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78 This chapter presents a summary of the travelerâs perspective of the airport arrivals journey along with ideas about how to address key issues/challenges identified. The traveler comments presented in the chapter are intended to be illustrative of the kinds of experiences travelers may have during their airport arrivals journey. The arrivals journey comprises four journey points: international arrivals, transferring to another flight, domestic arrivals and baggage claim, and departure from the airport. FigureÂ 42 represents the arrivals journey and summarizes some of the desired outcomes expressed by C H A P T E R 4 Arrivals Journey Improve wayfinding to baggage claim/airport departure Improve efficiency of baggage claim process Concessions available to late arriving travelers Improve wayfinding to transfer flight Comfortable seating and quiet spaces Adequately trained customer experience (CX) staff TRANSFER PASSENGERS DEPARTURE FROM THE AIRPORT Adequate signage for locating transportation options Enhance transportation waiting experience Improve shuttle service INTERNATIONAL ARRIVALS Provide a welcoming environment Improve organization and efficiency of lines Reduce perception of wait time at CBP DOMESTIC ARRIVALS/ BAGGAGE CLAIM Figure 42. Summary of outcomes desired by travelers for the arrivals journey.
Arrivals Journey 79Â Â travelers at each journey point. More detail will be provided about each journey point in the course of this chapter. An example of how airports may assess traveler emotions is provided in this chapter and is one of the sources of information that can help airports gain a deeper understanding of their traveler segments. However, each airport needs to conduct an analysis of their own travelersâ perspectives and emotional risk to identify the needs and issues specific to their airport. 4.1 Navigating the Chapter In this chapter, four journey points for the arrivals journey are discussed: international arrivals, transferring to another flight, domestic arrivals and baggage claim, and departure from the airport. For each journey point, travelersâ perspectives are presented in a graphic (see an example of this graphic following this paragraph) that first shows the perspectives of the general traveler population (composed of similar feedback shared by four or more traveler segments). Individual traveler segments that shared unique concerns or feedback are presented next. The graphic shows the results of an emotional risk analysis to identify which segments might be at greater risk of experiencing negative emotions at the various journey points. By analyzing the potential for a traveler to experience a negative emotion, airports may identify the root cause of the negative emotion and thereby be able to correct the cir- cumstances and create a better experience. For each journey point, the graphic is followed by a discussion of actions that airports can take to address the issues at that journey point.
80 Evaluating the Travelerâs Perspective to Improve the Airport Customer Experience 4.2 International ArrivalsâTravelersâ Perspectives The international arrivals journey point includes the journey from the aircraft door to baggage claim, the immigration line, bag pick-up, and exiting the customs hall for transfer to another flight or to the departure point from the airport. I. Perspective shared by the general traveler population â¢ Walking time to immigration is often too long. â¢ Need quicker process from customs to baggage claim; bigger waiting rooms to process immigration (queues extending into corridors heighten anxiety levels). â¢ More and friendlier U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) staff. â¢ More and welcoming staff and volunteers to direct passengers. â¢ Feeling of being âordered aroundâ at customs and immigration by airport staff and volunteers and CBP staff. â¢ More organization; uncertainty about length of wait is stressful. â¢ Well-functioning systems at immigration. â¢ Clarity on where bags are picked up/whether or not they need to be picked up when arriving internationally. â¢ Free luggage carts. II. Perspectives unique to individual traveler segments Emotional Risk Level Segment Drivers of emotional risk Specific traveler comments Families with children â¢ Friendliness and empathy of immigration staff and airport staff and volunteers. â¢ Adequacy of staff to direct lines. â¢ Organization and efficiency of lines. â¢ Mostly negative experience with staff and volunteers being unfriendly. â¢ Feeling of intimidation passing CBP (and staff and volunteers do not help alleviate this feeling). â¢ Disorganized and randomly shuffled lines. Non-native English speakers â¢ Organization and efficiency of lines. â¢ Ability of the airport to make people feel welcome. â¢ Availability of information on CBP processing. â¢ Accessibility of luggage carts. â¢ Friendliness and empathy of airport staff. â¢ Warmer and more welcoming environment, especially after long international flights. â¢ Better information on what to expect and what is required for international travelers at immigration. â¢ Desire for free luggage carts. â¢ May experience heightened anxiety and fear due to uncertainty of process, especially for non-U.S. citizens. Senior travelers â¢ Availability of human assistance at CBP. â¢ Accessibility of luggage carts. â¢ Friendliness and empathy of airport staff. â¢ More assistance with checked bags at CBP and immigration. â¢ Difficult to find human assistance to guide travelers and help with bags. Solo/couple travelers â¢ Accessibility of luggage carts. â¢ Organization and efficiency of lines. â¢ Had a consistently slow experience at CBP and immigration. â¢ Dissatisfaction with having to pay for luggage carts. Business travelers Families with children Infrequent travelers Military travelers Non-native English speakers Travelers with disabilities Senior travelers Solo/couple travelers Student travelers High risk Medium risk Medium risk Medium risk
Arrivals Journey 81Â Â 4.3 International ArrivalsâActions for Airports Similar to the TSA, U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) is a separate entity from the airport that operates within its own rules and regulations. The following points suggest how the airport might assist with addressing some of the traveler constraints identified at international arrivals for travelers being processed through CBP. 4.3.1 Provide Alternative Modes of Transfer to CBP Provide moving walkways, interior carts for travelers with disabilities and travelers requiring extra assistance, and/or tram service. Future trends include the use of automated wheelchairs, pods, or scooters that can be ordered via the airport app. 4.3.2 Improve Organization and Efficiency of Lines Organization and efficiency of lines can be improved by â¢ Enhancing collaboration with CBP. Work with CBP to staff additional booths during peak periods, digitize CBP processes, improve efficiency, and train CBP staff to be more welcoming and less directive. â¢ Utilizing airport staff and volunteers to help organize lines. Authorize staff and volunteers to help organize and direct activities and assist travelers, as needed, to increase efficiencies. 