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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Redesigning Transit Networks for the New Mobility Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26028.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Redesigning Transit Networks for the New Mobility Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26028.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Redesigning Transit Networks for the New Mobility Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26028.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Redesigning Transit Networks for the New Mobility Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26028.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Redesigning Transit Networks for the New Mobility Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26028.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Redesigning Transit Networks for the New Mobility Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26028.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Redesigning Transit Networks for the New Mobility Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26028.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Redesigning Transit Networks for the New Mobility Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26028.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

2021 T R A N S I T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M TCRP RESEARCH REPORT 221 Research sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration in cooperation with the Transit Development Corporation Subject Areas Passenger Transportation • Planning and Forecasting • Public Transportation Redesigning Transit Networks for the New Mobility Future Lora Byala Shana Johnson Rebecca Slocum Andrew Zalewski Josh Weiland Laura Culp Foursquare Integrated transportatIon plannIng, Inc. Rockville, MD Brianne Eby Paul Lewis eno center For transportatIon Washington, DC Guillermo Calves David Sampson aecoM New York, NY

TCRP RESEARCH REPORT 221 Project H-56 ISSN 2572-3782 ISBN 978-0-309-67371-6 © 2021 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FTA, GHSA, NHTSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The research report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the Transit Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM The nation’s growth and the need to meet mobility, environmental, and energy objectives place demands on public transit systems. Cur- rent systems, some of which are old and in need of upgrading, must expand service area, increase service frequency, and improve efficiency to serve these demands. Research is necessary to solve operating prob- lems, adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and introduce innovations into the transit industry. The Transit Coopera- tive Research Program (TCRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the transit industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for TCRP was originally identified in TRB Special Report 213—Research for Public Transit: New Directions, published in 1987 and based on a study sponsored by the Urban Mass Transportation Administration—now the Federal Transit Administration (FTA). A report by the American Public Transportation Association (APTA), Transportation 2000, also recognized the need for local, problem- solving research. TCRP, modeled after the successful National Coop- erative Highway Research Program (NCHRP), undertakes research and other technical activities in response to the needs of transit ser- vice providers. The scope of TCRP includes various transit research fields including planning, service configuration, equipment, facilities, operations, human resources, maintenance, policy, and administrative practices. TCRP was established under FTA sponsorship in July 1992. Proposed by the U.S. Department of Transportation, TCRP was authorized as part of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA). On May 13, 1992, a memorandum agreement outlining TCRP operating procedures was executed by the three cooperating organi- zations: FTA; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, acting through the Transportation Research Board (TRB); and the Transit Development Corporation, Inc. (TDC), a nonprofit educational and research organization established by APTA. TDC is responsible for forming the independent governing board, designated as the TCRP Oversight and Project Selection (TOPS) Commission. Research problem statements for TCRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the TOPS Commission to formulate the research program by identi- fying the highest priority projects. As part of the evaluation, the TOPS Commission defines funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each project is assigned to an expert panel appointed by TRB. The panels prepare project statements (requests for propos- als), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooperative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, TCRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Because research cannot have the desired effect if products fail to reach the intended audience, special emphasis is placed on disseminat- ing TCRP results to the intended users of the research: transit agen- cies, service providers, and suppliers. TRB provides a series of research reports, syntheses of transit practice, and other supporting material developed by TCRP research. APTA will arrange for workshops, train- ing aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure that results are imple- mented by urban and rural transit industry practitioners. TCRP provides a forum where transit agencies can cooperatively address common operational problems. TCRP results support and complement other ongoing transit research and training programs. Published research reports of the TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to https://www.nationalacademies.org and then searching for TRB Printed in the United States of America

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation improvements and innovation through trusted, timely, impartial, and evidence-based information exchange, research, and advice regarding all modes of transportation. The Board’s varied activities annually engage about 8,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.

C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S CRP STAFF FOR TCRP RESEARCH REPORT 221 Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Lori L. Sundstrom, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Gwen Chisholm Smith, Manager, Transit Cooperative Research Program Dianne S. Schwager, Senior Program Officer Jarrel McAfee, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Natalie Barnes, Associate Director of Publications Kami Cabral, Editor TCRP PROJECT H-56 PANEL Field of Policy and Planning Todd K. Hemingson, HDR, Austin, TX (Chair) Hsin-Hsin Chang, Culver CityBus, Culver City, CA Melissa Chow, Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority, Washington, DC Todd M. Goldman, Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, New York, NY Steven Higashide, TransitCenter, Inc., New York, NY Carol L. Ketcherside, Valley Metro, Phoenix, AZ Jennifer K. McGrath, Community and Neighborhoods Salt Lake City, UT Tyler Means, TransLoc, Durham, NC Anthony David Perl, Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, BC Kevin J. Salzer, MyHealthDriv, Jacksonville, FL Judy L. Shanley, Easterseals, Chicago, IL Franklin L. Spielberg, Falls Church, VA

