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References Abbott, J. K., and U. R. Sumaila. 2019. “Reducing marine plastic pollution: Policy insights from economics.” Review of Environmental Economics and Policy 13 (2):327-336. doi: 10.1093/reep/rez007. Abraham, M. A., and N. Nguyen. 2003. “‘Green engineering: Defining the principles’- resdts from the sandestin conference.” Environmental Progress 22 (4):233-236. doi: 10.1002/ep.670220410. Abt Associates. 2019. The Effects of Marine Debris on Beach Recreation and Regional Economies in Four Coastal Communities: A Regional Pilot Study. Silver Spring, MD: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Acuña-Ruz, T., D. Uribe, R. Taylor, L. Amézquita, M. C. Guzmán, J. Merrill, P. Martínez, L. Voisin, and C. Mattar. 2018. “Anthropogenic marine debris over beaches: Spectral characterization for remote sensing applications.” Remote Sensing of Environment 217:309-322. Adomat, Y., and T. Grischek. 2021. “Sampling and processing methods of microplastics in river sediments - A review.” Sci Total Environ 758:143691. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.143691. Agamuthu, P., S. B. Mehran, A. Norkhairah, and A. Norkhairiyah. 2019. “Marine debris: A review of impacts and global initiatives.” Waste Management and Research 37 (10):987-1002. doi: 10.1177/0734242X19845041. Alexander, M. 1975. “Environmental and microbiological problems arising from recalcitrant molecules.” Microbial Ecology 2 (1):17-27. doi: 10.1007/BF02010378. Alimi, O. S., J. Farner Budarz, L. M. Hernandez, and N. Tufenkji. 2018. “Microplastics and nanoplastics in aquatic environments: Aggregation, deposition, and enhanced contaminant transport.” Environ Sci Technol 52 (4):1704-1724. doi: 10.1021/acs.est.7b05559. Allen, H. 2021. Microplastics Pollution –The Legacy and Sentinel of Mismanaged Plastic Waste. U.S. EPA. Allen, R., D. Jarvis, S. Sayer, and C. Mills. 2012. “Entanglement of grey seals Halichoerus grypus at a haul out site in Cornwall, UK.” Mar Pollut Bull 64 (12):2815-2819. doi: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2012. 09.005. Allen, S., D. Allen, K. Moss, G. Le Roux, V. R. Phoenix, and J. E. Sonke. 2020. “Examination of the ocean as a source for atmospheric microplastics.” PLoS ONE 15 (5). doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0232746. Allen, S., D. Allen, V. R. Phoenix, G. Le Roux, P. Durántez Jiménez, A. Simonneau, S. Binet, and D. Galop. 2019. “Atmospheric transport and deposition of microplastics in a remote mountain catchment.” Nature Geoscience 12 (5):339-344. doi: 10.1038/s41561-019-0335-5. Alzugaray, L., M. Di Martino, L. Beltramino, V. J. Rowntree, M. Sironi, and M. M. Uhart. 2020. “Anthropogenic debris in the digestive tract of a southern right whale (Eubalaena australis) stranded in Golfo Nuevo, Argentina.” Mar Pollut Bull 161 (Pt A):111738. doi: 10.1016/j.marpolbul. 2020.111738. Amaral-Zettler, L. A., C. L. Dupont, E. R. Zettler, B. Slikas, D. Kaul, and T. J. Mincer. 2016. “The Plastisphere ‘Microbiome.’“ American Geophysical Union 2016:HI41A-03. Amaral-Zettler, L. A., E. R. Zettler, and T. J. Mincer. 2020. “Ecology of the plastisphere.” Nature Reviews Microbiology 18 (3):139-151. doi: 10.1038/s41579-019-0308-0. Amato, D. W., R. B. Whittier, H. Dulai, and C. M. Smith. 2020. “Algal bioassays detect modeled loading of wastewater-derived nitrogen in coastal waters of OʻAHU, HAWAIʻI.” Marine Pollution Bulletin 150. doi: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2019.110668. American Chemical Society. 2021. “12 Principles of Green Engineering.” https://www.acs.org/ content/acs/en/greenchemistry/principles/12-design-principles-of-green-engineering.html. American Chemistry Council. 2021a. “Background and Methodology for Statistical Reports.” https://plastics.americanchemistry.com/background-and-methodology-for-statistical-reports/. 126 Prepublication Copy