4.3.3 Provide a Welcoming Environment on Arrival The arrivals experience is the first impression travelers have of a city they are visiting. Providing a welcoming environment will enhance the customersâ experience and reduce the anxiety many international travelers have going through the customs and immigration pro- cess. With the uncertainty of this part of the journey, human touch is essential. The following can help create a more welcoming environment: â¢ Training of staff, volunteers, and front-facing staff. Train staff, volunteers, and front-facing staff to be friendly, welcoming, and more empathetic toward travelers. Staff and volunteers should be knowledgeable about procedures and processes and be well prepared to address traveler questions and concerns in a patient manner. Empathetic staff and volunteers pro- viding clear directions can help ease the anxiety and fear expressed by many travelers at this stage of the journey and create a more welcoming experience. â¢ Multilingual staff and volunteers. Upon reviewing the cultural mix of travelers arriv- ing from various destinations, the airport may consider staffing the immigration lines with multi lingual staff and volunteers that speak the languages of the majority of pass- engers arriving at the terminal. Where staff resources are constrained, the airport may use Segment Drivers of emotional risk Specific traveler comments Student travelers â¢ Adequacy of staff to direct lines. â¢ Ability of the airport to make people feel welcome. â¢ Accessibility of luggage carts. â¢ Friendliness and empathy of airport staff. â¢ Organization and efficiency of lines. â¢ Staff and volunteers do not provide adequate information and directions on the processes and procedures, including which lines to stand in, and there is inadequate staffing at CBP booths, resulting in long lines. â¢ Expressed a lack of empathy and rudeness from CBP staff and airport staff and volunteers. High risk
82 Evaluating the Travelerâs Perspective to Improve the Airport Customer Experience technology solutions such as Google Assistant. For example, JFKIAT, the operator of Ter- minal 4 at JFK, is bringing Google Assistantâs real-time translation technology to travelers to enhance their experience in the airport (Ross, 2020). This technology can translate in 29Â languages and can be provided to staff in information booths and lounges to assist them in addressing traveler needs in real time. â¢ Welcoming art. Display art welcoming travelers to the city and region. For example, student art welcomes passengers at Dulles Airport (see FigureÂ 43). â¢ Use of digital signage. Use digital signage to welcome travelers in different languages. TheÂ language(s) of the signage could be modified to reflect the language(s) of the majority of travelers on arriving flights as they disembark. 4.3.4 Reduce Perception of Wait Time at CBP To reduce the perception of wait time at CBP: â¢ Ensure lines are adequately staffed. While airports do use staff and volunteers to direct the lines, there are often not enough staff and volunteers to handle the large number of inter- national travelers arriving. Ensuring lines are adequately staffed through the use of added staff, especially at peak travel times, can ensure smoother and more efficient processing. â¢ Provide information on wait times. Providing information to travelers on the airport web- site and app on the expected wait time prior to their entry into CBP during their process time and providing the expected arrival time of baggage at baggage claim can help relieve the anxiety that connecting passengers may feel when they see long CBP lines. Travelers, in particular those with connecting flights, would feel more at ease knowing the wait time for expected processing of passengers at immigration and customs. 4.3.5 Provide Clear Expectations of the Requirements at CBP in Advance Providing information on the airport website and app in addition to videos, signage, and direc- tions on the requirements at immigration and customs is helpful to reduce the stress and anxiety experienced by travelers at international arrival CBP processing locations. Information about the requirement for travelers to pick up baggage prior to transit needs to be provided in advance of experiencing the customs and immigration process since not every airport has this requirement. (Image source: Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority) Figure 43. Welcome signage at Dulles Airport.
Arrivals Journey 83Â Â Airports may coordinate with airlines to provide this information by flight announcements before arrival at the airport. This information can also be provided in the individual airportâs informa- tional brochure provided on the flight and the airline website and/or app. The airport should also communicate CBP requirements for picking up bags or not at inter- national arrival areas in advance of the passengersâ entry to CBP. Information on the customs/ immigration process should be readily accessible on the airport website and app, as well as through digital signage preceding entry to CBP. The airport can work with airlines to inform passengers of customs and immigration requirements for retrieval of bags (or not). 4.3.6 Provide Free Luggage Carts or Assistance with Luggage Where possible, airports may consider providing free luggage carts. Free luggage allowances for international flights are typically higher than luggage allowances for domestic flights; there- fore, there may be a higher need for carts in the baggage claim area for international arrivals. Provide human assistance and/or porters, where possible. Luggage carts need to be sanitized after each use, or cleaning wipes and/or sanitizing stations should be available nearby for self-cleaning. 4.4 Transfer PassengersâTravelersâ Perspectives Transfer passengers include both international and domestic passengers arriving at an airport with a layover at the terminal before embarking on their next flight. I. Perspective shared by the general traveler population Wayfinding â¢ Better signage needed indicating where to catch the next flight. â¢ Signage so poor sometimes you donât know which terminal you have arrived in. â¢ Arriving in one concourse and learning you have to transit to another concourse can be stressful; provide advance information for better planning. Transport and connectivity â¢ Staff available to assist with connections, especially during flight delays. â¢ Ease of connectivity between terminals and provide various options to transfer between terminals taking into consideration walking distances. â¢ Too-short connection times and long distances to connecting gates. General transfer area â¢ Desire better trained and friendlier staff. â¢ More relaxing indoor and outdoor spaces. â¢ The transit area should âfeel like a home.â â¢ Cleaner airport and facilities. â¢ Fast and free Wi-Fi and adequate charging ports; inaccessible Wi-Fi is an issue. â¢ Fewer announcements; better coordination of gate announcements to avoid overlapping. II. Perspectives unique to individual traveler segments Emotional Risk Level Business travelers Families with children Infrequent travelers Military travelers Non-native English speakers Travelers with disabilities Senior travelers Solo/couple travelers Student travelers Transfer passengers have discretionary time while waiting. They will likely value their experience in airport facilities differently compared to origin and destination passengers (Park & Jung, 2011).
