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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

Index

A

Absorbents, 88, 92, 100, 133, 149

Absorption in body, 37, 38-39, 135

Academics, see Teaching laboratories

Access control, 91, 93

Accidents, see Emergency preparation and response;

Hazard evaluation;

Injuries;

Litigation and lawsuits;

Risk assessment. Note: Information about specific chemicals (indicated by boldface) is included in the Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries.

Acetaldehyde, 238-239

Acetic acid, 50, 100, 102, 240-241

Acetic acid ethyl ester, see Ethyl acetate

Acetic aldehyde, see Acetaldehyde

Acetone (propane), 37, 38, 102, 129, 242-243

flammability, 46, 48, 50, 96, 112

spills, 32, 48

Acetonitrile, 50, 155, 244-245

Acetoxyethane, see Ethyl acetate

Acetylene,40, 95, 96, 102, 125, 128, 246-247

Acetyl hydroperoxide, see Peracetic acid

Acetylides, 54, 96, 102

ACGIH, see American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists

Acid inhibitors, 51

Acids

explosive hazards, 54, 96

incompatibilities, 54

injuries, 38, 38-40

neutralization, 160-161

spills, 88

see also under names of specific substances

ACN, see Acrylonitrile

Acquisition of chemicals, 4, 24, 25, 67-69, 228

minimization, 4, 64-65, 153

Acrolein,54, 248-249

Acrylaldehyde, see Acrolein

Acrylamide, 250-251

Acrylic aldehyde, see Acrolein

Acrylonitrile, 252-253

Activated carbon, 56, 155, 188

Acute toxicity, 41-43

exposure factors, 36

information sources, 34, 41

in Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries, 41, 42, 236

lethal doses, 36, 41, 42, 43, 47

in Material Safety Data Sheets, 32, 41

of new and unknown compounds, 3

"particularly hazardous substances,"; 41-42, 203, 204

systemic effects, 39

Acyl halides, 161-162

Acylating agents, 45

Administration and supervision, 2, 15-16, 18, 23-24, 64, 176, 226-227

risk assessment, 31, 42

Adverse reactions, 211-212

Aerosols, 91, 92, 94, 194

inhalation of, 38, 83

Aerothene MM, see Dichloromethane

Air, liquefied, 51, 101

Air baths, 114, 117-118

Airborne concentrations, 37-38

explosive limits, 48-49, 50

lethal (LC) values, 36

monitoring, 42-43, 92, 228

threshold limits, 42-43

ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) principle, 61

Alarms, 26, 81, 86, 89, 91, 122, 133, 134, 229

Alcohols, 56, 66, 97, 103,

see also Ethanol;

Isopropyl alcohol;

Methanol

Aldehydes, 55, 162

Aliphatic hydrocarbons,100, 326-327

Alkali metals, 50, 51, 54, 55, 95, 97, 104, 144, 165,

see also Potassium hydroxide;

Sodium hydroxide

Alkalis and bases

explosive hazards, 54, 96

incompatibilities, 51, 54

injuries, 38, 39, 40

neutralization, 160-161

spills, 88

Alkenes, 101

Alkyaluminum compounds, see Organoaluminum compounds

Alkyl lithiums,

see also Butyllithiums

Alkylating agents, 44, 45

Allergens and allergic reactions, 40, 41, 43, 230

skin contact, 38, 40

Allylic halides, 40

Alumina, 162, 163, 188

Aluminum chloride, see Aluminum trichloride

Aluminum trichloride,102, 254-255

American Chemical Society, 4, 35, 64, 202

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) exposure limits, 32, 34, 42, 203

American National Standards

Institute (ANSI), 82, 119, 132

and Material Safety Data Sheets, 31-32

American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), 180, 181, 212

Aminobenzene, see Aniline

Ammonia, 37, 39, 40, 96, 102, 125, 256-257,

see also Ammonium hydroxide

Ammonium hydroxide, 258-259

Ammonium nitrate, 50

Anaphylactic shock, 40

Anhydrides, 161-162

Aniline, 260-261

Animal testing and results

NOTE: Page numbers in boldface under chemical names indicate a Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary for that chemical. These summaries contain information regarding a substance's chemistry, toxicity, and handling in a laboratory setting.

