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Suggested Citation:"Glossary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Airport Renewable Energy Projects Inventory and Case Examples. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25942.
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Suggested Citation:"Glossary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Airport Renewable Energy Projects Inventory and Case Examples. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25942.
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Suggested Citation:"Glossary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Airport Renewable Energy Projects Inventory and Case Examples. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25942.
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Suggested Citation:"Glossary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Airport Renewable Energy Projects Inventory and Case Examples. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25942.
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Suggested Citation:"Glossary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Airport Renewable Energy Projects Inventory and Case Examples. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25942.
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Page 85
Suggested Citation:"Glossary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Airport Renewable Energy Projects Inventory and Case Examples. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25942.
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Suggested Citation:"Glossary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Airport Renewable Energy Projects Inventory and Case Examples. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25942.
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80 Aeronautical use: Any activity that involves, makes possible, or is required for the operation of aircraft or that contributes to or is required for the safety of such operations. Air conditioning: Cooling and dehumidifying the air in an enclosed space by use of a refrigera- tion unit powered by electricity or natural gas. Note: Fans, blowers, and evaporative cooling systems (“swamp coolers”) that are not connected to a refrigeration unit are excluded. Airport Improvement Program (AIP): The AIP is authorized by the Airport and Airway Improvement Act of 1982 (AAIA) (P.L. No. 97-248, as amended). The broad objective of the AAIA is to assist in the development of a nationwide system of public-use airports adequate to meet the current and projected growth of civil aviation. The AAIA provides funding for airport planning and development projects included in the National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems. Airport layout plan (ALP): A scale drawing of existing and proposed airport facilities, their location on an airport campus, and the pertinent clearance and dimensional information required to demonstrate conformance with applicable standards. Airport master plan: A long-range plan for development of an airport, including descriptions of the data and alternative analyses on which the plan is based. Airport sponsor: A public agency or tax-supported organization, such as an airport authority, city, county, or state or federal government, that is authorized to own and operate an airport; to obtain property interests; to obtain funds; and to be legally, financially, and otherwise able to meet all applicable requirements of the current laws and regulations. Array (solar): Any number of solar photovoltaic modules or solar thermal collectors or reflectors connected to provide electrical or thermal energy. Backup power: Electric energy supplied by a utility or on-site generating unit to replace power and energy lost during an unscheduled equipment outage. Biomass: Organic nonfossil material of biological origin constituting a renewable energy source. Boiler: Device for generating steam for power, processing, or heating purposes, or for generating hot water for heating purposes or hot water supply. Heat from an external combustion source is transmitted to a fluid contained within the tubes found in the boiler shell. This fluid is delivered to an end user at a desired pressure, temperature, and quality. Boiler fuel: An energy source to produce heat that is transferred to the boiler vessel to gen- erate steam or hot water. Fossil fuel is the primary energy source used to produce heat for boilers. Glossary

Glossary 81 British thermal unit (Btu): The quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 pound of liquid water by 1°F at the temperature at which water has its greatest density (approxi- mately 39°F). Carbon dioxide: A colorless gas formed during the combustion of any material containing carbon; an important greenhouse gas. All energy production using combustion emits carbon dioxide. This includes driving vehicles, electricity production, heating, etc. Carbon dioxide is also produced through the decomposition of organic matter in soils under oxidizing conditions. Carbon offset: An action or activity (such as the planting of trees or carbon sequestration) that compensates for the emission of carbon dioxide or other greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Central chiller: Any centrally located air conditioning system that produces chilled water to cool air. The chilled water or cold air is then distributed throughout the building, using pipes or air ducts or both. These systems are also commonly known as chillers, centrifugal chillers, reciprocating chillers, or absorption chillers. Chillers are generally located in or just outside the building they serve. Buildings that receive district chilled water are served by chillers located at central physical plants. Central physical plant: A plant owned by and on the grounds of a multibuilding facility that provides district heating, district cooling, or electricity to other buildings at the same facility. To qualify as a central plant, it must provide district heat, district chilled water, or electricity to at least one other building. The central physical plant may be by itself in a separate building or may be located in a building where other activities occur. Combustion: Chemical oxidation accompanied by the generation of light and heat. Compressed natural gas: Natural gas compressed to a pressure at or above 200–248 bar (i.e., 2,900–3,600 pounds per square inch) and stored in high-pressure containers. It is used as a fuel for natural gas–powered vehicles. Electric generator: A facility that produces only electricity, commonly expressed in kilowatt- hours (kW-h) or megawatt-hours (MW-h). Electric generators include electric utilities and independent power producers. Electric power grid: A system of synchronized power providers and consumers connected by transmission and distribution lines and operated by one or more control centers. In the continental United States, the electric power grid consists of three systems: the Eastern Inter- connection, the Western Interconnection, and the Texas Interconnection. In Alaska and Hawaii, several systems encompass areas smaller than the state (e.g., the interconnection serving Anchorage, Fairbanks, and the Kenai Peninsula; individual islands). Electric power plant: A station containing prime movers, electric generators, and auxiliary equipment for converting mechanical, chemical, or fission energy into electric energy. Electric utility: A corporation, person, agency, authority, or other legal entity or instrumentality aligned with distribution facilities for delivery of electric energy for use primarily by the public. Included are investor-owned electric utilities, municipal and state utilities, federal electric utilities, and rural electric cooperatives. A few entities that are tariff-based and corporately aligned with companies that own distribution facilities are also included. Electricity generation: The process of producing electric energy or the amount of electric energy produced by transforming other forms of energy, commonly expressed in kilowatt hours (kW-h) or megawatt hours (MW-h).

