Bernard Lo, M.D., is professor emeritus of medicine and director emeritus of the Program in Medical Ethics at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) and president emeritus of the Greenwall Foundation. A member of the National Academy of Medicine (NAM), Dr. Lo has chaired NAM committees on Sharing Clinical Trial Data (2015); Conflict of Interest in Medical Research, Education, and Practice (2009); and Evidence-based Clinical Practice Guidelines for Prescribing Opioids for Acute Pain (2019). He currently serves on the California COVID-19 Vaccine Drafting Guidelines Workgroup and on the California Health Care Surge & Crisis Care Guidelines Advisory Group. Dr. Lo also chairs the external advisory board of the Multiregional Clinical Trials Network and serves on the Medical Advisory Panel of Blue Cross/Blue Shield and the Ethics Advisory Council for Takeda Pharmaceuticals. He and his colleagues have published over 200 peer-reviewed articles on ethical issues concerning decision making near the end of life, the doctor–patient relationship, responsible oversight of research, and conflicts of interest. During the COVID-19 pandemic Dr. Lo and his colleagues have written articles on cardiopulmonary resuscitation, addressing vaccine hesitancy, and allocation of ventilators and inpatient medications. He is the author of Resolving Ethical Dilemmas: A Guide for Clinicians (6th ed., 2019). Dr. Lo continues to care for a panel of primary care internal medicine patients at UCSF.
Joshua R. Sanes, Ph.D., is Jeff C. Tarr professor of molecular and cellular biology and Paul J. Finnegan family director of the Center for Brain Science at Harvard University. Dr. Sanes uses molecular, genetic, and imaging approaches
to understand how synapses form, mature, and function. The Center he directs supports an interdisciplinary approach that combines biology, chemistry, engineering, and psychology to look at circuit-level questions in neuroscience. Dr. Sanes also served for more than 20 years on the faculty of Washington University in St. Louis, where he held an endowed chair. He has authored over 300 publications and is a highly sought-after presenter at national and international symposia. Dr. Sanes is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and a recipient of the Alden Spencer Award of Columbia University. He has served on the National Advisory Council of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, the Council of the Society for Neuroscience, and advisory panels for the Muscular Dystrophy Association, the Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) Association, the Klingenstein Neuroscience Fund, the Searle Scholars Fund, the Stowers Institute for Medical Research, and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. After graduating from Yale University in 1970 with degrees in biochemistry and psychology, Dr. Sanes earned a Ph.D. in neurobiology from Harvard in 1976. He completed postdoctoral work at the University of California, San Francisco.
Paola Arlotta, Ph.D., is chair and Golub Family professor of the Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology and a college professor at Harvard University. She is also an associate member of the Stanley Center for Psychiatric Research at the Broad Institute of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard University. Collectively, the Arlotta Lab research program explores the interface between development and engineering of the neocortex to gain fundamental understanding of both the principles that govern normal cortical development and of previously inaccessible mechanisms of human neurodevelopmental disease. The lab aims to understand and model complex human cortical pathology, focusing on the development of new high-throughput in vitro models of human cortical development and neurodevelopmental disease using stem cell–derived 3D brain organoids. Dr. Arlotta is the recipient of many awards, including the 2017 George Ledlie Prize from Harvard, the Fannie Cox Prize for Excellence in Science Teaching, the 2018 Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel Research Award from the Humboldt Foundation, and a 2019 Harvard College Professorship. Dr. Arlotta received an M.S. in biochemistry from the University of Trieste, Italy, and a Ph.D. in molecular biology from the University of Portsmouth, UK. She subsequently completed her postdoctoral training in neuroscience at Harvard Medical School.
Alta Charo, J.D., is Knowles professor emerita of law and bioethics at the University of Wisconsin–Madison (UW) and David A. Hamburg distinguished fellow at the Nuclear Threat Initiative, where she is a member of the Biosecurity Innova-
tion and Risk Reduction Initiative. At UW she taught bioethics, biotechnology regulation and policy, and public health law and torts until 2020. Prior to her arrival at UW in 1989, Ms. Charo served as associate director of the Legislative Drafting Research Fund of Columbia University, Fulbright lecturer in American law at the Sorbonne in Paris, legal analyst at the congressional Office of Technology Assessment, and American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) diplomacy fellow at USAID. Also in government, she was a member of President Clinton’s National Bioethics Advisory Commission and a policy advisor in the Food and Drug Administration’s Office of the Commissioner. At the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, Ms. Charo has served on numerous committees, including the Committee on Science, Technology, and Law; the committee that issued the 2004 report Biotechnology Research in the Age of Terrorism; and committees on emerging infectious diseases and COVID-19 vaccine and monoclonal antibody allocation frameworks. She co-chaired the National Academies committees that wrote guidelines for embryonic stem cell research and developed recommendations for U.S. policy and global principles for human genome editing research and clinical trials. Ms. Charo now co-chairs the National Academy of Medicine (NAM) Committee on Emerging Science, Technology, and Innovation and serves on the World Health Organization’s committee on global governance of genome editing. She is a member of the NAM and an elected Fellow of the AAAS and of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.