Urban travel patterns are affected by many factors, including changes in demography, land use, economics, technology, and mobility options. Public transportation must evolve to remain responsive. TCRP Research Report 221: Redesigning Transit Networks for the New Mobility Future presents case studies and toolkits to plan and implement the redesign of bus networks in the United States. The audience for this research includes public transit agency managers, planners, and operations personnel; private providers of new mobility; and stakeholders in communities. Under TCRP Project H-56, “Redesigning Public Transportation Networks for a New Mobility Future,” Foursquare Integrated Transportation Planning (ITP), Inc., convened a team that included the Eno Center for Transportation and AECOM. The team was asked to develop guidance for public transportation agencies and their partners who seek to improve mobility by (1) redesigning and improving existing transit networks and (2) integrating new mobility options (e.g., public, private, vehicular, non-vehicular) that supplement and complement public transportation. The research approach for this project included a detailed literature review, interviews with representatives from 15 transit agencies, a focus group with transit industry researchers and private sector companies, and additional interviews with representatives from non- transit agency organizations. Rather than conducting a new survey of the transit industry, the research built on three recently completed industry surveys conducted by TCRP rel- evant to this project, including a survey conducted by Foursquare ITP for the development of TCRP Synthesis 140: Comprehensive Bus Network Redesigns, published in 2019. This research pursued the details of conducting a bus network redesign, leveraging many interviews with representatives from transit agencies of all sizes across the country that are currently conducting or have recently conducted a bus network redesign. It also considered the impact of new mobility options, including bikeshare, carshare, micromobility, micro- transit, ridesharing and carpooling, and transportation network companies (TNCs), such as Uber and Lyft. This report contains two sections. Section 1 consists of the research report on bus net- work redesigns and new mobility. Section 2 contains the following resources: case studies of bus network redesigns at four transit agencies; and toolkits to help transit agencies and stakeholders plan and implement a bus network redesign, supporting bus as a mode of choice as part of a bus network redesign, and working with the private sector for the new mobility components of a bus network redesign. F O R E W O R D By Dianne S. Schwager Staff Officer Transportation Research Board

C O N T E N T S 1 Summary S E C T I O N 1 Research Report 9 Chapter 1 Introduction and Purpose of the Report 9 Need for the Research and Context from Practice 13 Overview of Contents of the Report 15 Chapter 2 Background on Bus Network Redesigns and New Mobility 15 Introduction 15 Overview of Bus Network Redesigns 17 Trends in Bus Network Redesign 18 Trends in New Mobility 20 New Mobility and Bus Network Redesigns 22 Conclusions 23 Chapter 3 Components of Bus Network Redesign Planning 23 Introduction 23 Bus Network Redesign Planning Process 32 Goals and Objectives 32 Metrics 35 New Mobility and Bus Network Redesigns 45 Equity 48 Public and Stakeholder Involvement 53 Financial Considerations 56 Capital Elements to Support Redesigned Bus Service 59 Chapter 4 Support and Collaboration 59 Introduction 59 Internal Agency Collaboration 61 Community Buy-In 64 Inter-Agency Collaboration 66 Boards and Elected Officials 68 Chapter 5 Bus Network Redesign Implementation 68 Introduction 68 Phasing 70 Elements 73 Follow-Up Post Implementation

75 Chapter 6 Conclusions and Next Steps 75 Key Findings 78 Future Work S E C T I O N 2 Resources 83 Chapter 7 Case Studies 83 Capital Metro 85 Houston METRO 88 IndyGo 91 LA Metro 95 Chapter 8 Toolkits 95 Toolkit #1: Bus Network Redesign 118 Toolkit #2: Leveraging Partnerships for a Better Bus System 125 Toolkit #3: Working with the Private Sector 138 References 141 Abbreviations and Acronyms 143 Appendix Question Bank for Interviews

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Urban travel patterns are affected by many factors including changes in demography, land use, economics, technology, and mobility options. Public transportation must evolve to remain responsive.

The TRB Transit Cooperative Research Program's TCRP Research Report 221: Redesigning Transit Networks for the New Mobility Future presents case studies and toolkits to plan and implement the redesign of bus networks in the United States.

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