References American Chemistry Council. 2021b. “Studies and Information: Resin Report Subscriptions.” https://plastics.americanchemistry.com/resin-report-subscriptions/. Ammendolia, J., J. Saturno, A. L. Brooks, S. Jacobs, and J. R. Jambeck. 2021. “An emerging source of plastic pollution: Environmental presence of plastic personal protective equipment (PPE) debris related to COVID-19 in a metropolitan city.” Environ Pollut 269:116160. doi: 10.1016/ j.envpol.2020.116160. Anastas, P. T., and J. B. Zimmerman. 2003. “Design through the 12 principles of green engineering.” Environ Sci Technol 37 (5):94A-101A. doi: 10.1021/es032373g. Anastas, P., and J. C. Warner. 1998. Green Chemistry: Theory and Practice. New York: Oxford University Press. Anbumani, S., and P. Kakkar. 2018. “Ecotoxicological effects of microplastics on biota: A review.” Environmental Science and Pollution Research 25 (15):14373-14396. doi: 10.1007/s11356-018- 1999-x. Andrady, A. L. 2011. “Microplastics in the marine environment.” Marine Pollution Bulletin 62 (8):1596- 1605. Andrady, A. L., and M. A. Neal. 2009. “Applications and societal benefits of plastics.” Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 364 (1526):1977-1984. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2008.0304. Araujo, C. F., M. M. Nolasco, A. M. P. Ribeiro, and P. J. A. Ribeiro-Claro. 2018. “Identification of microplastics using Raman spectroscopy: Latest developments and future prospects.” Water Res 142:426-440. doi: 10.1016/j.watres.2018.05.060. Arias-Andres, M., U. Klumper, K. Rojas-Jimenez, and H. P. Grossart. 2018. “Microplastic pollution increases gene exchange in aquatic ecosystems.” Environ Pollut 237:253-261. doi: 10.1016/ j.envpol.2018.02.058. Arii, M., M. Koiwa, and Y. Aoki. 2014. “Applicability of SAR to marine debris surveillance after the Great East Japan Earthquake.” IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing 7 (5):1729-1744. Arp, H. P. H., D. Kühnel, C. Rummel, M. Macleod, A. Potthoff, S. Reichelt, E. Rojo-Nieto, M. Schmitt- Jansen, J. Sonnenberg, E. Toorman, and A. Jahnke. 2021. “Weathering plastics as a planetary boundary threat: Exposure, fate, and hazards.” Environmental Science and Technology 55 (11):7246-7255. doi: 10.1021/acs.est.1c01512. Arroyo Schnell, A., N. Klein, E. Gómez Girón, and J. Sousa. 2017. National marine plastic litter policies in European Union Member States: an overview. Brussels, International Union for Conservation of Nature. Bai, Y., and J. Givens. 2021. “Ecologically unequal exchange of plastic waste?” Journal of World-Systems Research 27 (1):265-287. doi: 10.5195/jwsr.2021.1026. Balas, C. E., A. T. Williams, S. L. Simmons, and A. Ergin. 2001. “A statistical riverine litter propagation model.” Marine Pollution Bulletin 42 (11):1169-1176. doi: 10.1016/s0025-326x(01)00133-3. Baldwin, A. K., S. R. Corsi, and S. A. Mason. 2016. “Plastic debris in 29 Great Lakes tributaries: Relations to watershed attributes and hydrology.” Environ Sci Technol 50 (19):10377-10385. doi: 10.1021/acs.est.6b02917. Bank, M. S., and S. V. Hansson. 2019. “The plastic cycle: A novel and holistic paradigm for the Anthropocene.” Environ Sci Technol 53 (13):7177-7179. doi: 10.1021/acs.est.9b02942. Bao, Z., J. Sha, X. Li, T. Hanchiso, and E. Shifaw. 2018. “Monitoring of beach litter by automatic interpretation of unmanned aerial vehicle images using the segmentation threshold method.” Mar Pollut Bull 137:388-398. doi: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2018.08.009. Barnes, D. K. A. 2002. “Biodiversity: Invasions by marine life on plastic debris.” Nature 416 (6883):808- 809. doi: 10.1038/416808a. Barnes, D. K., F. Galgani, R. C. Thompson, and M. Barlaz. 2009. “Accumulation and fragmentation of plastic debris in global environments.” Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 364 (1526):1985-1998. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2008.0205. Prepublication Copy 127

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An estimated 8 million metric tons (MMT) of plastic waste enters the world's ocean each year - the equivalent of dumping a garbage truck of plastic waste into the ocean every minute. Plastic waste is now found in almost every marine habitat, from the ocean surface to deep sea sediments to the ocean's vast mid-water region, as well as the Great Lakes. This report responds to a request in the bipartisan Save Our Seas 2.0 Act for a scientific synthesis of the role of the United States both in contributing to and responding to global ocean plastic waste.

The United States is a major producer of plastics and in 2016, generated more plastic waste by weight and per capita than any other nation. Although the U.S. solid waste management system is advanced, it is not sufficient to deter leakage into the environment. Reckoning with the U.S. Role in Global Ocean Plastic Waste calls for a national strategy by the end of 2022 to reduce the nation's contribution to global ocean plastic waste at every step - from production to its entry into the environment - including by substantially reducing U.S. solid waste generation. This report also recommends a nationally-coordinated and expanded monitoring system to track plastic pollution in order to understand the scales and sources of U.S. plastic waste, set reduction and management priorities, and measure progress.

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