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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Teaching K-12 Science and Engineering During a Crisis. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25909.
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Teaching K–12 Science and Engineering During a Crisis

Jennifer Self

Board on Science Education
Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education

Based on the following reports of the National Academies of Sciences, Medicine, and Engineering:
A Framework for K12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas Developing Assessments for the Next Generation Science Standards Guide to Implementing the Next Generation Science Standards Science and Engineering for Grades 612: Investigation and Design at the Center English Learners in STEM Subjects

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, DC
www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Teaching K-12 Science and Engineering During a Crisis. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25909.
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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001

This activity was supported by Grant No. G-20-57849 from the Carnegie Corporation of New York and the President’s Committee. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project.

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-68194-0
International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-68194-4
Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/25909
Cataloging-in-Publication OR Library of Congress Control Number: 2020949027

Additional copies of this publication are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu.

Copyright 2020 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Printed in the United States of America

Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Teaching K–12 Science and Engineering During a Crisis. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/25909.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Teaching K-12 Science and Engineering During a Crisis. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25909.
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The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president.

The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president.

The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine.

Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Teaching K-12 Science and Engineering During a Crisis. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25909.
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Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task.

Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies.

For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Teaching K-12 Science and Engineering During a Crisis. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25909.
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BOARD ON SCIENCE EDUCATION

Adam Gamoran (Chair), William T. Grant Foundation

Megan Bang, Learning Sciences, Northwestern University

Vicki L. Chandler, Minerva Schools at Keck Graduate Institute

Sunita V. Cooke, MiraCosta College

Rush D. Holt, American Association for the Advancement of Science (retired)

Cathy Manduca, Science Education Resource Center, Carleton College

John Mather, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

Tonya Matthews, STEM Learning Innovation, Wayne State University

William Penuel, School of Education, University of Colorado Boulder

Stephen L. Pruitt, Southern Regional Education Board

K. Renae Pullen, K–6 Science Curriculum-Instructional Specialist, Caddo Parish Schools, Louisiana

K. Ann Renninger, Social Theory and Social Action, Swarthmore College

Marcy H. Towns, Department of Chemistry, Purdue University

Heidi Schweingruber, Director

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Teaching K-12 Science and Engineering During a Crisis. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25909.
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How are students’ individual needs being met?

How are teachers’ individual needs being met?

How are inequities related to students’ access to broadband, devices, and instructional supports being recognized and addressed?

Next steps to consider

4 Adjusting Instruction in Changing Environments

How are the assets of each learning environment being leveraged?

Assets of home and school

Assets of synchronous and asynchronous learning

How are instructional norms and expectations being established?

How can remote instruction support student sense-making and problem solving?

How can educators support student collaboration and discussion in remote environments?

How is student agency being fostered?

How can investigations and design be done in remote environments?

How can technological tools be incorporated effectively?

Next steps to consider

5 Managing and Modifying the Scope of Content and Curriculum

How can instructional time be used most effectively?

How can instruction be organized to focus on the most conceptually meaningful student work?

How can students build toward more than one science or engineering learning goal at one time?

How can learning be coordinated within and between grade levels?

How can phenomena or solutions to problems be investigated in students’ homes or communities?

How can students build toward more than one academic discipline at one time in elementary school?

Who is involved in planning for and supporting curriculum modifications?

Next steps to consider

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Teaching K-12 Science and Engineering During a Crisis. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25909.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Teaching K-12 Science and Engineering During a Crisis. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25909.
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Preface

In spring 2020, schools throughout the country were faced with an unprecedented challenge: continue to teach the nation’s K–12 students without having them physically present in the classroom. Never before have such drastic and widespread changes to instruction been required. While remote instruction had long been on the rise, it was the exception rather than the rule. The COVID-19 pandemic changed all that.

States and districts rose to the challenge. They worked overtime to reimagine systems and processes, and teachers were asked to rapidly shift their approaches to instruction and respond creatively to the demands of remote teaching.

As school systems now prepare for the 2020–2021 school year, it is important that the measures implemented on an emergency basis in the spring of 2020 be carefully adapted to reflect acceptable, on-going procedures. As we make this transition, it is particularly important that science instruction receive its due emphasis. Never before has it been clearer that a scientifically literate populace is essential—a populace that can understand data and be able to critically weigh evidence.

This book aims to describe what high-quality science and engineering education can look like in a time of great uncertainty and to support science and engineering practitioners as they work toward their goals. It is designed to leverage the portfolio of work produced by the Board on Science Education (BOSE) at the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide insights and guidance on how to maintain high quality K–12 science education in the face of the many challenges produced by the COVID-19 pandemic. The Carnegie Corporation of New York provided funding for the project and worked closely with BOSE staff to conceptualize the project.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Teaching K-12 Science and Engineering During a Crisis. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25909.
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BOSE contracted with Jennifer Self to create the book itself, drawing on past reports from BOSE consensus committees and supplementing them with insights from science educators from across the country. The book was written and produced on a tight timeline in an effort to draw on insights gained from the closures during spring 2020 that can inform how schools can adapt science instruction over the 2020–2021 school year. The BOSE reports that inform this book are:

A Framework for K12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas (2012)

Developing Assessments for the Next Generation Science Standards (2014)

Guide to Implementing the Next Generation Science Standards (2015)

Science and Engineering for Grades 612: Investigation and Design at the Center (2018)

English Learners in STEM Subjects (2018)

Each of these reports was written by a committee of experts appointed by the National Academies. They provide a synthesis of research evidence and detailed conclusions and recommendations related to various aspects of science education with a focus on implementing the vision laid out in the Framework. The insights from these reports are supplemented with examples drawn from the work of science educators during spring and summer of 2020.

Heidi Schweingruber

Director

Board on Science Education

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Teaching K-12 Science and Engineering During a Crisis. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25909.
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The COVID-19 pandemic is resulting in widespread and ongoing changes to how the K-12 education system functions, including disruptions to science teaching and learning environments. Students and teachers are all figuring out how to do schooling differently, and districts and states are working overtime to reimagine systems and processes. This is difficult and stressful work in the middle of the already stressful and sometimes traumatic backdrop of the global pandemic. In addition, students with disabilities, students of color, immigrants, English learners, and students from under-resourced communities have been disproportionately affected, both by the pandemic itself and by the resulting instructional shifts.

Teaching K-12 Science and Engineering During a Crisis aims to describe what high quality science and engineering education can look like in a time of great uncertainty and to support practitioners as they work toward their goals. This book includes guidance for science and engineering practitioners - with an emphasis on the needs of district science supervisors, curriculum leads, and instructional coaches. Teaching K-12 Science and Engineering During a Crisis will help K-12 science and engineering teachers adapt learning experiences as needed to support students and their families dealing with ongoing changes to instructional and home environments and at the same time provide high quality in those experiences.

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