82 Airport Renewable Energy Projects Inventory and Case Examples Federal Aviation Regulation (FAR) Part 77: Objects Affecting Navigable Airspace—Part 77 (1) establishes standards for determining obstructions in navigable airspace, (2) defines the requirements for notice to the FAA administrator of certain proposed construction or altera- tion, (3) provides for aeronautical studies of obstructions to air navigation to determine their effect on the safe and efficient use of the airspace, (4) provides for public hearings on the hazardous effect of proposed construction or alteration on air navigation, and (5) provides for establishing antenna farm areas. Feedstock: A raw material that can be converted into one or more products. General aviation (GA): That portion of civil aviation that encompasses all facets of aviation except air carriers. Generator nameplate capacity (installed): The maximum rated output of a generator, prime mover, or other electric power production equipment under specific conditions designated by the manufacturer. Installed generator nameplate capacity is commonly expressed in megawatts (MW) and is usually indicated on a nameplate that is physically attached to the generator. Geothermal energy: Hot water or steam extracted from geothermal reservoirs in the Earth’s crust. Water or steam extracted from geothermal reservoirs can be used for geothermal heat pumps, water heating, or electricity generation. Greenhouse gases: Those gases, such as water vapor, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride, that are transparent to solar (short-wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus preventing long- wave radiant energy from leaving Earth’s atmosphere. The net effect is a trapping of absorbed radiation and a tendency to warm the planet’s surface. Ground loop: In geothermal heat pump systems, a series of fluid-filled plastic pipes buried in the shallow ground or placed in a body of water near a building. The fluid within the pipes is used to transfer heat between the building and the shallow ground (or water) to heat and cool the building. Ground power unit frequency converter: An electronic or electromechanical device that converts electrical current of one frequency to electrical current of another frequency. Commercial aircraft use 400 Hz power, so a 50-Hz- or 60-Hz-to-400-Hz frequency converter is needed for the ground unit that powers the airplane while it is on the ground. Ground support equipment (GSE): Typically associated with the servicing of aircraft during the airport turnaround process while the aircraft is parked at the gate. During this period, a number of tasks are performed, including loading and unloading of passengers and baggage, aircraft cleaning and maintenance, refueling and replenishment of provisions, and other similar services. Other common GSE functions pertain to the servicing and maintenance of the airside infrastructure and airfield of the airport. Heat pump (geothermal): A heat pump in which the refrigerant exchanges heat (in a heat exchanger) with a fluid circulating through an earth connection medium (ground or ground water). The fluid is contained in a variety of loop (pipe) configurations depending on the temperature of the ground and the ground area available. Loops may be installed horizontally or vertically in the ground or submersed in a body of water. HVAC: Heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning system; the system or systems that condition air in a building. Installed cost: The up-front cost paid by the system owner to construct a generating system.