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

acute toxicity, 36, 41, 42

carcinogenicity, 43, 44

Animal waste, 7, 60, 151, 152, 156, 158, 159, 232

Annual Report on Carcinogens,43, 44, 203

Anosmia, 42

ANSI, see American National Standards Institute

Aprons, 26, 132, 133

Aqua ammonia, see Ammonium hydroxide

Aqueous solutions, 85, 148, 152, 155

Argentum, see Silver and silver compounds

Argon, 40, 98, 128

Armored hoods, 99

Aromatic amines, 45, 162

Aromatic hydrocarbons, 41, 45

Arsenic hydride, see Arsine

Arsenic trihydride, see Arsine

Arsine, 262-263

Asbestos, 37

Ascarite, 102

ASHRAE, see American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air Conditioning Engineers.

See also ASHRAE/ANSI standards.

ASHRAE/ANSI standards, 180, 181, 212

Asphyxiants and asphyxiation, 40, 57, 104, 128, 129, 194

Aspirators, 57, 112, 130

Atomic Energy Act, 152, 201

Audits, see Inspections and audits

Autoclaves and autoclaving, 101, 125, 127, 151, 158

multihazardous waste, 6, 7, 151, 156, 157, 159

Autoignition temperature, 48. Note: Information about specific chemicals (indicated by boldface) is included in the Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries.

Autooxidation, 54, 55

Azabenzene, see Pyridine

Azides, 54, 58, 96, 102, 165

Azimethylene, see Diazomethane

Azine, see Pyridine

B

Back injuries, 57, 60, 121

Bar code labeling, 5, 10, 70

Barriers and barricades, 91, 92, 98, 99, 111

Bases, see Alkalis and bases

Benzene, 37, 41, 46, 67, 264-265

Benzol, see Benzene

Benzylic halides, 40

Biodegradation, 160

Biohazards, 6, 7, 23, 60, 67, 93-94, 151

Biological safety cabinets (BSCs), 194

Biological waste

disposal, 6, 7, 94, 151

disposal regulations, 6, 7, 151

see also Multihazardous waste

Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories, 60, 93-94, 194

Biosafety in the Laboratory: Prudent Practices for the Handling and Disposal of Infectious Materials, 94, 194

Birth defects, see Developmental toxicity

Bis(chloromethyl)ether, 36, 284

Blankets, 89, 137

Boiling eruptions, 56, 97-98, 117

Boiling points, 32, 48, 128

Borane, see Diborane

Boroethane, see Diborane

Boron fluoride, see Boron trifluoride

Boron halides, 105

Boron hydride, see Diborane

Boron trifluoride, 266-267

Bourdon tubes, 125

Brain, 40, 104

Bretherick's Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards, 34, 46

Bromine,39, 268-269

Bromine cyanide, see Cyanogen bromide

Bromocyanogen, see Cyanogen bromide

Building codes, 72, 212

Bulk quantities, 4, 64, 67, 100, 101

Bunsen burners, 51, 95

Burns, 38, 39, 40, 84, 87, 89, 129

Butanone, see Methyl ethyl ketone tert-Butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP), 270-271

Butyllithiums, 272-273

C

Cadmium, 77

Calcium hydride, 164

Calcium hypochlorate, 161

Calcium oxide, 40

Calorimetry, 97

Cancer, 39, 40, 61,

see also Carcinogens

Canopy hoods, 190-191

Capacitors, 59, 109, 112

Carbolic acid, see Phenol

Carbon bisulfide, see Carbon disulfide

Carbon dioxide, 40, 67, 134

Carbon disulfide (CS2),37, 48, 95, 102, 274-275

Carbon monoxide (CO),37, 40, 41, 58, 96, 124, 276-277

Carbon oxychloride, see Phosgene

Carbon tetrachloride,103, 278-279

Carbonyl chloride, see Phosgene

Carcinogens, 33, 40, 45, 61

exposure factors, 36, 37

in Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries, 43

in Material Safety Data Sheets, 32

"select", 41, 43-44, 203-204, 221

Card files, 69

Carts, 60, 68, 84, 122

CAS, see Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Numbers

Casarett and Doull's Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons,34

Catalog of Teratogenic Agents,34, 46

Catalysts, 54, 56, 57, 96, 101-102, 103, 165

Cathodes, 58

Caustic potash, see Potassium hydroxide

Caustics, see Corrosives and corrosivity

Caustic soda, see Sodium hydroxide

CD-ROM disks, 31, 35

Celite, 66

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 60, 156

Central nervous system, see Neurotoxicity

Centrifuges, 119, 127

Chemical Abstracts (CA) database, 35

Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS)