84 Evaluating the Travelerâs Perspective to Improve the Airport Customer Experience Senior travelers â¢ Crowdedness of concessions. â¢ Availability of comfortable seating areas. â¢ Distance between transit gates. â¢ More or larger concessions to accommodate the number of travelers, especially during high season. Student travelers â¢ Adequacy and ease of wayfinding and signage. â¢ Distance between transit gates. â¢ Friendliness of staff. â¢ Confusion about which shuttle or tram to take and at which stop to get off. â¢ Need better signs showing where to go for connecting flight. â¢ Short connection times/long distances. â¢ Unpleasant staff. â¢ Stressful when need to change terminals and go outside the secured area and back through security again. Medium risk Medium risk Segment Drivers of emotional risk Specific traveler comments Families with children â¢ Availability of food options at all times. â¢ Availability of extra assistance during transit. â¢ Frustration with not having food options available to feed children when arriving at night. â¢ May require extra assistance during transit, which may include human assistance or provision of luggage carts or strollers. â¢ Adequate private facilities for nursing. Non-native English speakers â¢ Adequacy and ease of wayfinding. â¢ Ability to make connecting flights without feeling rushed. â¢ Distance between transit gates. â¢ Expressed frustration with short connection times and having to rush to make connecting flights that are often too far from where they landed. â¢ Have staff and volunteers available to assist upon disembarkation. Travelers with disabilities â¢ Ease of connectivity. â¢ Wheelchairs available at the gate. â¢ Adequacy of staff training on the needs of travelers with disabilities. â¢ Extra assistance available during transit. â¢ Adequately sized dog relief areas for guide dogs. â¢ Beacon systems for audio guidance. â¢ Consistent desire expressed for both airport staff and volunteers and airportsâ business partnersâ staff to have more training on dealing with travelers with disabilities and unique needs. â¢ Often not enough staff with wheelchairs available at the gate upon arrival. â¢ Specifically, do not like being pushed in tandem with another passenger and would prefer to wait for someone to push them alone. â¢ Would like to be asked if they needed a wheelchair rather than assuming they do. â¢ The use of beacon systems would be beneficial to blind/low-vision travelers navigating the airport. High risk Medium risk High risk 4.5 Transfer PassengersâActions for Airports Actions that may help lower the stress level for transfer passengers are presented in this section. 4.5.1 Improve Wayfinding Elements Directing Passengers to Their Next Flight Provide additional wayfinding elements in addition to staff and volunteers available to direct passengers in transit: â¢ Place FIDSs in strategic locations. Strategic placement of FIDSs with gate information and walk times can help alleviate any uncertainty on where to go felt by passengers upon disembarkation.
Arrivals Journey 85Â Â â¢ Use floor markings. Use floor markings to help direct travelers to baggage claim or transit terminals, particularly when a FIDS is not available close to the gates. â¢ Use digital and static signage. Place digital and static signs at or near gates with information for travelers with short connections, including walk time to the gate. â¢ Use digital assistants. Through the use of holograph technology, airports can provide con- sistent information throughout the journey using pre-recorded information to respond to common traveler needs. Digital assistants include assisting apps and other technology, including live chats. Dublin Airportâs passenger app, DUB HUB, uses the airportâs free Wi-Fi to create a digital assistant to help connecting passengers. A visual guide helps passengers find their gates and also provides information on the retail services near their boarding gates. â¢ Use humanoids. Use humanoids or staff and volunteers to assist in guiding arriving passen- gers. Humanoids are being piloted at several airports. For example, a robot named Pepper is being tested at Christchurch Airport (see FigureÂ 44). Pepper recognizes faces and basic emotions and can respond to requests made through the touchscreen on its chest. â¢ Partner with wayfinding apps. Airports that partner with wayfinding apps such as AIRA or Indoor Explorer can help blind/low-vision travelers better navigate the airport. â¢ Promote airport website and app. Encourage travelers to review the airport website and/or app, which has the layout of the airport with gate identification and the time between gate intervals. Also, provide the expected time of arrival of shuttles or trams, where applicable. The airport may consider including information and signage on things to do in transit or instructions on how to proceed through various touchpoints [such as when and where to pick up baggage (or not), recheck process, go through security, and so forth at international arrivals] on the airport website and app. Airports could collaborate with airline partners to provide similar information on their airline apps. â¢ Install wayfinding beacons. The installation of wayfinding beacons can facilitate naviga- tion for travelers with disabilities related to low vision/blindness by providing turn-by-turn directions. 4.5.2 Provide Additional Assistance Upon Disembarkation â¢ Coordination with airlines to provide additional staff. Coordinate with airlines to provide additional staff to assist travelers in making connections, particularly during flight delays. (Image source: Bates, 2019a) Figure 44. Pepper at Christchurch Airport.
86 Evaluating the Travelerâs Perspective to Improve the Airport Customer Experience â¢ Design features. Encourage architects to consider ease of connectivity when designing terminals; shorten travel connectivity through tram service and/or providing moving walkway access. â¢ Provide luggage carts and strollers. For families traveling with children that require addi- tional assistance, offer complimentary strollers or luggage carts upon disembarkation. Airports such as Doha Hamad International Airport and Dubai International Airport provide families free access to strollers upon disembarkation. This provides peace of mind to families, who often worry that their checked stroller will not be available at the gate. Amsterdamâs Schiphol Airport provides luggage carts for hand baggage at strategic locations, and these are well used by the traveling public. Providing travelers with assistance transporting their bags can provide an incentive to shop more. However, these services create an added layer of logistics and traffic, which must be carefully considered. Coordinating the availability and maintenance of strollers and luggage carts can be a logistical challenge. For other travelers that require additional assis- tance, provide directories outlining airport terminal concessions, amenities, restrooms, and so forth, along with FIDSs in prominent locations to determine the next gates. â¢ Use of autonomous wheelchairs. Autonomous wheelchairs and pods may be used in the future to alleviate the need to have human assistance upon arrival and the associated delays expressed by travelers. â¢ Use of rentable autonomous pods and/or scooters. The airport of the future may include the use of autonomous pods that can be rented via an app to transport travelers from one point to another (whether on the ramp or within the airport). 4.5.3 Ensure Adequate and Trained Customer Experience Staff Ensure adequate and trained customer experience staff by â¢ Providing customer experience training for all front-facing staff (see SectionÂ 5.8.1) and â¢ Coordinating with airlines on wheelchair services (see SectionÂ 3.7.4). (Image source: Shu, 2018) The use of autonomous wheelchairs was tested by Etihad Airways at Abu Dhabi International Airport late in 2019, and the results have been positive. The autonomous wheelchair can detect obstructions and has an automatic stop feature. Additional features in development include real-time gate and boarding time updates for guests (Craig, 2019).