John H. Evans, Ph.D., is Tata Chancellor’s endowed professor in social sciences, associate dean of social sciences, and codirector of the Institute for Practical Ethics at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD). He has been a visiting member at the Institute for Advanced Study and a postdoctoral fellow at Yale University, and he has held visiting professorial fellowships or honorary professorships at the Universities of Edinburgh, Muenster, Ben Gurion, and Queensland. Originally trained as a sociologist of religion, Dr. Evans has focused on the abstract human concerns often addressed by Western religions such as the nature of the human, intergenerational responsibility, and societal value pluralism. More specifically, his research focuses on politics, religion, science, and ethics, with a particular interest in examining humanistic questions using quantitative and qualitative social science methodologies. Dr. Evans has published seven books and over 50 articles and volume chapters. From 2015 to 2017, he was a member of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine Committee on Human Gene Editing: Scientific, Medical and Ethical Considerations. Dr. Evans earned a B.A. from Macalester College and a Ph.D. from Princeton University.
Fred H. Gage, Ph.D., is president and professor at the Laboratory of Genetics and Vi and John Adler chair for research on age-related neurodegenerative
disease at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies in La Jolla, California. He is also past president of the Society for Neuroscience and the International Society for Stem Cell Research. Dr. Gage’s research is concentrated on the unexpected plasticity and adaptability to the environment that mammals exhibit throughout life. His lab showed that human beings and other mammals are capable of growing new nerve cells throughout life, in a process called adult neurogenesis. Dr. Gage’s team explores how these cells can be prompted to become mature, functioning nerve cells in the adult brain and spinal cord. He has also shown that environmental enrichment and physical exercise can enhance the growth of new brain cells, and his team continues to study the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms of neurogenesis to find possible avenues to repair damaged or aging brains. Dr. Gage’s lab also models diseases in the laboratory using human stem cells, seeking to decipher the progression and mechanisms that lead to brain cell dysfunction. He is a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, EMBO, and the American Philosophical Society. Dr. Gage earned a B.S. from the University of Florida, and both an M.S. and Ph.D. from The Johns Hopkins University.
Henry T. “Hank” Greely, J.D., is Deane F. and Kate Edelman Johnson professor of law and professor, by courtesy, of genetics at Stanford University, where he has been teaching since 1985. He specializes in ethical, legal, and social issues arising from advances in the biosciences, particularly from genetics, neuroscience, and human stem cell research. Professor Greely directs the Stanford Center for Law and the Biosciences, chairs the California Advisory Committee on Human Stem Cell Research, and serves on the Neuroscience Forum of the National Academy of Medicine. From 2007 to 2010 he was a codirector of the Law and Neuroscience Project, and in 2006, he was elected a fellow of the American Association for Advancement of Science.
Professor Greely served as a law clerk for Judge John Minor Wisdom on the U.S. Court of Appeals and for Justice Potter Stewart of the U.S. Supreme Court. After working during the Carter administration in the Departments of Defense and Energy, he entered private practice in Los Angeles in 1981 as a litigator with the law firm of Tuttle & Taylor, Inc. Professor Greely graduated from Stanford University in 1974 and from Yale Law School in 1977.
Patricia A. King, J.D., is professor emerita of law at Georgetown University Law Center and adjunct professor in the Department of Health Policy and Management in the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. With expertise in the study of law, medicine, ethics, and public policy, she teaches family law courses and a seminar in bioethics and the law, and is coauthor of Cases and Materials on Law, Science and Medicine. Professor King is a member of the American Law Institute and the National Academy of Medicine, and is a fellow of the Hastings Center. Her work in the field of bioethics has included service
on the National Institutes of Health Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee; the President’s Commission for the Study of Ethical Problems in Medicine and Biomedical and Behavioral Research; the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research; and the Ethics, Legal and Social Issues Working Group of the Human Genome Project. Professor King is a fellow of the Harvard Corporation and a member of the board of trustees of Wheaton College. Her professional experience before joining the Law Center faculty in 1973 was primarily in the field of civil rights; she was the deputy director of the Office of Civil Rights and special assistant to the chairman of the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, and she served as a deputy assistant attorney general in the Civil Division of the Department of Justice. Professor King earned a B.A. from Wheaton College and a J.D. from Harvard Law School.
