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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Advanced Ground Vehicle Technologies for Airside Operations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26017.
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A I R P O R T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 219 2020 Research sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Subscriber Categories Aviation Advanced Ground Vehicle Technologies for Airside Operations Sarah Hubbard Richard Voyles Dustin Souders Haoguang Yang Jason Hart Purdue university West Lafayette, IN Sarah Brammell Blue Wing environmental Odessa, FL environmental resources solutions Jacksonville, FL

AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in trans- portation of people and goods and in regional, national, and interna- tional commerce. They are where the nation’s aviation system connects with other modes of transportation and where federal responsibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most airports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the airport industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study spon- sored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). ACRP carries out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating agen- cies and not being adequately addressed by existing federal research programs. ACRP is modeled after the successful National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) and Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP). ACRP undertakes research and other technical activi- ties in various airport subject areas, including design, construction, legal, maintenance, operations, safety, policy, planning, human resources, and administration. ACRP provides a forum where airport operators can cooperatively address common operational problems. ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision 100— Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary participants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Transportation with representation from airport operating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations such as the Airports Council International-North America (ACI-NA), the American Associa- tion of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), Airlines for America (A4A), and the Airport Consultants Council (ACC) as vital links to the airport community; (2) TRB as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a contract with the National Academy of Sciences formally initiating the program. ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research organi- zations. Each of these participants has different interests and responsibili- ties, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by identifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel appointed by TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport professionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels prepare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing coop- erative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the intended users of the research: airport operating agencies, service pro- viders, and academic institutions. ACRP produces a series of research reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties; industry associations may arrange for workshops, training aids, field visits, webinars, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by airport industry practitioners. ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 219 Project 03-48 ISSN 2572-3731 (Print) ISSN 2572-374X (Online) ISBN 978-0-309-67351-8 Library of Congress Control Number 2020946740 © 2020 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FTA, GHSA, NHTSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The research report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the Airport Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. Published research reports of the AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to https://www.nationalacademies.org and then searching for TRB Printed in the United States of America

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation improvements and innovation through trusted, timely, impartial, and evidence-based information exchange, research, and advice regarding all modes of transportation. The Board’s varied activities annually engage about 8,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.

C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors appreciate input from colleagues at Purdue Uni- ver sity as well as airport, industry, and technology professionals. At Purdue, graduate student, Mythra Balakuntala, and undergraduate student, Victoria Patterson, provided support for the research as did airport manager, Adam Baxmeyer, safety expert, Stephanie Brown, as well as professors Stewart Schreckengast, Mike Suckow, Mike Nolan, Joseph Sobieralski, and David Stanley. Input from Anthony Gregory and his team at Southwest Airlines, Jennie Bourke and her team at United Airlines, and aviation professionals at American Airlines, Lufthansa, Alaska Airlines, UPS, and United Ground Express were extremely valuable. Airport consultants, including Landrum and Brown; C&S Companies; Crawford, Murphy & Tilly; AvPorts and Michael Zonsius; and aviation financial consultants provided excellent support. Professionals from L3Harris, Saab Sensis, Team Eagle, Mototok, Amazon, Ford Motor Company and Ford Autonomous Vehicles, Echo Robotics, Northstar Robotics, as well as Nimrod George at IAI TaxiBot and Robert Morris at NASA provided information about their products as well as additional considerations for airside AGVT. Input from regulatory profes- sionals from TSA and FAA (including air traffic control, airport safety and standards, airport compliance, flight standards, and research) was very helpful and appreciated. The authors would like to acknowledge all the airports that provided input, including the following, for their support: Arlington Municipal Airport, Boston Logan International Airport, Charlotte Douglas International Airport, Chicago O’Hare International Airport, Chicago Midway Inter- national Airport, John Glenn Columbus International Airport, Delphi Municipal Airport, Fort Worth Meacham International Airport, Gary/Chicago International Airport, Harrisburg Inter- national Airport, Huntingburg Regional Airport, Indianapolis Inter- national Airport, Indianapolis Executive Airport, John F. Kennedy International Airport, LaGuardia Airport, Blue Grass Airport, Middle Georgia Regional Airport, General Mitchell International Airport, Monroe County Airport, Morristown Airport, Newark Liberty International Airport, Orlando International Airport, Page Field, Portland International Airport, Portland International Jetport, San Diego International Airport, San Francisco International Airport, Southwest Florida International Airport, New York Stewart Inter- national Airport, Sugar Land Regional Airport, Teterboro Airport, and the Utah Division of Aeronautics. CRP STAFF FOR ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 219 Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Lori L. Sundstrom, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Marci A. Greenberger, Manager, Airport Cooperative Research Program Brittany Summerlin-Azeez, Program Coordinator Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Natalie Barnes, Associate Director of Publications Sreyashi Roy, Editor ACRP PROJECT 03-48 PANEL Field of Policy and Planning Michael Witiw, HDR, Omaha, NE (Chair) Pamela Drew, Exelis, Great Falls, VA (retired) Joshua Every, Transportation Research Center, Inc., East Liberty, OH Patrick Neville, Greater Toronto Airports Authority, Woodbridge, ON Kristian Wade, Salt Lake City Department of Airports, Salt Lake City, UT Gregory Wilcox, Eastern Research Group, Inc., Arlington, VA Marvin Woods, FAA Liaison Sophia Ghezai, Airlines for America Liaison Christopher Oswald, Airports Council International, North America Liaison Richard A. Cunard, TRB Liaison

