National Academies Press: OpenBook
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Racial Equity Addendum to Critical Issues in Transportation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26264.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Racial Equity Addendum to Critical Issues in Transportation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26264.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Racial Equity Addendum to Critical Issues in Transportation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26264.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Racial Equity Addendum to Critical Issues in Transportation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26264.
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Transportation Research Board Executive Committee July 2021 RACIAL EQUITY ADDENDUM TO CRITICAL ISSUES IN TRANSPORTATION

ii PREFACE The start of the decade of the 2020s has been marked by widespread suffering, disruption, and social unrest from the COVID-19 pandemic and the country’s overdue reckoning with past and ongoing racial inequities. While transcending transportation, both crises have prompted reflection about how transportation, a critical aspect of society and economy, can be a more positive force in preventing and ameliorating future public health crises and in removing and righting persistent racial inequalities and injustices. In this addendum to Critical Issues in Transportation 2019, the Transportation Research Board (TRB) probes transportation’s role in contributing to and redressing racial discrimination and identifies areas of research to inform equity-enhancing public policies. The insights offered and questions posed draw on the work and ideas of many researchers and practitioners. A number of individuals who were consulted during the development of this addendum are acknowledged below. An earlier addendum to Critical Issues in Transportation 2019 was issued in January 2021 and addressed the short-term and potential long-term effects of the pandemic on transportation. Like that addendum, this one was developed under the auspices of the TRB Executive Committee and its Subcommittee on Planning and Policy Review, which approved the content on behalf of the Executive Committee. The addendum was peer reviewed according to the policies and procedures of the National Academies. Dr. Susan Shaheen, Chair, TRB Executive Committee, University of California, Berkeley Dr. Katherine Turnbull, Chair, Subcommittee on Planning and Policy Review, TRB Executive Committee, Texas A&M University

iii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Many of the ideas developed in this addendum derive from consultations with researchers and practitioners during a brainstorming session hosted by the Transportation Research Board (TRB) in late 2020. The TRB Executive Committee wishes to thank the following nine researchers and practitioners for participating in this session: • Evelyn Blumenberg, University of California, Los Angeles • Jennifer Dill, Portland State University • Nuria Fernandez, Valley Transportation Authority • Gloria Jeff, Minnesota Department of Transportation • Ashby Johnson, Capital Area Metropolitan Planning Organization • Carol Abel Lewis, Texas Southern University • Jack Marchbanks, Ohio Department of Transportation • Susan Shaheen, University of California, Berkeley • Vincent Valdes, Southwestern Pennsylvania Commission The National Academies thanks the following individuals for their review of this publication: • Celeste Chavis, Morgan State University • Jennifer Dill, Portland State University • David King, Arizona State University • Alfonso Rodriguez Lainz, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention • Carol Abel Lewis, Texas Southern University • Deb Niemeier, University of Maryland, College Park Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions and recommendations, nor did they see the final version of the publication before its release. The review of the publication was overseen by Robert F. Sproull (National Academy of Engineering), University of Massachusetts Amherst, and Sue McNeil, University of Delaware, Newark. They were responsible for making certain that an independent review of the publication was conducted in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of the publication rests solely with the TRB Executive Committee and the institution. Katherine Kortum assisted the TRB Executive Committee in the drafting of this addendum and Karen Febey managed the peer-review process.

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Racism has been overt in transportation. For example, the segregation of races on intercity trains led to the infamous 1896 Plessy v. Ferguson “separate but equal” Supreme Court doctrine that stood for more than half a century. While many discriminatory policies have been reversed by the courts and in constitutional amendments, their impacts on society have not been fully remedied and persist.

TRB’s Racial Equity Addendum to Critical Issues in Transportation is intended to be a step in the process of identifying and building a research agenda for transportation that will help to more fully identify and address inequities and injustices caused and contributed to by transportation. While some equity-related issues were identified in Critical Issues in Transportation 2019, the topic was not discussed in depth. In response to the candid and critical national dialogue on racial equity in 2020 and 2021, this addendum tackles racial equity exclusively and with additional consciousness about its transportation dimensions

The report covers research topics ranging from access to automobiles and public transit; institutional issues in decision making, planning, and public participation; land use and affordable housing; displacement and redlining; Native American transportation issues; and more.

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