William T. “Bill” Newsome, Ph.D., is Harman Family Provostial professor of neurobiology at the Stanford University School of Medicine and Vincent V.C. Woo director of the Wu Tsai Neurosciences Institute. A leading investigator in systems and cognitive neuroscience, he has made fundamental contributions to our understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying visual perception and simple forms of decision making. Among Dr. Newsome’s honors are the Rank Prize in Optoelectronics, the Spencer Award, the Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award of the American Psychological Association, the Dan David Prize of Tel Aviv University, the Karl Spencer Lashley Award of the American Philosophical Society, and the Champalimaud Vision Award. His distinguished lectureships include the 13th Annual Marr Lecture at the University of Cambridge, the 9th Annual Brenda Milner Lecture at McGill University, and most recently, the Distinguished Visiting Scholar Lectures at the Kavli Institute of Brain and Mind at the University of California, San Diego. Dr. Newsome was elected to membership in the National Academy of Sciences in 2000 and to the American Philosophical Society in 2011. He co-chaired the National Institutes of Health BRAIN Working Group, charged with forming a national plan for the coming decade of neuroscience research in the United States. Dr. Newsome received a B.S. in physics from Stetson University and a Ph.D. in biology from the California Institute of Technology.
Sally Temple, Ph.D., is scientific director of the Neural Stem Cell Institute and oversees scientific programs with the goal of understanding the role of neural stem cells in central nervous system (CNS) development, maintenance, and repair. She is past member of the board of directors and president of the International Society for Stem Cell Research. Dr. Temple leads a team of 30 researchers focused on using neural stem cells to develop therapies for eye, brain, and spinal cord disorders. In 2008, she was awarded the MacArthur Fellowship Award for her contribution and future potential in the neural stem cell field. In 1989, Dr. Temple discovered that the embryonic mammalian brain contained a rare stem
cell that could be activated to proliferate in vitro and produce both neurons and glia. Since then, her lab has continued to make pioneering contributions to the field of stem cell research by characterizing neural stem cells and the intrinsic and environmental factors that regulate their behavior. Dr. Temple helps lead the Tau Consortium, an international, collaborative group focused on understanding and developing therapies for dementias. Dr. Temple received an undergraduate degree from Cambridge University, specializing in developmental biology and neuroscience. She performed her Ph.D. work in optic nerve development at University College London in the United Kingdom. She received a Royal Society Fellowship to support her postdoctoral work at Columbia University, NY, where she focused on spinal cord development.
Lawrence “Larry” Zipursky, Ph.D., is Jerome J. Belzer chair of medical research and distinguished professor of biological chemistry at University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) and an investigator of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. He studies brain development, focusing on how neural circuits are formed during development, and his laboratory has provided insights into various aspects of circuit assembly, including the molecular basis of neuronal identity through their work on the Dscam1 locus in Drosophila. Dr. Zipursky was elected fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1998 and a member of the National Academy of Sciences in 2009. He received the Louisa Gross Horwitz Prize for Biology and Biochemistry from Columbia University in 2015. In 1981, Dr. Zipursky moved to the California Institute of Technology as a Helen Hay Whitney postdoctoral fellow. He has served on the National Advisory Council of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and various scientific advisory panels including the McKnight, the Helen Hay Whitney, and the Alfred P. Sloan foundations. Dr. Zipursky received a Ph.D. in molecular biology at Albert Einstein College of Medicine, where he completed his thesis with Dr. Jerard Hurwitz, studying DNA replication in E. coli.
Anne-Marie Mazza, Ph.D., senior director, joined the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in 1995 as a program officer with the Government-University-Industry Research Roundtable, and in 1999 co-launched the Committee on Science, Technology, and Law (CSTL). She has led numerous National Academies consensus studies including Securing the Vote: Protecting American Democracy, Dual Use Research of Concern in the Life Sciences, Optimizing the Nation’s Investment in Academic Research, Identifying the Culprit: Assessing Eyewitness Identification, Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States, Science and Security in A Post 9/11 World, and the 3rd edition of the Reference Manual on Scientific Evidence. Dr. Mazza was staff director for the 2015 and 2018 International Summits on Human Genome Editing and the 2020
National Academy of Sciences symposium Science: The Endless Frontier. From 1999 to 2000, she was a senior policy analyst with the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy where she directed a presidential review of the government–university research partnership. Dr. Mazza directed the National Academies’ Christine Mirzayan Science and Technology Policy Graduate Fellowship Program from 2007 to 2018 and served as senior director of strategic initiatives in the National Academy of Medicine President’s Office from 2018 to 2019. Currently, she is senior director of CSTL; the Committee on Science, Engineering, Medicine, and Public Policy; and the National Science, Technology, and Security Roundtable. She is senior leader of the U.S. Science and Innovation Policy Portfolio and a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Dr. Mazza received a B.A., M.A., and Ph.D., from The George Washington University.