Arrivals Journey 87Â Â 4.5.4 Provide Comfortable Seating and Quiet Rooms and/or Spaces The airport environment can be overwhelming for travelers. A number of travelers have suggested that comfortable seating would enhance their airport journey, particularly given the increasingly longer times spent post-security (due to uncertainty of security lines), long transit times, and flight delays. Some ways to help ease travelersâ stress and make them feel more at âhomeâ include providing â¢ Comfortable seating. Most travelers indicated a need for more comfortable seating at U.S. airports. To address this need, provide more comfortable seating at the gate area, which may include reclining chairs, armchairs, cushioned benches, beanbag chairs, or sleeping pods. â¢ Quiet rooms and/or spaces. Provide quiet rooms and/or spaces to offer travelers an oppor- tunity to disconnect and recharge. Although U.S. airports typically have shorter transit times than other airports around the world, an airport can review its own average length of transit at the airport and consider providing sleeping pods or capsule hotels that can be booked in advance. Offering a quiet space or lounge can provide the airport with a competitive advan- tage. Munich Airport has nap pods (napcabs) that can be used for internet or to sleep (see FigureÂ 45) while Helsinki Airport has installed âGoSleepâ pods (see FigureÂ 46), which are (Image source: Munich Airport) Figure 45. Munich Airport napcabs. Figure 46. Helsinki Airport GoSleep pods. (Image source: airport-business.com)
88 Evaluating the Travelerâs Perspective to Improve the Airport Customer Experience ergonomic seats that convert into a bed and have a covering that can be drawn over the pod for privacy. The GoSleep pods include power outlets and space for hand luggage. â¢ Meditation rooms. Airports that serve a large portion of international travelers should con- sider the creation of spaces to accommodate different religious faiths. For example, Orlando International Airport designed a Serenity Room for travelers seeking a quiet space or place to meditate; this room includes a separate accommodation for faiths that require the separation of males/females and ablution units. 4.5.5 Enhance the Ambiance at Connecting Points Between Terminals or Transportation Structures Reduce the sterility of connecting points in the terminal and provide a reprieve from the typically concession-focused ambiance at the main terminal. For example, Detroit Metropolitan Airportâs Light Tunnel and âFlight Pathsâ at Hartsfield Atlanta International Airport create a calming ambiance (see FigureÂ 47). 4.5.6 Fresh Food Available to Late Arriving Passengers To accommodate late arriving and transiting passengers, the airport may consider requiring at least one food and one retail concessionaire to remain open until the last arriving and/or departing flight or provide vending machines that provide healthy and/or hot food options. For example, Farmerâs Fridge, at Chicago OâHare Airport, provides whole fresh food, in packaging made from recycled materials, and a jar collector (see FigureÂ 48). Changi Airport Singapore offers an instant noodle vending machine that provides an option for hot food. 4.5.7 Adequate Concessions to Accommodate Traveler Demand Installing food and retail pushcarts, mobile units, kiosks, and/or vending machines, particu- larly during peak periods, can help alleviate the stress on existing concessions and reduce the lines and time to get food. (Photo Credit: JASONPARIS/CC BY 2.0) (Images source: Grundhauser, 2019) (Photo Credit: DJASC112/CC BY-SA 4.0) Figure 47. Light tunnel at Detroit Metropolitan Airport (left) and âFlight Pathsâ at Hartsfield Atlanta International Airport (right).
Arrivals Journey 89Â Â 4.5.8 Provide Amenities to Address the Needs of the Airportâs Traveler Demographic Airports providing basic levels of comfort will enable travelers to feel more relaxed. Examples of airports that are offering innovative services and amenities to enhance the post-security experience include the following (see FigureÂ 49): â¢ âHangout at DBX.â A partnership between the Dubai International Airport (DBX) and con- cession business partners offers gift vouchers to encourage longer stays at the airport and ease congestion at gates during holidays. â¢ Creation of âsafe harbors.â To ensure clear lines of sight to both gates and amenities, San Francisco International Airport has created room for luggage, wheelchairs, and space for passengers to pause and study signage (see FigureÂ 50). â¢ Local sense of place. Zurich reminds passengers they are in Switzerland through infra- structure, visuals (e.g., background of Swiss mountains), sounds (noises of cowbells and chirping birds), and other features. â¢ Incheon International Airportâs Korea Traditional Cultural Experience Center. The center teaches crafts for free, and travelers can listen to music or try on traditional clothes, among other cultural activities (see FigureÂ 51). â¢ Creating entertainment through art and history. Miami International Airport uses curators for its art. San Francisco boasts an accredited museum. Orlando International Airport pro- vides entertainment through the local symphony and local childrenâs art program. â¢ Services for pets. Denver International Airportâs Paradise for Paws pet resort provides day and overnight stays for pets (see FigureÂ 52). â¢ E-book library. Taiwan International Airport provides rentable iPads and e-readers complete with books, magazines, and newspapers in the first âe-book airport library.â (Image source: Research Team) Figure 48. Farmerâs Fridge.
90 Evaluating the Travelerâs Perspective to Improve the Airport Customer Experience (Image source: San Francisco International Airport ) Figure 50. San Francisco International Airport âsafe harbor.â Figure 49. Innovative airport services and amenities around the world. â¢ Amenities and entertainment reflecting the local culture/environment. Minneapolis- St. Paul International Airport has a movie screening room that shows short films and docu- mentaries from creators in the region. Fairmont Vancouver Airport has a special service for passengers who have had successful fishing tripsâa âfish valetâ allows passengers to store their catch in a freezer. The valet packages the fish to protect it on the flight home while pas- sengers enjoy airport amenities. â¢ Creating learning experiences for children within airports. Create engaging and constructive activities to enhance learning experiences for children within airports. Hong Kong Airport
Arrivals Journey 91Â Â has established a Dream Come True (DCT) Education Park for children. DCT provides 21 role- play activities for kids to develop their understanding of various jobs and build teamwork. â¢ Musical performance. At Austin-Bergstrom International Airport, passengers can watch live music on the six stages of Music in the Air. â¢ Play area at Williston Basin International Airport. The play areaâs theme is derived from the stateâs natural environs and features interactive games and activities. Schiphol Airport has created a tree-house-themed play area. â¢ Use of open space as a commercial opportunity. Schiphol Airport showcases living room furniture in two areas of the airport (Piers H and M). â¢ Museums and galleries using space at airports. William P. Hobby Airport in Houston has an in-house 1940 Air Terminal Museum that provides the history of Houston and Southeast Texasâs role in aviation. Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport also features art exhibi- tions throughout the terminal that showcase Arizonaâs artistic and cultural heritage. (Image source: Denver International Airport) Figure 52. Denver International Airport Paradise for Paws. Figure 51. Incheon International Airportâs Korea Traditional Cultural Experience Center.
