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2020 T R A N S I T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M TCRP RESEARCH REPORT 216 Research sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration in cooperation with the Transit Development Corporation Subject Areas Public Transportation â¢ Administration and Management â¢ Safety and Human Factors Improving the Safety, Health, and Productivity of Transit Operators Through Adequate Restroom Access Robin Mary Gillespie City University of new york sChool of labor and Urban stUdies New York, NY Robbie Sarles rls & assoCiates Dayton, OH
TCRP RESEARCH REPORT 216 Project F-25 ISSN 2572-3782 ISBN 978-0-309-67343-3 Â© 2020 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FTA, GHSA, NHTSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The research report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the Transit Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturersâ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM The nationâs growth and the need to meet mobility, environmental, and energy objectives place demands on public transit systems. Cur- rent systems, some of which are old and in need of upgrading, must expand service area, increase service frequency, and improve efficiency to serve these demands. Research is necessary to solve operating prob- lems, adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and introduce innovations into the transit industry. The Transit Coopera- tive Research Program (TCRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the transit industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for TCRP was originally identified in TRB Special Report 213âResearch for Public Transit: New Directions, published in 1987 and based on a study sponsored by the Urban Mass Transportation Administrationânow the Federal Transit Administration (FTA). A report by the American Public Transportation Association (APTA), Transportation 2000, also recognized the need for local, problem- solving research. TCRP, modeled after the successful National Coop- erative Highway Research Program (NCHRP), undertakes research and other technical activities in response to the needs of transit ser- vice providers. The scope of TCRP includes various transit research fields including planning, service configuration, equipment, facilities, operations, human resources, maintenance, policy, and administrative practices. TCRP was established under FTA sponsorship in July 1992. Proposed by the U.S. Department of Transportation, TCRP was authorized as part of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA). On May 13, 1992, a memorandum agreement outlining TCRP operating procedures was executed by the three cooperating organi- zations: FTA; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, acting through the Transportation Research Board (TRB); and the Transit Development Corporation, Inc. (TDC), a nonprofit educational and research organization established by APTA. TDC is responsible for forming the independent governing board, designated as the TCRP Oversight and Project Selection (TOPS) Commission. Research problem statements for TCRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the TOPS Commission to formulate the research program by identi- fying the highest priority projects. As part of the evaluation, the TOPS Commission defines funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each project is assigned to an expert panel appointed by TRB. The panels prepare project statements (requests for propos- als), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooperative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, TCRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Because research cannot have the desired effect if products fail to reach the intended audience, special emphasis is placed on disseminat- ing TCRP results to the intended users of the research: transit agen- cies, service providers, and suppliers. TRB provides a series of research reports, syntheses of transit practice, and other supporting material developed by TCRP research. APTA will arrange for workshops, train- ing aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure that results are imple- mented by urban and rural transit industry practitioners. TCRP provides a forum where transit agencies can cooperatively address common operational problems. TCRP results support and complement other ongoing transit research and training programs. Published research reports of the TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to https://www.nationalacademies.org and then searching for TRB Printed in the United States of America
The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation improvements and innovation through trusted, timely, impartial, and evidence-based information exchange, research, and advice regarding all modes of transportation. The Boardâs varied activities annually engage about 8,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.
C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S CRP STAFF FOR TCRP RESEARCH REPORT 216 Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Lori L. Sundstrom, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Gwen Chisholm Smith, Manager, Transit Cooperative Research Program Emily Griswold, Program Coordinator Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Natalie Barnes, Associate Director of Publications Janet M. McNaughton, Senior Editor TCRP PROJECT F-25 PANEL Field of Human Resources Peter K. Anderson, Greater Cleveland Regional Transit Authority, Cleveland, OH (Cochair) Edward F. Watt, Rockaway Park, NY (Cochair) Stephen M. Berry, Metro Department of Public Safety, St. Louis, MO Mary J. Davis, McGlothin Davis, Inc., Denver, CO June M. Fisher, Trauma Foundation, San Francisco, CA Elana S. Kessler, Los Angeles, CA Adrienne S. Leslie, King County Department of Transportation, Seattle, WA Diana Lea Long, Appalachian Transportation Institute, Gallatin, TN Franklin L. Spielberg, Falls Church, VA Hope J. Jensen, FTA Liaison Lindsey Robertson Lentz, APTA Liaison Cammie Menendez, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Liaison AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Robin Mary Gillespie, PhD, MPH, Adjunct Associate Professor, City University of New York (CUNY) School of Labor and Urban Studies, was the project director and principal investigator on this project. Jonathan Dropkin, PhD, Director, Occupational Ergonomics, Workforce Safety, and Assistant Pro- fessor, Occupational Medicine, Hofstra Northwell School of Medicine, and Isabel Cuervo, PhD, Senior Research Associate, Barry Commoner Center for Health and the Environment, Queens College, CUNY, served as project research associates. Robbie Sarles, President, RLS & Associates, Inc., with Laura Brown, Nathan Bubash, and Tim Gruber of RLS & Associates, provided substantive research and writing support. Technical input was contributed by Tim Bushnell, PhD, Health Economist, Division of Surveillance, Hazard Evaluations and Field Studies, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health; Alon Mass, MD, Premier Urology Group; Lewis Pepper, MD, Research Professor (retired), Queens College, CUNY; and James Strathman, PhD, Professor Emeritus, Urban Studies and Planning, Portland State University. Dorothy Wigmore, Director, Wigmorising, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, clarified the rules, regulations, and contract clauses that apply in the United States and Canada. Invaluable editing and layout support was furnished by Robin Boomer, Shoshi Cuch, John Herrick, Vera Kahn, Nathan Kahn, Caroline Kuhn, Sara Munjack, Evan Neuhausen, Keyian Vafai, and Spencer Williams. Special thanks to the many dedicated transit agency staff and union representatives who provided such a rich and balanced picture of the state of the industry.
