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2020 N A T I O N A L C O O P E R A T I V E H I G H W A Y R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M NCHRP RESEARCH REPORT 945 Strategies for Work Zone Transportation Management Plans Leverson Boodlal Dileep Garimella Kevin Chiang KLS EnginEEring, LLC Ashburn, VA Steven D. Schrock UnivErSity of KanSaS Lawrence, KS Eric J. Fitzsimmons KanSaS StatE UnivErSity Manhattan, KS Subscriber Categories Construction Research sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration

NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Systematic, well-designed, and implementable research is the most effective way to solve many problems facing state departments of transportation (DOTs) administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local or regional interest and can best be studied by state DOTs individually or in cooperation with their state universities and others. However, the accelerating growth of highway transporta- tion results in increasingly complex problems of wide interest to high- way authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of cooperative research. Recognizing this need, the leadership of the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) in 1962 ini- tiated an objective national highway research program using modern scientific techniques—the National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP). NCHRP is supported on a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of AASHTO and receives the full cooperation and support of the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), United States Department of Transportation, under Agree- ment No. 693JJ31950003. The Transportation Research Board (TRB) of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine was requested by AASHTO to administer the research program because of TRB’s recognized objectivity and understanding of modern research practices. TRB is uniquely suited for this purpose for many reasons: TRB maintains an extensive com- mittee structure from which authorities on any highway transportation subject may be drawn; TRB possesses avenues of communications and cooperation with federal, state, and local governmental agencies, univer- sities, and industry; TRB’s relationship to the National Academies is an insurance of objectivity; and TRB maintains a full-time staff of special- ists in highway transportation matters to bring the findings of research directly to those in a position to use them. The program is developed on the basis of research needs iden- tified by chief administrators and other staff of the highway and transportation departments, by committees of AASHTO, and by the FHWA. Topics of the highest merit are selected by the AASHTO Special Committee on Research and Innovation (R&I), and each year R&I’s recommendations are proposed to the AASHTO Board of Direc- tors and the National Academies. Research projects to address these topics are defined by NCHRP, and qualified research agencies are selected from submitted proposals. Administration and surveillance of research contracts are the responsibilities of the National Academies and TRB. The needs for highway research are many, and NCHRP can make significant contributions to solving highway transportation problems of mutual concern to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to complement, rather than to substitute for or duplicate, other highway research programs. Published research reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to https://www.nationalacademies.org and then searching for TRB Printed in the United States of America NCHRP RESEARCH REPORT 945 Project 03-111 ISSN 2572-3766 (Print) ISSN 2572-3774 (Online) ISBN 978-0-309-48178-6 Library of Congress Control Number 2020942722 © 2020 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FTA, GHSA, NHTSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The research report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; the FHWA; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report.

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation improvements and innovation through trusted, timely, impartial, and evidence-based information exchange, research, and advice regarding all modes of transportation. The Board’s varied activities annually engage about 8,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.

C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors of this guidebook gratefully acknowledge the following agencies and agency representatives for providing information to support this research effort: • Alabama Department of Transportation—Jeff Benefield • Arizona Department of Transportation—Jesús Sandoval-Gil • California Department of Transportation—Arvern Lofton and Marvin Guiñez • Colorado Department of Transportation—Alvin Stamp • Florida Department of Transportation—Gevin McDaniel • Illinois Department of Transportation—Juan Pava • Indiana Department of Transportation—Mischa Kachler and John McGregor • Kansas Department of Transportation—Garry Olson • Maricopa County, Arizona, Department of Transportation—Faisal Saleem • Massachusetts Department of Transportation—Neil Boudreau • Michigan Department of Transportation—Chris Brookes • Minnesota Department of Transportation—Ted Ulven and Adam Wellner • Missouri Department of Transportation—Daniel Smith • North Carolina Department of Transportation—Steve Kite • North Dakota Department of Transportation—Bernie Southam • Ohio Department of Transportation—Duane Soisson • Oklahoma Department of Transportation—Saad El Bakkouri • Pennsylvania Department of Transportation—Matthew Briggs and Brian Crossley • South Dakota Department of Transportation—Jared Pfaff • Texas Department of Transportation—Nicholas Aiello and Jesus Valdez • Utah Department of Transportation—Joshua Van Jura and Justin Wilstead • Washington State Department of Transportation—Steve Haapala • Wisconsin Department of Transportation—Erin Schoon CRP STAFF FOR NCHRP RESEARCH REPORT 945 Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Lori L. Sundstrom, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Ann M. Hartell, Senior Program Officer Jarrel McAfee, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Natalie Barnes, Associate Director of Publications NCHRP PROJECT 03-111 PANEL Field of Traffic—Area of Operations and Control Chris Ryan Brookes, Michigan DOT, Lansing, MI (Chair) Imad S. Aleithawe, Waggoner Engineering, Inc., Jackson, MS Neil E. Boudreau, Massachusetts DOT, Boston, MA Praveen K. Edara, University of Missouri—Columbia, Columbia, MO Rochelle Hosley, NYS Thruway Authority, Albany, NY Martha C. Kapitanov, FHWA Liaison James W. Bryant, Jr., TRB Liaison