92 Evaluating the Travelerâs Perspective to Improve the Airport Customer Experience 4.6 Domestic Arrivals and Baggage Claimâ Travelersâ Perspectives The domestic arrivals and baggage claim journey point includes the journey from the aircraft door to the baggage claim and airport departure point, including wayfinding and concessions along the way and picking up baggage at the carousel. Wayfinding continues to be an issue throughout the airport journey. Amsterdam Schiphol Airport provides several amenities that create a unique experience, including Piers H and M, which showcase living room furniture, a quiet airport library, kidsâ treehouse play areas, and bike-powered charging stations. (Image sources: Schiphol.nl and Inside Flyer ) I. Perspective shared by the general traveler population Wayfinding â¢ Signage not sufficient, wayfinding not always intuitive, and information about baggage is not always forthcoming. â¢ More information on the city offerings. Customer service â¢ Announce the time remaining for baggage to arrive or indicate on the baggage carousel digital signage. â¢ Provide announcements/information such as a digital display at entry to baggage carousel areas listing location of baggage carousels by flights. â¢ Staff and volunteers could be more helpful, friendlier, and available and welcoming on arrival. â¢ Direct passengers to next journey point and provide pertinent information through announcements. â¢ More customer service staff and volunteers scheduled during peak arrival time. â¢ Concierge personnel with carts available to help with luggage. Baggage service â¢ Improve speed of baggage delivery, decrease wait times. â¢ Less-crowded baggage claim. â¢ Ability to track luggage and better organization at baggage claim. General â¢ Accommodations for overnight passengers. â¢ Less congestion at the gate area; boarding area line organized better with stations or something to distinguish line formation for disembarking passengers. â¢ Shorter walking distances. â¢ More direct exits to baggage claim. â¢ Phone to call airlines not available at baggage claim. . â¢ Food options open later. â¢ Free luggage carts. â¢ Clean, light, airy terminal; better aesthetics including artwork and more and improved lighting.
Arrivals Journey 93Â Â Travelers with disabilities â¢ Adequacy of staff training on needs of travelers with disabilities. â¢ Clarity of signage to baggage claim. â¢ Clarity of signage and information on where baggage will arrive. â¢ Particularly vocal about not being forced to sit in a wheelchair if they decline the assistance offered. â¢ Blind/low-vision travelers, in particular, expressed a desire to have attendants waiting when the aircraft doors open and for them to offer passengers a choice of whether they want to sit in the wheelchair or not. â¢ Staff and business partners offering services for passengers should all receive disability awareness training. Medium risk Emotional Risk Level Segment Drivers of emotional risk Military travelers â¢ Crowdedness of baggage claim. â¢ Clarity of â¢ Clarity of signage/information on when/where baggage will arrive. â¢ Ambiance. â¢ Speed of baggage delivery. â¢ Cleanliness of terminal. â¢ Noise level in the terminal. Non-native English speakers â¢ Options available to make international/local phone calls. â¢ Availability of charging stations. Business travelers Families with children Infrequent travelers Military travelers Non-native English speakers Travelers with disabilities Senior travelers Solo/couple travelers Student travelers High risk Specific traveler comments signage to baggage claim. â¢ Expressed concern about the cleanliness of baggage claim facilities and crowded and loud nature of the arrival hall. â¢ Lack of information on when and where baggage would arrive. â¢ Baggage claim carousels should be more easily identifiable through use of different colors rather than just a long list of numbers. â¢ More security monitoring. â¢ Advance notification from the airline of which carousel bags would arrive on. â¢ More personal touch and a better ambiance. â¢ General improvement needed in the arrivals experience. â¢ Place to charge phones near departure doors. â¢ Easily available subscriber identification module (SIM) cards for purchase since many do not have access to free local phone service upon arrival. â¢ Free telephone for international travelers to use on arrival to contact local family/friends. High risk II. Perspectives unique to individual traveler segments Senior travelers â¢ Wait time for wheelchairs. â¢ Clarity of signage to baggage claim. â¢ Clarity of signage and information on where baggage will arrive. â¢ Wait times for wheelchairs were often too long, and they lose precious time waiting. High risk
94 Evaluating the Travelerâs Perspective to Improve the Airport Customer Experience 4.7 Domestic Arrivals and Baggage Claimâ Actions for Airports Travelers can benefit from extra assistance and guidance upon arrival. Suggested improve- ments to the experience at domestic arrivals and baggage claim are provided below. While numerous factors impact on-time delivery of baggage, travelers have indicated they would like to have an estimate of the time when the first bags will start to arrive. Families expressed a desire for concierge personnel and carts to help passengers with luggage and to direct travelers to their destinations (hotel, car rental, parking lots, public transportation, TNCs, and so forth). 4.7.1 Improve Wayfinding and Signage To improve wayfinding and signage: â¢ Provide up-to-date information on baggage carousel locations by airline origin and directions via the airport website, airport app, and airline app and at the central entrance to baggage claim and on baggage carousels. Use the airport and airline apps to provide information on arriving airline and origin and location of baggage claim carousel, as well as directions and walk time to the baggage claim location. Also, provide a digital sign at the entry to the central area of baggage claim listing baggage carousel locations by airline and origin. This option gives the customer more time to digest the information. â¢ Use dynamic signage displaying information pertinent to the arriving flight. Use dynamic signage in a location central to baggage claim to list flight and baggage carousel location information with arrows indicating directions to baggage carousels. â¢ Liaise with the airline to provide in-flight announcements on connecting gate informa- tion and baggage claim. Research indicates that an effective method has been the announce- ments made by the airlines during the flight or taxiing to the terminal (upon landing) stating the baggage claim location for the flight and gate information for connecting flights. Airports should continue collaboration with the airlines to provide this information. â¢ Provide information on nearby hotel accommodations and available city offerings. Provide information on quiet rooms and sleeping pods at the airport, nearby hotel accommodations, Segment Drivers of emotional risk Specific traveler comments Solo/couple travelers â¢ Clarity of signage to baggage claim. â¢ Clarity of signage and information on where baggage will arrive. â¢ Speed of baggage delivery. â¢ Sense of place. â¢ Locating baggage is confusing at times. â¢ Not enough information was provided to find baggage claim. â¢ Desire for a more pleasant arrival environment. Student travelers â¢ Clarity of signage to baggage claim. â¢ Clarity of signage and information on where baggage will arrive. â¢ Availability of dining and food options. â¢ Speed of baggage delivery. â¢ Experienced challenges locating correct baggage claim, long wait times, and crowded spaces. â¢ Expressed irritation with baggage handlers removing bags from the carousels and piling them on the side before travelers have an opportunity to pull them off. â¢ Improvements in the baggage claim setup. â¢ More baggage claim food and beverage options are desired. â¢ More charging stations in baggage claim area. â¢ More food and sit-down restaurants available and food available late at night. High risk High risk
