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Â© 2021 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research for this document was conducted through one or more programs administered by the Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) of the Transportation Research Board (TRB) of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine: ï· Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) research is sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). ï· Behavioral Traffic Safety Cooperative Research Program (BTSCRP) research is sponsored by the Governors Highway Safety Association (GHSA), and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). ï· National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) research is sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO), in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). ï· Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) research is sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) in cooperation with the Transit Development Corporation. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply endorsement by TRB and any of its program sponsors of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. DISCLAIMER To facilitate more timely dissemination of research findings, this pre-publication document is taken directly from the submission of the research agency. The material has not been edited by TRB. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this document are those of the researchers who performed the research. They are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board, the National Academies, and the sponsors of the Transit Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturersâ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. This pre-publication document IS NOT an official publication of the Cooperative Research Programs; the Transportation Research Board; or the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Recommended citation: McGraw, J., P. Haas, R. Ewing, and S. Sabouri. 2021. An Update on Public Transportation's Impacts on Greenhouse Gas Emissions. Pre-publication draft of TCRP Research Report 226. Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C.
iv Author Acknowledgments The research reported herein was performed under TCRP Project J-11/Task 36 by the Center for Neighborhood Technology, Jen McGraw, Principal Investigator. Peter Haas, Ph.D., Paul Esling, Jon Kuta, Preeti Shankar, and Bob Dean were contributors. Reid Ewing, Ph.D., Professor, City & Metropolitan Planning, Director of the Metropolitan Research Center, University of Utah and Sadegh Sabouri, Ph.D. Candidate in Metropolitan Planning, Policy & Design, College of Architecture and Planning, University of Utah designed and conducted the Transit Multiplier model in this report with the assistance of Wookjae Yang. Bethany Whitaker and Yanisa Techagumthorn of Nelson\Nygaard provided subject matter expertise and conducted interviews with transit agency staff members. The project team would like to thank our interview participants for their time and insights, Sean Donaghy, Manager of Energy Programs, MBTA, Projjal Dutta, Director of Sustainability Initiatives, MTA, Angie Gompert, Administrator, Marthaâs Vineyard Transit Authority (VTA), Sarah Ingle, Manager of Long Range Planning, RIPTA, John Lancaster, Director of Planning & Scheduling, Memphis Area Transit Authority, Amit Price Patel, Principal, SITELAB Urban Studio. We would also like to thank the TCRP project panel members for their guidance and contributions.