NCHRP Research Report 945 provides a practitioner-ready guidebook on how to select and implement strategies that improve safety and traffic operations in roadway construc- tion work zones. The guidebook will be of interest to those responsible for developing and maintaining state department of transportation (DOT) work zone transportation management plans (TMPs), as well as construction contractors and those who train and supervise roadway construction workers. According to the National Work Zone Safety Information Clearinghouse, from 2010 through 2018, an average of 679 people died each year as a result of crashes in work zones. Among the fatalities were work zone workers, pedestrians, bicyclists, and drivers and passengers in trucks, buses, and automobiles. In addition, more than 30,000 people are injured in work zone crashes each year. At the same time, construction work zones on freeways are estimated to account for nearly 24% of non-recurring delay. Travelers are also frustrated by congestion-related delays as well as unexpected road conditions and inconsistent traffic operations. One of the ways a state DOT or other transportation agency can address work zone safety and other impacts is to develop and implement a TMP. A TMP consists of a set of coordinated strategies selected to manage the work zone impacts of a road construction project, without unreasonably compromising project constructability. TMPs outline specific strategies selected to support project goals associated with the safety of roadway users and construction workers, traffic mobility, and other operational targets during the construc- tion period. TMPs are used to clearly define and communicate the comprehensive plan for construction project management to internal state DOT staff, contractors, the public, and the media. Because work zone impacts and issues vary, agencies must consider the mobility and safety needs of their road users, highway workers, businesses, and communities to develop an effective TMP. NCHRP Research Report 945 describes a wide range of TMP strategies as well as how to select the most effective and cost-efficient strategy for a particular construction setting. For each strategy, the guidebook provides a brief description, conditions where the strategy is appropriate, anticipated benefits, documented effectiveness, crash modification factors (CMFs), design requirements including hardware or software needed, implementation considerations, estimated cost, and examples of its use. The research was conducted by KLS Engineering with collaboration from the University of Kansas and Kansas State University. The research effort included a review of published literature, a survey of current practice, and a field evaluation of three strategies: truck-lane restrictions, temporary ramp metering, and reversible lanes. The field evaluations were conducted in partnership with Michigan DOT, Pennsylvania DOT, and Minnesota DOT. F O R E W O R D By Ann M. Hartell Staff Officer Transportation Research Board

The guidebook is accompanied by a set of brief fact sheets on the three evaluated strategies. The fact sheets and the report appendices can be found on the TRB website by searching for “NCHRP Research Report 945”. The contractor’s final report, which details the research activities and methods, is published as NCHRP Web-Only Document 276 and can be found by searching the TRB website for “NCHRP Web-Only Document 276”.

1 Chapter 1 Introduction 1 1.1 Work Zones’ Effect on Safety 2 1.2 Project Objective 2 1.3 Guidebook Purpose 2 1.4 Guidebook Target Audience 3 1.5 Guidebook Contents and Organization 5 1.6 Guidebook Limitations 5 1.7 Resources and References 7 Chapter 2 Work Zone Safety Management Strategies 7 2.1 Work Zone Posted Speed Limit Reduction 16 2.2 Portable Variable Speed Limit System 24 2.3 Temporary Rumble Strips 28 2.4 Sequential Flashing Warning Lights 32 2.5 Automated Flagger Assistance Devices 35 2.6 Work Zone Intrusion Alarm 42 2.7 Moveable Traffic Barrier Systems 46 Chapter 3 Corridor/Network Management Strategies 46 3.1 Lane Merge Systems 54 3.2 Reversible Lanes 60 3.3 Ramp Metering 64 3.4 Truck-Lane Restrictions 68 Chapter 4 Traffic Incident Management and Enforcement Strategies 68 4.1 Queue Warning Systems 75 4.2 Work Zone Incident Management Plans 78 4.3 Temporary Incident-Detection and Surveillance Systems 82 4.4 Freeway Service Patrols 87 4.5 Traffic Screens (a.k.a. Glare Screens, a.k.a. Gawk Screens) 89 4.6 Automated Speed Enforcement 96 4.7 Police Enforcement 100 Chapter 5 Demand-Management Strategies 100 5.1 Strategies to Shift Mode of Travel 106 5.2 Strategies to Shift Time of Travel 110 Chapter 6 Control Strategies 110 6.1 Full Road Closure 116 6.2 Night Work 122 6.3 Two-Way Traffic on One Side of a Divided Facility (i.e., Crossover) C O N T E N T S