Arrivals Journey 95Â Â and available city offerings at information booths and at a central display within the baggage claim area. This information should be available as well as on the airport website and app (or links to information should be provided). 4.7.2 Improve Customer Assistance on Arrival To improve customer assistance on arrival: â¢ Train staff and volunteers to be more welcoming. Collaborate with airlines to provide training to staff on how to be more welcoming and proactively offer assistance to arriving passengers. â¢ Provide information on customer assistance available upon arrival at the airport. The airport website, airport app, and signage placed at strategic locations should note the contact information to request additional assistance upon arrival at the airport. â¢ Use scannable bar codes. Use scannable bar codes located throughout the terminal for people to access the customer experience center using their smartphones. â¢ Provide pre-paid meet and assist service. Offer a pre-paid meet and assist service on arrival that will meet passengers and assist them from the gate (or directly after security), including escorting passengers directly to their cars. 4.7.3 Improve Baggage Claim Process To improve the baggage claim process: â¢ Collaborate with airlines to enhance baggage delivery service. Statistics provided by SITA indicate that some 24.8Â million bags were mishandled in 2018 out of a total of 4.27Â billion bags checked in the same year. This is an improvement over 2007 levels of 46.9Â million. Despite the improvement, these figures indicate that further change is needed (SITA, 2019b). A number of technological baggage tracking and handling solutions are being implemented at airports worldwide, some examples of which are included in the following: â Copenhagen International Airport has developed an innovative, airport-funded, digital, baggage-tracking tool that is provided by the airport to ground handlers at no cost. The system scans each bag on arrival ensuring that passengers donât leave without their baggage if it is already at the airport. The baggage-tracking tool has resulted in a significant reduction in mishandled bags. This is an example of a collab- orative effort between an airport and airlines/ground handlers to create a shared platform that provides benefits to the airport and airline through improved passenger satis faction and lower courier costs. â Radio frequency identification (RFID) tags can be used for tracking bags. SITA and IATA are advocating for the adoption of RFID and similar tracking technologies. âThe industry is looking at RFID as a low-cost tracking solution,â the IATA head of global baggage opera- tions told Airport Industry Review earlier this year. âAirports seem to be ready to imple- ment RFID for baggage tracking, which will provide a rich data set for operational analysis and planningâ (Berti, 2019). â Delta Airlines is working with Roadie, which connects businesses and travelers, to add 22Â airports to its existing roster of more than 50 Roadie locations. The purpose of this alliance is to eliminate baggage delays for passengers whose baggage was not transported in the aircraft on which they boarded and therefore requires delivery to them at their location in the community. â Dallas/Fort Worth International Airportâs implementation of Vanderlandeâs autonomous vehicle solution, FLEET, is helping to deliver a seamless transfer for passengers. The robotic system can handle nearly 450 bags per hour and is being tested with transfer passengers who arrive on international flights and connect through Dallas/Fort Worth International 56% of travelers want to track their bag throughout their journey (IATA Global Passenger Survey, 2018).
96 Evaluating the Travelerâs Perspective to Improve the Airport Customer Experience Airport (King, 2019). Customers who participate in the pilot program use one of four self-service bag-drop units and identify the airline for their connecting flight using the touchscreen. Each FLEET vehicle transports an individual piece of luggage, transferring the passengerâs bag to the appropriate baggage carousel. â A number of airlines are using an application that enables airports and airlines to view the journey of each bag from entry point to delivery on the baggage claim. One such technol- ogy is âBaggage 360â from Siemens. â¢ Provide information on the expected wait time for baggage. Provide expected wait time until the arrival of the first bag on the airport website and app and at baggage claim, where possible. â¢ Use a baggage information display system (BIDS). A BIDS can be used to display baggage carousel information and airline information, including contact information for extra assis- tance and baggage information, and should be located both in a centralized location and at the baggage carousel. â¢ Improve ability to identify individual carousels. Consider the best way to identify baggage carousels for travelers, such as by varying the color of each baggage carousel in addition to using large identifying numbers. â¢ Provide information on how to request assistance. Provide visible public telephone access, attended information counter, or bar code scan in the baggage claim central area so that pas- sengers may request human assistance. â¢ Provide additional assistance on retrieval of bags when they are lost or delayed. Provide a visual map of the terminal, diagram, video, and signage listing all the airlinesâ baggage claim retrieval contact numbers along with an airport customer experience number (for a backup if airlines are not answering their phones) to retrieve information when bags are lost or delayed. 4.7.4 Improved Organization at Disembarkation Stanchions may be extended to provide more room for disembarking travelers. An airport can collaborate with airlines to ensure that departing passengers do not stand by and block the gate until a flight is ready to board. 4.7.5 Minimize Walking Distances Balance the use of moving walkways, trams, and autonomous vehicles and wheelchairs to ease long walking distances for passengers with the aim of making concessions easily acces- sible to passengers as they make their way to their gate. (Refer to SectionÂ 5.4.2 for further details.) 4.7.6 Enhance Airport Environs Factors Create more outdoor viewing such as large glass panes and viewing access with raised ceilings to provide a feeling of spaciousness. (SectionÂ 5.5 has further details.) 4.7.7 Provide Food Options in the Baggage Claim and Arrivals Area This may include a mobile unit, cart, or kiosk with limited food and beverage offerings as close to the baggage claim area as possible. 4.7.8 Provide Adequate Charging Stations at Baggage Claim Provide a centralized charging station between baggage claim carousels, separate collec- tive access charging points, and/or charging stations in seating areas at baggage claim so that passengers may charge devices while waiting for baggage.
