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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Safety Performance of Part-Time Shoulder Use on Freeways, Volume 2: Conduct of Research Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26393.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Safety Performance of Part-Time Shoulder Use on Freeways, Volume 2: Conduct of Research Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26393.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Safety Performance of Part-Time Shoulder Use on Freeways, Volume 2: Conduct of Research Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26393.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Safety Performance of Part-Time Shoulder Use on Freeways, Volume 2: Conduct of Research Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26393.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Safety Performance of Part-Time Shoulder Use on Freeways, Volume 2: Conduct of Research Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26393.
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224 Jenior, P., R. Dowling, B. Nevers, and L. Neudorff. 2016. Use of Freeway Shoulders for Travel – Guide for Planning, Evaluating, and Designing Part-Time Shoulder Use as a Traffic Management Strategy. Report No. FHWA-HOP-15- 023. Federal Highway Administration, Washington, D.C. Jenior, P., B. Schroeder, R. Dowling, J. Geistefeldt, and D. Hale. 2019. Decision Support Framework and Parameters for Dynamic Part-Time Shoulder Use: Considerations for Opening Freeway Shoulders for Travel as a Traffic Management Strategy. Report No. FHWA-HOP-19-029. Federal Highway Administration, Washington D.C. Jones, J., M. Knopp, K. Fitzpatrick, M. Doctor, C. Howard, G. Laragan, J. Rosenow, B. Struve, B. Thrasher, and E. Young. 2011. Freeway Geometric Design for Active Traffic Management in Europe. Report No. FHWA-PL-11-004. Federal Highway Administration, Washington, D.C. Kononov, J., B. A. Bailey, and B. K. Allery. 2008. Relationships Between Safety and Both Congestion and Number of Lanes on Urban Freeways. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2083, pp. 26–39. Kononov, J., S. Hersey, D. Reeves, and B. K. Allery. 2012. Relationship Between Freeway Flow Parameters and Safety and Its Implications for Hard Shoulder Running. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2280, pp. 10–17. Kuhn, B. 2010. Efficient Use of Highway Capacity Summary. Report No. FHWA-HOP-10-023. Federal Highway Administration, Washington, D.C. Kuhn, B., K. Fitzpatrick, M. Brewer, G. Goodin, and M. Finley. 2013. Design and Operations Elements of Dynamic Shoulder Use. Report No. FHWA-HOP-13-022. Federal Highway Administration, Washington, D.C. Kvalseth, T.O. 1985. “Cautionary Note About R2.” The American Statistician. Vol. 39, No. 4, (Part 1), American Statistical Association, November, pp. 279–285. Lee, J. T., R. Dittberner, and H. Sripathi. 2007. Safety Impacts of Freeway Managed-Lane Strategy: Inside Lane for High- Occupancy Vehicle Use and Right Shoulder Lane as Travel Lane during Peak Periods. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2012. pp. 113–120. Lehmann, E. 1990. “Model Specification: the Views of Fisher and Neyman, and Later Developments.” Statistical Science, Vol. 5(2), pp. 160–168. Lord, D., S. Washington, and J. Ivan. 2007. “Further Notes on the Application of Zero-Inflated Models in Highway Safety.” Accident Analysis and Prevention. Vol. 39, pp. 53–57. Lord, D., and P. Park. 2008. “Investigating the Effects of the Fixed and Varying Dispersion Parameters of Poisson-Gamma Models on Empirical Bayes Estimates.” Accident Analysis and Prevention. Vol. 40, pp. 1,441–1,457. Lindsay, B. G. and K. Roeder. 1992. “Residual Diagnostics in the Mixture Model.” Journal of the American Statistical Association, Vol. 73, pp. 805–811. Liu, C., M. Zhao, W. Li, and A. Sharma. 2018. “Multivariate Random Parameters Zero-Inflated Negative Binomial Regression for Analyzing Urban Midblock Crashes.” Analytic Methods in Accident Research. Vol. 17, pp. 32–46. Martin, P., and H. S. Levinson. 2012. TCRP Report 151: A Guide for Implementing Bus on Shoulder (BOS) Systems. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C. Margiotta, R., M. Xyntarakis, A. Skabardonis, W. Huang, and M. McGurrin. 2014. Development of Modeling Capabilities for Shoulders Using Part-Time Travel Lanes. Report No. FHWA-HOP-14-017. Federal Highway Administration, Washington, D.C. Mannering, F., and C. Bhat. 2014. “Analytic Methods in Accident Research: Methodological Frontier and Future Directions.” Accident Methods in Accident Research. Vol. 1, pp. 1–22 Mannering, F., V. Shankar, and C. Bhat. 2016. “Unobserved Heterogeneity and the Statistical Analysis of Highway Accident Data.” Analytic Methods in Accident Research. Vol. 11, pp. 1–16. McFadden, D. 1974. “Conditional logit analysis of qualitative choice behavior.” Frontiers in Econometrics. P. Zarembka (ed.), Academic Press, pp. 105–142.

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Safety Performance of Part-Time Shoulder Use on Freeways, Volume 2: Conduct of Research Report Get This Book
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Part-time shoulder use is a congestion relief strategy that allows use of the left or right shoulders as travel lanes during some, but not all, hours of the day.

The TRB National Cooperative Highway Research Program's NCHRP Web-Only Document 309: Safety Performance of Part-Time Shoulder Use on Freeways, Volume 2: Conduct of Research Report describes the development of crash prediction models for freeways with PTSU operation.

Supplemental to the document is a Freeway Analysis Tool, which includes BOS data, S D PTSU Data, and a Prediction Tool, as well as NCHRP Web-Only Document 309: Safety Performance of Part-Time Shoulder Use on Freeways, Volume 1: Informational Guide and Safety Evaluation Guidelines.

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