Recent advancements in automated and advanced driving technologies have demonstrated improvements in safety, ease and accessibility, and efficiency in road transportation. There has also been a reduction in costs in these technologies that can now be adapted into the airport environment. ACRP Research Report 219 identifies potential advanced ground vehicle technologies (AGVT) for application on the airside. Ten applications were evaluated for airside operations using a number of criteria. This report will assist airport staff or other airport stakeholders beginning to prepare for integration of these technologies. Many of the automated and advanced driving technologies that have captured the imagi- nation of our society for their possibilities are beginning to be realized. There has been some integration at airports, less so in airside operations. As advanced ground vehicle technologies (AGVT) improve, the opportunity to enhance existing operations will emerge, along with new applications. The deployment of automatic dependent surveillance-broadcast (ADS-B) data to provide airside situational awareness is one such example. The research team led by Purdue University conducted research to identify and evaluate advanced ground vehicle technology and applications for airside operations. Their research included identifying the enabling technologies and researching how these types of technolo- gies are used in other industries. After an initial feasibility analysis, some of the applications with more potential were evaluated further by looking at the ease of adoption; techno- logical feasibility; stakeholder acceptance; potential benefits; infrastructure and operational impacts; and human factor considerations. This report that can be used as a good beginning foundation for integrating AGVT. F O R E W O R D By Marci A. Greenberger Staff Officer Transportation Research Board

1 Chapter 1 Introduction 2 Chapter 2 Background 2 Enabling Technologies 4 Terminology and Levels of Automation 6 Federal, State, and Local Legislative Framework 9 Chapter 3 Applications and Lessons Learned 9 Applications in Roadway Construction and Mining 11 Applications at Ports 12 Applications in Agriculture 13 Applications in Manufacturing and Industry 15 Automated Perimeter Security 15 Applications in Aviation 29 Lessons Learned 33 Other Considerations 41 Chapter 4 Prioritized Airside Applications 41 Candidate Applications 45 Prioritization Criteria 45 Summary of Findings 50 List of Prioritized Applications 51 Chapter 5 Evaluation Process 51 Overview of Evaluation Process 52 Identification of Candidate Projects 53 Evaluation of Candidate Projects 66 Compatible Airport Characteristics 68 Chapter 6 Detailed Evaluation Results 70 FOD Detection and Removal 77 Mowing 84 Snow and Ice Control 96 Perimeter Inspection 102 Aircraft Pushback and Aircraft Tug/Taxi to Runway 106 Aircraft Pushback 111 Aircraft Tug/Taxi to Runway 116 Baggage Carts 122 Chapter 7 Summary of Key Findings and Further Research 122 Enabling Technologies and Infrastructure Needs 123 Applications Currently in Use and Coming Online 123 Summary of AGVT Evaluation Results 133 Key Thoughts and Lessons Learned 133 Recommendations for Research Needs and Priorities C O N T E N T S

137 References A-1 Appendix A Enabling Technologies B-1 Appendices B Through S Note: Photographs, figures, and tables in this report may have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.

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Recent advancements in automated and advanced driving technologies have demonstrated improvements in safety, ease and accessibility, and efficiency in road transportation. There has also been a reduction in costs in these technologies that can now be adapted into the airport environment.

The TRB Airport Cooperative Research Program's ACRP Research Report 219: Advanced Ground Vehicle Technologies for Airside Operations identifies potential advanced ground vehicle technologies (AGVT) for application on the airside.

Appendices B Through S are online only. Appendix A, on enabling technologies, is included within the report.

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