Arrivals Journey 97Â Â 4.7.9 Provide Access to SIM Cards at Retail Outlets Provide access to SIM cards or pay-as-you-go phones at retail outlets to cater to international travelers who do not have access to domestic phone plans. 4.8 Departure from the AirportâTravelersâ Perspectives Departure from the airport includes the journey to ground transportation or parking, waiting for transportation, and exiting the airport complex. I. Perspective shared by the general traveler population Signage â¢ Better signage to ground transportation, to ride-sharing pick-up location, in the parking garage, and to exit the airport. â¢ Difficulty finding a parking spot when leaving. Traffic management â¢ Better vehicle- and foot-traffic management. â¢ More lanes for pick-up. â¢ Curbside pick-up is slow and adds ~30 minutes to departureâ the process should be improved. General â¢ Long walks to transportation. â¢ Waits between different areas (from baggage to shuttle buses) need to be more consistent. â¢ Difficulty with accessing the ride-sharing service and poor customer service or a lack of it. â¢ One centralized rental car facility. â¢ More and less-crowded shuttles. â¢ Better Wi-Fi service. â¢ Personnel to help direct traffic and people; more courteous and additional personnel to help guide traffic and assist travelers. II. Perspectives unique to individual traveler segments Emotional Risk Level Business travelers Families with children Infrequent travelers Military travelers Non-native English speakers Travelers with disabilities Senior travelers Solo/couple travelers Student travelers Segment Drivers of emotional risk Business travelers â¢ Ability of airport staff to manage traffic. â¢ Availability, reliability, and frequency of shuttle service. â¢ Effectiveness of wayfinding and signage. â¢ Organization and location of ride- share pick-up. â¢ Availability of public transportation options. â¢ Shelter provided while waiting. â¢ Frustration with inconveniently long distances and confusing signage to ride-share at many airports. â¢ Lack of public transportation, lack of shelter from rain and inclement weather when waiting. â¢ Inconsistent waits between different areas (from baggage claim to shuttle buses) resulted in a negative experience. â¢ Would like to exit the airport as quickly as possible. Families with children â¢ Ability of airport staff to manage traffic. â¢ Availability, reliability, and frequency of shuttle service. â¢ Organization and locations of pick- up areas. â¢ Easier access and space for family pick-up and better traffic enforcement. â¢ Dissatisfaction with congested, crowded, and disorganized pick-up areas, as well as long waits for shuttles to parking lots and garages. â¢ Uncertainty associated with traffic flow and pick-up locations made it more difficult for relatives and friends to pinpoint the best time to pick up travelers. â¢ Separate lanes for ride-sharing, taxis, and personal cars are recommended by this group. High risk High risk Specific traveler comments
98 Evaluating the Travelerâs Perspective to Improve the Airport Customer Experience Segment Drivers of emotional risk Travelers with disabilities â¢ Organization and locations of pick- up areas. â¢ Availability of public transportation options. â¢ Shelter available while waiting. â¢ Availability, reliability, and frequency of shuttle service. â¢ Friendliness and professionalism of staff and adequacy of staff training. â¢ Human assistance available nearby. â¢ Adequacy and effectiveness of wayfinding and signage. â¢ Expressed difficulty with finding and accessing areas for ride-shares, taxis, and shuttle buses. â¢ Long waits for shuttles. â¢ Difficulty finding transportation other than taxis. â¢ Poorly marked exits. â¢ Long distances to ride-share and taxi stands (particularly challenging in inclement weather). â¢ Confusing wayfinding. â¢ Often no staff member available to assist. â¢ Need for an information desk at baggage claim. â¢ Better trained staff. â¢ More human assistance close by and attendants to stay with traveler until transportation arrives. High risk â¢ Better signage and clear routing, better mapping including audio signals, and additional and more frequent shuttles. Senior travelers â¢ Availability, reliability, and frequency of shuttle service. â¢ Shuttle service available for short distances. â¢ Friendliness and professionalism of staff and adequacy of staff training. â¢ Organization and locations of pick- up areas. â¢ Availability of public transportation options. â¢ Availability of shelter while waiting. â¢ Availability of human assistance nearby and method to call for assistance if needed. â¢ Adequacy and effectiveness of wayfinding and signage. â¢ Expressed challenges with shuttle service. â¢ Parking lots overcrowded. â¢ Shuttle drivers unfriendly. â¢ Long distances to ride-share pick-up. â¢ Difficulty finding taxi stands and inability to find tickets for super shuttle. â¢ Poor public transportation options. â¢ Lack of shelter from inclement weather when waiting for transport and difficulty coordinating pick-up with ride-share service due to confusion on pick-up location. â¢ Clearer signage to access ground transportation. â¢ Golf cars or shuttles in the parking lot for seniors and travelers with disabilities. â¢ Facilitating improved public transportation. High risk Military travelers â¢ Effectiveness of wayfinding and signage. â¢ Ability of airport staff to manage traffic. â¢ Ability of airport to manage traffic and passenger flows during construction. â¢ Friendliness and professionalism of staff. â¢ Aesthetics of airport pick-up areas. â¢ Exits tend to be poorly marked. â¢ Commented that porters can often be too aggressive. â¢ Roads are too busy, and traffic moves too fast by the terminal. â¢ Improved traffic enforcement, staff directing travelers recommended, especially where terminals and parking garages look very similar. â¢ Improved aesthetics during construction is recommended. Medium risk Specific traveler comments Solo/couple travelers â¢ Availability of seating and charging ports at pick-up locations. â¢ Organization and locations of pick- up areas. â¢ Availability, reliability, and frequency of shuttle service. â¢ Adequacy and effectiveness of wayfinding and signage. â¢ More seating in ground transport pick-up locations. â¢ High levels of traffic, slow curbside pick-up, poor signage, and difficulty in finding ride- share pick-up resulted in negative experiences. â¢ Improve signs to and from parking lots and garages. Student travelers â¢ Adequacy and effectiveness of signage for airport departure. â¢ Ease of exiting the airport. â¢ Ease of ride-share pick-up. â¢ Availability, reliability, and frequency of shuttle service. â¢ Availability of charging ports at pick-up locations. â¢ Ease of navigating pick-up areas. â¢ Ability to access Wi-Fi. â¢ Signage to exit airport, to find a ride-share, trains, or parking is poor. â¢ Difficulty navigating through construction. â¢ Ride-share pick-up area too small. â¢ High traffic and congestion. â¢ Shuttles often have long waits and are overcrowded; more direct passage to parking lots. â¢ Lack of charging outlets. â¢ Pick-up area hard to navigate. â¢ Pressure to leave pick-up area quickly. â¢ Clearly label pick-up areas. â¢ Better Wi-Fi. High risk High risk
Arrivals Journey 99Â Â 4.9 Departure from the AirportâActions for Airports The customer experience at the airport departure point is often overlooked by airports. According to ACRP Report 146: Commercial Ground Transportation at Airports (LeighFisher Inc. etÂ al., 2015) and the research conducted for this study, passengers expect to have a short walk on the same level as ticket counters and baggage claim areas. Taking some of the following actions can provide a better impression of the airport. 4.9.1 Provide Adequate Signage for Locating Ground Transportation, TNCs, Parking Lots, and Exiting the Airport To effectively communicate how to depart the airport: â¢ Use floor signage and graphics. â¢ Use digital signage to communicate the available transportation options. â¢ Use the airport app or collaborate with app providers to help travelers find the best ground transportation options. Provide information on the airport website, airport app, and/or other apps used within the airport community that list ground transportation options and drop-off/pick-up points at the airport along with a map of locations (see FigureÂ 53). â¢ Have a ground transportation counter. Provide a ground transportation counter with a static map or centralized ground transportation signage to indicate exit points, rental car locations, taxi or limousine services, TNCs, public transportation, exit to parking garages, and so forth. â¢ Mark the curbside area with numbers and/or letters. Use numbers and/or letters to mark âdoorsâ at the curbside area to allow travelers and drivers to better identify their location. 4.9.2 Designate Parking Garages and Parking Levels with Numbered, Color-Coded, or Other Locally Recognized Signs Designate the various parking garages, levels within the garage, and so forth with numbering, color-coding, or other forms of identification, and provide reminders at strategic points to help reduce confusion for travelers returning from a trip. 4.9.3 Improve Traffic Management for Departures To improve traffic management for departures, provide the following: â¢ Trained traffic enforcement personnel. Personnel trained in traffic enforcement and cus- tomer service could improve traffic flow and enhance the customer experience. TransitScreen's CityMotion provides instructions on finding transportation options with real-time updates. The app also offers specific directions to the transportation option at some airports. (Image source: Planet Izen) Gatwick Airport is currently working with a ride-share company to integrate indoor navigation into its app, so passengers can easily find their pick-up point. (Image source: SITA) Figure 53. Examples of enhancing navigation to and from ground transportation.