Glossary 83 Inverter: A device that converts direct current electricity (from, for example, a solar photo- voltaic module or array) to alternating current for direct use in operating appliances or in supplying power to an electric grid. Kilowatt (kW): One thousand watts. Kilowatt-hour (kW-h): A measure of electricity defined as a unit of work or energy, measured as 1 kilowatt (1,000 watts) of power expended for 1 hour. One kW-h is equivalent to 3,412 Btu. Land lease: A long-term land lease, generally for the purpose of erecting a building or buildings, or for constructing improvements to the land to be used by the lessee. At the end of the lease, the land and all structures and enhancements revert to the owner. Land leases should follow the basic format of the hangar lease and should include all the same references to the airport’s rules, regulations, and minimum standards. The land lease price per square foot could vary by location, and possibly by the length of the term, and may also be connected to a business permit or a fixed-base operator lease. Landfill gas: Gas that is generated by decomposition of organic material at landfill disposal sites. The average composition of landfill gas is approximately 50% methane and 50% carbon dioxide and water vapor by volume. The methane percentage, however, can vary from 40% to 60% depending on several factors, including waste composition (e.g., carbohydrate and cellulose content). The methane in landfill gas may be vented, flared, combusted to generate electricity or useful thermal energy on site, or injected into a pipeline for combustion off site. Large hub: Publicly owned airport providing scheduled passenger service with at least 10,000 passenger boardings in a calendar year and which accounts for 1% or more of annual passenger boardings in the country. Lease: An agreement whereby the owner of real property (landlord or lessor) gives the right of possession to another (tenant or lessee) for a specified period (term) and for a specified consideration (rent). Medium hub: Publicly owned airport providing scheduled passenger service with at least 10,000 passenger boardings in a calendar year and which accounts for between 0.25% and 1% of annual passenger boardings in the country. Megawatt (MW): One million watts of electricity. Megawatt-hour (MW-h): One thousand kilowatt hours or 1 million watt-hours. MMBtu: One million (106) British thermal units. Microgrid: An integrated energy system consisting of interconnected loads and distributed energy resources, including generators and energy storage devices, which as an integrated system can operate in parallel with the utility grid or in an intentional islanding mode (as defined in the U.S. Energy Storage Competitiveness Act of 2007; 42 U.S.C. 17231). Modules: Photovoltaic cells or an assembly of cells into panels (modules) intended for and shipped for final consumption or to another organization for resale. When exported, incom- plete modules and unencapsulated cells are also included. Modules used for space applications are not included. Navigational aid: Any sort of marker which aids the traveler in navigation. In aviation, naviga- tional aids include both visible markers and those identified with radar. Nonhub nonprimary: Publicly owned airport providing scheduled passenger service with between 2,500 and 10,000 passenger boardings in a calendar year.

84 Airport Renewable Energy Projects Inventory and Case Examples Nonhub primary: Publicly owned airport providing scheduled passenger service with at least 10,000 passenger boardings in a calendar year and which accounts for less than 0.05% of annual passenger boardings in the country. Nonprimary/general aviation: Public-use airports that do not have scheduled service or that have fewer than 2,500 annual passenger boardings. Nonprimary/reliever: Designated by FAA to relieve congestion at commercial service airports and to provide improved general aviation access to the overall community. These may be publicly or privately owned. Obstruction: Any object or natural growth, terrain, or permanent or temporary construction or alteration, including equipment or materials used therein, the height of which exceeds the standards established in Subpart C of Federal Aviation Regulation Part 77, Objects Affecting Navigable Airspace. Off-peak: Period of relatively low system demand. These periods often occur in daily, weekly, and seasonal patterns but differ for each individual electric utility. Operations and maintenance: A set of activities, most of them technical in nature, that enable power-generation facilities to perform their task of producing energy in compliance with applicable rules and regulations. Payback period: The amount of time required before the savings resulting from a system equal the system cost. Peak demand: The maximum load during a specified period. Peak shaving: The process of implementing measures to reduce peak power demands on a system. Photovoltaic and solar thermal energy (as used at electric utilities): Energy radiated by the sun as electromagnetic waves (electromagnetic radiation) that is converted at electric utilities into electricity by means of solar (photovoltaic) cells or concentrating (focusing) collectors. Power purchase agreement (PPA): A contract between a buyer and a seller of energy that obligates the party to deliver and pay for energy for a predetermined price and term. PPAs guarantee a future revenue stream and therefore can be an important component to securing project financing. Preconditioned air: Provides parked aircraft with air conditioning from a ground-based system using outside filtered, cooled, or heated air. Rebate program: A utility company–sponsored conservation program whereby the utility company returns a portion of the purchase price cost when a more energy-efficient refrig- erator, water heater, air conditioner, or other appliance is purchased. Reliability (electric system): A measure of the ability of the system to continue operation while some lines or generators are out of service. Reliability deals with the performance of the system under stress. Renewable energy certificate (REC): An REC represents the environmental attributes of elec- tricity generated through a qualifying renewable energy resource. One REC is issued for every 1 megawatt-hour (MW-h) of electricity produced by the qualifying source. Because renewable electricity fed into the electric grid is distributed according to physical laws rather than contractual agreements, RECs help account for who can claim the use of renewable electricity. A state’s renewable portfolio standard typically requires the utilities to procure a certain number of RECs to demonstrate compliance with the state’s renewable energy