126 Chapter 7 Project Coordination 126 7.1 Description 126 7.2 When to Use 126 7.3 Benefits 127 7.4 Expected Effectiveness 127 7.5 Crash Modification Factor 127 7.6 Implementation Considerations 128 7.7 Design Features and Requirements 129 7.8 State of the Practice 132 7.9 Cost 132 7.10 Resources and References 133 Chapter 8 Alternative Contracting and Construction Strategies 133 8.1 Design–Build Contracting Method 137 8.2 Construction Manager/General Contractor 141 8.3 Cost-Plus-Time (A+B) Bidding Selection Method 143 8.4 Incentive/Disincentive Clauses 147 8.5 No-Excuse Incentives 149 8.6 Lane Rental 151 8.7 Value Engineering 154 8.8 Accelerated Bridge Construction 159 Chapter 9 Traffic Control Devices 159 9.1 Smart Arrow Boards 163 9.2 Lighting Devices 168 Chapter 10 Motorist Information Strategies 168 10.1 Speed Feedback Signs 172 10.2 Construction Truck Entering and Exiting System 176 10.3 Real-Time Travel System 183 Chapter 11 Public Awareness Strategies 183 11.1 Program-Level Public Information Strategies 189 11.2 Project-Level Public Information Strategies 194 Chapter 12 Other Practices 194 12.1 FHWA Work Zone ITS Implementation Guide and Tool 195 12.2 TxDOT Go/No-Go Decision Tool 195 12.3 MnDOT Work Zone ITS Decision Tree 195 12.4 Project Delivery Selection Matrix 198 12.5 Procurement Procedures Selection Matrix 198 12.6 Project Delivery Method Selection Guidance 199 12.7 Ohio DOT Mobility and Safety Performance Measures 201 12.8 MDSHA Work Zone Performance Monitoring Tool 204 12.9 Iowa DOT Statewide Smart Work Zone Program 206 12.10 Safety Assessment Tool for Construction Phasing Plans 207 12.11 Special-Color Pavement Markings 209 12.12 Automated Truck-Mounted Attenuator 210 12.13 Green Lights on TMAs 210 12.14 Rolling Roadblock Procedure for Temporary Lane Closures 211 12.15 Work Zone Cell Phone Restrictions 212 12.16 Colorado Lane Closure Strategy

213 12.17 MnDOT Lane Closure Manual 214 12.18 ODOT Permitted Lane Closure Schedule 216 12.19 Wisconsin Web-Based Lane Closure Permitting Systems 218 12.20 Caltrans Lane Closure System 218 12.21 e-Construction and Partnering 219 12.22 Resources and References 220 Chapter 13 Framework for Evaluation of Work Zone Strategies 220 13.1 Typical Work Zone Crash Characteristics 221 13.2 Expected Effects of Work Zones on Crashes 221 13.3 Work Zone Safety-Related Data Analysis 224 13.4 Work Zone Crash Estimation and Crash Cost Analysis 230 13.5 Evaluation of Alternative Work Zone Design Using Alternative CMFs 232 13.6 General Freeway WZCMFs 233 13.7 Available CMFs 233 13.8 Measurable Goals and Performance Measures 238 13.9 Resources and References 240 Chapter 14 Additional Transportation Management Plan Strategy Resources 240 14.1 Transportation Management Plans 240 14.2 National Work Zone Safety Information Clearinghouse 241 14.3 FHWA Smart Work Zones 241 14.4 FHWA Peer-to-Peer Program for Work Zones 241 14.5 Work Zone Management Capability Maturity Framework Tool 241 14.6 FHWA Work Zone Data Initiative 243 Abbreviations 246 Appendices A Through N

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One of the ways a state department of transportation or other transportation agency can address work zone safety and other impacts is to develop and implement a Transportation Management Plan (TMP).

The TRB National Cooperative Highway Research Program's NCHRP Research Report 945: Strategies for Work Zone Transportation Management Plans provides a practitioner-ready guidebook on how to select and implement strategies that improve safety and traffic operations in roadway construction work zones.

Supplemental materials to the report include NCHRP Web-Only Document 276: Evaluating Strategies for Work ZoneTransportation Management Plans; fact sheets on ramp meter, reversible lane, and truck restrictions; and guidebook appendices.

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