100 Evaluating the Travelerâs Perspective to Improve the Airport Customer Experience â¢ Designated waiting area for vehicles. Provide adequate and clear signage for waiting areas to prevent vehicles from waiting curbside. â¢ Separate commercial vehicles from private vehicles wherever possible. Assigning different lanes to commercial and private vehicles may help ease congestion at the curbside. â¢ Advance information on pick-up points. Providing advance information on the best pick- up points (based on arrival gate) through signage, the airport website, the airport app, and/or other third-party apps can help travelers better prepare for their journey. â¢ Clearly identified departure exit doors, each marked with a large number or letter. The use of blade signage on columns or posts in the curbside area can help with identifying pick-up locations. 4.9.4 Enhance the Ground Transportation Waiting Experience To enhance the ground transportation waiting experience: â¢ Provide wait time information. Provide adequate service to remote ground transportation areas and parking lots, with wait times until shuttle arrival dis- played at all pick-up locations. â¢ Improve wait times at curbside areas. Improve wait time at curbside areas through better traffic enforcement and information sharing on the trans- portation options available. In addition, collaborate with transportation providers to ensure on-time arrivals and departures, and, to the extent pos- sible, to ensure that modes of transportation are available within a short period of time. â¢ Enhance taxi line pick-up. Provide a taxi system that restricts the number of curbside taxis to match passenger demand. Changi Airport has rows of perpendicular waiting spots where taxis pull in. Passengers then load their bags in their own time, without holding up other passengers. Provide remote taxi lots where taxis can wait until the taxi line needs to be filled (based on demand and monitored by the airport and/or third-party operators). Provide police and/or staff or trained volunteers to assist in managing traffic flow and appropriate use of pick-up zoning. â¢ Enhance lighting and ambiance. Provide adequate and ambient lighting to reduce the per- ception of long wait times. â¢ Locate boarding and alighting areas conveniently. â¢ Provide adequate shelter and seating for waiting passengers. Provide adequate shelters, preferably temperature controlled, with seating and a view of the embarkation at waiting areas to alleviate some of the stress of waiting. â¢ Provide Wi-Fi service in transportation waiting areas. Provide adequate Wi-Fi service at the departure from the airport journey point, particularly for international travelers who may not have access to a domestic cell phone line. 4.9.5 Provide a Consolidated Rental Car Facility Centralize the rental car pick-up and drop-off location, when possible, such as a consoli- dated rental car facility in close proximity to the terminal or accessible through train, shuttle, or walking. 4.9.6 Improve Shuttle Service Enhance the reliability of shuttle service and optimize frequency based on demand and traffic.
Arrivals Journey 101Â Â 4.9.7 Provide Information on the Range of Ground Transportation Options Airports should provide information on a variety of ground transportation options through the airport website, airport app, and signage at designated exit points and pick-up zones. Addi- tionally, passengers expect up-to-date information on fares, schedules, and destinations serviced (LeighFisher Inc. etÂ al., 2015). Information on taxi fares, pick-up times for rental car and hotel courtesy shuttles, parking lot shuttles, and fares and destinations serviced by scheduled services should be readily available on the airport website, airport app, informational signage, ground transportation counters (if provided), and information counters. 4.9.8 Collaborate with Ground Transportation Providers The airport should communicate its expectations to all ground transportation providers through scheduled meetings with managers of the various types of ground transportation pro- viders, including the airportâs own shuttle systems. When meeting with ground transportation providers, the airport must address the following: â¢ Reasonable and accurate fares for designated zones of the community. Signage on the indi- vidual vehicle taxis, for example, should display a phone number to call if passengers have an issue such as an unreasonable or unexpected addition to expected charges. â¢ Courteous and professional drivers. The authorized ground transportation company should provide courteous and professional drivers. Customer feedback on the ground transporta- tion service along with actions taken to remedy any issues should be shared with the airport. â¢ Clean and odor-free vehicles. â¢ Most direct routing. Transportation to a destination should be via the most direct route (LeighFisher Inc. etÂ al., 2015). 4.9.9 Explore Future Technologies In the future, autonomous vehicles and/or pods may be used to transfer passengers to and from the airport. Aptiv, a technology company, is currently trialing self-driving vehicles at McCarran International Airport. Some industry leaders suggest that in the future, autonomous vehicles and/or robotaxis could pick up travelers (especially those without checked luggage) directly from the aircraft and transfer them straight to a location outside the terminal, eliminating the need to go through the terminal. Travelers would then pick up their desired mode of transportation from the drop-off point out- side the terminal.