Glossary 85 requirement. RECs can be bought and sold as commodities in the market and are issued and tracked by various Generation Information Systems that operate within the U.S. electric grid. RECs are also known as green tags, green certificates, or tradable renewable certificates. Renewable energy resources: Energy resources that are naturally replenishing but flow-limited. They are virtually inexhaustible in duration but limited in the amount of energy that is avail- able per unit of time. Renewable energy resources include biomass, hydro, geothermal, solar, wind, ocean thermal, wave action, and tidal action. Renewable fuel standard (RFS): Established by Congress in laws enacted in 2005 and 2007 and administered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to increase the amount of biofuels in gasoline. Renewable natural gas (RNG): Also known as biomethane, a pipeline-quality gas that is fully interchangeable with conventional natural gas and thus can be used in natural gas vehicles. RNG is essentially biogas (the gaseous product of the decomposition of organic matter) that has been processed to purity standards. Like conventional natural gas, RNG can be used as a transportation fuel in the form of compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquefied natural gas (LNG). RNG qualifies as an advanced biofuel under the renewable fuel standard. Renewable portfolio standard (RPS): Requires utilities to use or procure renewable energy or renewable energy certificates to account for a certain percentage of their retail electricity sales— or a certain amount of generating capacity—according to a specified schedule. (Renewable portfolio goals are similar to RPS policies, but goals are not legally binding.) Most U.S. states have established an RPS. The term “set-aside” or “carve-out” refers to a provision within an RPS that requires utilities to use a specific renewable resource (usually solar energy) to account for a certain percentage of their retail electricity sales (or a certain amount of generating capacity) according to a set schedule. Return on investment (ROI): A performance measure used to evaluate the efficiency of an investment or to compare the efficiency of a number of different investments. To calculate ROI, the benefit (return) of an investment is divided by the cost of the investment; the result is expressed as a percentage or a ratio. Small hub: Publicly owned airport providing scheduled passenger service with at least 10,000 passenger boardings in a calendar year and which accounts for between 0.05% and 0.25% of annual passenger boardings in the country. Solar energy: The radiant energy of the sun, which can be converted into other forms of energy, such as heat or electricity. Solar thermal panels: System that actively concentrates thermal energy from the sun by means of solar collector panels. The panels typically consist of fat, sun-oriented boxes with transparent covers. These boxes contain water tubes of air baffles under a blackened heat-absorbent panel. The energy generated is usually used to heat indoor spaces, water, or swimming pools. Tax incentives: Tax incentives include tax credits, deductions, and exemptions. They can be applied to corporate, personal, property, and sales tax liability. These incentives are available in some states to individuals and organizations that purchase and install eligible renewable energy or energy efficiency equipment, or to construct green buildings. In a few cases, the incentive is based on the amount of energy produced by an eligible facility. Some states allow the tax credit only if a corporation has invested a minimum amount in an eligible project. Typically, there is a maximum limit on the dollar amount of the credit or deduction. In recent years, the federal government has offered corporate tax incentives for renewables and energy efficiency.

86 Airport Renewable Energy Projects Inventory and Case Examples Third party: Third-party transactions are arm’s length transactions between nonaffiliated firms. Transmission line (electric): A network of structures, wires, insulators, and associated hardware that carries electric energy from one point to another in an electric power system. Lines are operated at relatively high voltages varying from 69 kV to 765 kV and are capable of transmitting large quantities of electricity over long distances. Useful life: An estimate of how long one can expect to use an income-producing item in a trade or business setting. Useful life usually refers to the duration for which the item will be useful to the business, and not how long the property will actually last. Waste materials: Otherwise discarded combustible materials that, when burned, produce energy for such purposes as space heating and electric power generation. The size of the waste may be reduced by shredders, grinders, or hammermills. Noncombustible materials, if any, may be removed. The waste may be dried and then burned, either alone or in combination with fossil fuels. Wood pellets: Sawdust compressed into uniform-diameter pellets to be burned in a heating stove. Information for these definitions was obtained from the EIA, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, the Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency, the DOE, and the FAA.

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Airports have implemented a variety of renewable energy technologies since 1999—with the largest growth occurring over the past decade—in parallel with the evolution and maturation of renewable energy markets. Of the renewable energy options available to airports today, the prevailing technology is solar photovoltaic (PV), which accounts for 72% of all projects cataloged in the Renewable Energy Projects Inventory.

The TRB Airport Cooperative Research Program's ACRP Synthesis 110: Airport Renewable Energy Projects Inventory and Case Examples draws on existing literature and data to present the state of practice for airport renewable energy. It presents the integration of renewable energy projects—including solar PV, geothermal, bioenergy, solar thermal, and small wind projects—into airport development and operations and the drivers behind those efforts.

The Renewable Energy Projects Inventory in the report is also available online as a searchable database.

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