As school systems now prepare for the 2020-21 school year, it is important that the measures implemented on an emergency basis in the spring of 2020 be carefully adapted to reflect acceptable, on-going procedures. As we make this transition, it is particularly important that science instruction receive its due emphasis. Never before has it been clearer that a scientifically literate populace is essential—a populace that can understand data and be able to critically weigh evidence. This book aims to describe what high-quality science and engineering education can look like in a time of great uncertainty and to support science and engineering practitioners as they work toward their goals. It is designed to leverage the portfolio of work produced by the Board on Science Education (BOSE) at the National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine to provide insights and guidance on how to maintain high quality K-12 science education in the face of the many challenges produced by the COVID-19 pandemic. The Carnegie Corporation of New York provided funding for the project and worked closely with BOSE staff to conceptualize the project. BOSE contracted with Jennifer Self to create the book itself, drawing on past reports from BOSE consensus committees and supplementing them with insights from science educators from across the country. The book was written and produced on a tight timeline in an effort to draw on insights gained from the closures during Spring 2020 that can inform how schools can adapt science instruction over the 2020-2021 school year. The BOSE reports that inform this book are: A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas (2012) Developing Assessments for the Next Generation Science Standards (2014) Guide to Implementing the Next Generation Science Standards (2015) Science and Engineering for Grades 6-12: Investigation and Design at the Center (2018) English Learners in STEM Subjects (2018) Each of these reports was written by a committee of experts appointed by the National Academies. They provide a synthesis of research evidence and detailed conclusions and recommendations related to various aspects of science education with a focus on implementing the vision laid out in the Framework. The insights from these reports are supplemented with examples drawn from the work of science educators during Spring and Summer of 2020. Heidi Schweingruber Director, Board on Science Education   PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS  

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The COVID-19 pandemic is resulting in widespread and ongoing changes to how the K55 education system functions, including disruptions to science teaching and learning environments. Students and teachers are all figuring out how to do schooling differently, and districts and states are working overtime to reimagine systems and processes. This is difficult and stressful work in the middle of the already stressful and sometimes traumatic backdrop of the global pandemic. In addition, students with disabilities, students of color, immigrants, English learners, and students from under-resourced communities have been disproportionately affected, both by the pandemic itself and by the resulting instructional shifts.

Teaching Science During the COVID-19 Pandemic aims to describe what high quality science and engineering education can look like in a time of great uncertainty and to support practitioners as they work toward their goals. This book includes guidance for science and engineering practitioners - with an emphasis on the needs of district science supervisors, curriculum leads, and instructional coaches. Teaching Science During the COVID-19 Pandemic will help K-12 science and engineering teachers adapt learning experiences as needed to support students and their families dealing with ongoing changes to instructional and home environments and at the same time provide high quality in those experiences.

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