Steven Kendall, Ph.D., is a program officer for the Committee on Science, Technology, and Law at the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. He has contributed to numerous National Academies reports, including Securing the Vote: Protecting American Democracy (2018); Optimizing the Nation’s Investment in Academic Research (2016); International Summit on Human Gene Editing: A Global Discussion (2015); Identifying the Culprit: Assessing Eyewitness Identification (2014); Positioning Synthetic Biology to Meet the Challenges of the 21st Century (2013); the Reference Manual on Scientific Evidence, 3rd Edition (2011); Review of the Scientific Approaches Used During the FBI’s Investigation of the 2001 Anthrax Mailings (2011); Managing University Intellectual Property in the Public Interest (2010); and Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward (2009). Prior to joining the National Academies in 2007, Dr. Kendall worked at the Smithsonian American Art Museum and The Huntington in San Marino, California. He received an M.A. in Victorian art and architecture at the University of London and completed a Ph.D. in the Department of the History of Art and Architecture at the University of California, Santa Barbara.
Anita Eisenstadt, J.D., is a program officer in the U.S. Science and Innovation Policy Theme of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. She previously served as assistant vice president for research integrity at Oregon State University, where she oversaw university compliance with federal research regulations. Ms. Eisenstadt previously served as a senior foreign affairs officer for Europe and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in the State Department’s Office of Science and Technology Cooperation. At the State Department, she formulated U.S. foreign policy on science, technology, and innovation and led U.S. delegations to the OECD Committee on Science and Technology Policy and its Working Party on Biotechnology. Prior to joining the State Department, Ms. Eisenstadt served as assistant general counsel
at the National Science Foundation (NSF). She served as NSF’s lead attorney on international, Antarctic, legislative, environmental, information policy, and research compliance matters, and she established a Special Deputy U.S. Marshal Program in Antarctica and co-drafted the federal research misconduct policy. At NSF, Ms. Eisenstadt also served on U.S. delegations to the United Nations International Maritime Organization, the United Nations World Summit on the Information Society, the Antarctic Treaty System, and the Legal Experts’ Group developing an Antarctic environmental liability regime. She earned a B.A. in anthropology and Asian studies from the University of Michigan and a J.D. from Wayne State University Law School.
Vernon “Vern” Dunn, Ph.D., is a program officer in the U.S. Science and Innovation Policy Theme of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Since joining the National Academies in early 2020, his role has included work with the Committee on Science, Engineering, Medicine, and Public Policy; the Committee on Science, Technology, and Law; and the New Voices in Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine program. Prior to joining the National Academies, Dr. Dunn worked with a small firm in Washington, DC, where he helped bioscience and technology companies shape federal regulations and policies. Previously, he worked at Louisiana’s higher education oversight agency, the Board of Regents, managing the state’s STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) Advisory Council. As the only hired staff for the council, Dr. Dunn was responsible for leading legislative research and analysis work, strategic partnerships, fundraising, policy recommendations for the state legislature, and planning and executing an inaugural STEM summit. He holds a B.S. in psychology and chemistry from Xavier University of Louisiana and a Ph.D. in neurobiology from Louisiana State University.
Dominic LoBuglio is a senior program assistant in the U.S. Science and Innovation Policy Theme at the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. In addition to the policy theme itself, much of his work centers around the Committee on Science, Technology, and Law and its related projects. Prior to coming to the National Academies in 2019, Mr. LoBuglio developed outreach and science education programs within the fundraising department of the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County. Previously, he also worked in the science and technology division at the Los Angeles office of the Japan External Trade Organization, a section of the Japanese government’s Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Industry. Mr. LoBuglio holds a B.A. in Japanese language and culture from the University of California, Santa Barbara.
Sarah Carter, Ph.D., is principal at Science Policy Consulting, LLC, where she focuses on societal and policy implications of emerging biotechnologies. In addition to human neural organoids, transplants, and chimeras, she is cur-
rently focused on the future of the advanced biotechnologies industry, synthetic biology and DNA sequence screening, and international norms. Previously, Dr. Carter worked in the Policy Center of the J. Craig Venter Institute, where she led influential projects on the accelerating pace of synthetic biology and the challenges it creates for policy makers. In 2009–2010, she was a policy analyst at the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy. Dr. Carter is also a former Science and Technology Policy Fellow with the American Association for the Advancement of Science and a former Mirzayan Fellow of the National Academies. She earned a B.A. in biology from Duke University and a Ph.D. in neuroscience from the University of California, San Francisco.
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