TCRP Research Report 216: Improving the Safety, Health, and Productivity of Transit Operators Through Adequate Restroom Access presents a guide to addressing concerns and approaches to restroom access for public transit agencies. The report includes a catalog of good practices, tools, and resources that provide a foundation for implementable strate- gies for achieving improved restroom access, primarily for transit vehicle operators. This report also describes safety, health, and financial impacts on transit agencies, operators, and the public arising from limitations to transit operatorsâ restroom access. The products of this research will be useful to senior managers, labor leaders, and public transportation frontline employees, including operations and maintenance personnel across all modes and system sizes. Inadequate restroom access has been a concern for transit operators for many years. This issue not only impacts operatorsâ well-being but threatens their ability to perform essential job functions safely. Practical, simple approaches have been adopted but are not in use at all transit agencies. Even when effective policies and procedures are in place, operational demands can override safety and health directives. Under TCRP Project F-25, âImproving the Safety, Health, and Productivity of Transit Operators Through Adequate Restroom Access,â Robin Mary Gillespie, School of Labor and Urban Studies of the City University of New York, and consultant Robbie Sarles con- ducted a focused review of literature, research in progress, and current practices related to restroom access and its impact on health, safety, and operations. This research included surveys from 100 transit agencies and 21 detailed interviews with transit representatives of 15 transit agencies, including management and supervision and vehicle operators and the union leaders representing them. Examples of good practicesâoften developed with or endorsed by vehicle operators and labor representativesâwere found throughout the industry. The lessons learned through this research are compiled in this report and its accompanying tools, which will support stakeholders interested in improving restroom access for transit operators. F O R E W O R D By Gwen Chisholm Smith Staff Officer Transportation Research Board
1 Summary 6 Chapter 1 Transit Operator Restroom Access: Issues and Good Practice 6 Introduction 8 Terminology and Other Conventions 8 TCRP F-25: Process and Products 10 Current Transit Agency Practice, Issues, and Concerns 17 Restroom Access and Health: Literature Summary 22 Operator and Vehicle Safety: Literature Summary 22 Restroom Access and Transit Operations: Literature Summary 25 Good Practices: Providing Adequate and Timely Restroom Access 27 Chapter 2 Organizational Context of Restroom Access 27 Organizational Environment 40 Organizational Good Practices 53 From Organization to Infrastructure 54 Chapter 3 Charting and Developing Infrastructure 54 Infrastructure Considerations 55 Types of Restrooms 60 Infrastructure Good Practices 67 Using Infrastructure Information to Make Decisions 69 Chapter 4 Planning, Scheduling, and Runcutting 69 From Infrastructure to Routes and Schedules 70 Good Practices in Route Planning and Scheduling 79 From Planning to Service 80 Chapter 5 Service Delivery 80 Service Delivery Considerations 81 Good Practices to Maintain Service Delivery 86 Conclusion 87 Chapter 6 Costs and Evaluation 87 Evaluation Considerations 88 Good Practices Related to Evaluation and Costs 95 Taking the Project Findings into the Field 98 Acronyms 99 References C O N T E N T S
102 Annex Supporting Materials 102 Part 1. Case Studies 134 Part 2. Toolbox Contents 136 Part 3. Compendium of Good Practices 139 Tool Templates for Restroom Access Policies and Boilerplate Contract Language 154 Appendix A Technical Report on Data Collection and Survey Results 175 Appendix B Summary of Health Literature 193 Appendix C Summary of the Literature on Restroom Access and Transit Operations 208 Appendix D Laws and Regulations About Restroom Access for Transit Vehicle Operators 216 Appendix E Collective Bargaining Agreement Restroom Language