Registry Numbers, 35, 69, 71

Chemical hygiene officers, 31, 43, 219, 226

Chemical Hygiene Plans (CHPs), 8, 19, 31, 55, 57, 87, 202-203, 204 , 219, 222-223, 225-226, 227-230

Chemical Information Systems (CIS), 35

Chemical properties

information sources, 33, 34

in Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries, 33

in Material Safety Data Sheets, 31, 32

Chemical Safety Data Sheets,33-34

"Chemophobia," 2, 17

Chlorinated hydrocarbons, 41, 102

Chlorine,39, 54, 96, 102, 280-281

Chlorine trifluoride, 105

Chloroform,103, 282-283

Chloroformyl chloride, see Phosgene

Chloromethyl methyl ether,43-44, 284-285

Chlorotrimethylstannane, see Trimethyltin chloride

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

Chromates, 54, 55, 97

Chromatography, 67, 155

Chromium(VI) compounds, 66, 77, 286-287

Chromium trioxide (chromic acid), 66, 102, 286-287

Chronic toxicity, 36, 37, 230-232

in Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries, 236

in Material Safety Data Sheets, 32

of new and unknown compounds, 3

systemic effects, 39

see also Carcinogens

Circuit breakers and fuses, 59, 88, 110, 112

Clean Air Act, 9, 148, 201, 209-210

Cleaning, see Housekeeping and cleaning

Clean rooms, 193, 194

Clean Water Act, 148

Clinical laboratories, 6, 60, 151

Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products,34

Clothing and protective apparel, 43, 83-84, 87-88, 88, 89, 92, 93, 94, 98, 131-132, 228, 230

CMME, see Chloromethyl methyl ether

Cobalt salts, 102

Cold rooms, 59, 82, 111, 194

Cold traps, 58, 103, 112, 113, 128, 129

Color coding, 10, 121-122

Combustion, see Explosibility; Flammability; Ignition sources

Commingling of waste, 6, 145, 147, 150

Comprehensive Guide to the Hazardous Properties of Chemical Substances, 34, 41

Compressed Gas Association (CGA) standards, 122, 123, 126

Compressed gases, 57, 104-105, 109, 121-126, 144, 219-220

flammability, 51, 104, 105, 123-124

Computer simulation, 2, 4, 18

Computer systems and services

hazard information, 34-35

inventory and tracking, 68, 69-70

Material Safety Data Sheets, 31, 34-35

Condensation, 57, 70, 99, 111, 128, 129

Congenital effects, see Developmental toxicity

Connectors, 85, 109

Contact lenses, 82, 94, 132, 230

Containers and packages, 38, 39, 60, 73-74, 76, 93, 113

bulk and economy sizes, 4, 64, 67

flammable substances, 50, 74, 75, 85

and microwaves, 59, 118

smaller sizes, 4, 64-65, 67, 121, 146

transfers among, 38, 64, 66, 71, 96, 128

transport, 68, 69, 84, 92, 121, 128

waste, 74, 75, 84, 85, 145, 148, 157, 207-208

see also Gas cylinders;

Glass and glassware;

Labels and labeling

Contingency plans, 10, 23, 23-24, 25-26, 47, 81, 93, 146

Cooling baths, 59, 109, 128, 129

Copper, 66, 99, 124, 125

Corrosives and corrosivity, 35, 39-40, 41, 43

eye contact, 39, 40, 43

ingestion, 38, 39

inhalation, 39

skin contact, 38, 39, 40, 43

of wastes, 144

Cryogenic liquids, 57, 58, 60, 74, 97, 101, 120, 128-129, 130

Culture of safety, 1-2, 14-20, 24-25

Custodial and maintenance staff, 6, 8, 39, 177, 204

Cuts, 60

Cutting and drilling tools, 109, 120

Cyanides, 40, 41

incompatibilities, 51, 54

in wastes, 142-143, 144, 164-165

see also under names of specific compounds

Cyanobromide, see Cyanogen bromide

Cyanoethylene, see Acrylonitrile

Cyanogen bromide, 288-289

Cyanomethane, see Acetonitrile

Cylinders, see Gas cylinders

D

Deactivation, see Waste treatment methods

''Decay-in-storage" procedures, 7, 10, 151, 152, 154, 159

Decommissioning, 70

Decomposition, 97, 100

Dehydrating and drying agents, 40, 51, 102

Delivery, see Receiving rooms and loading areas;

Shipment and transport

Department of Transportation (DOT), 68, 121, 146, 209

Designated areas, 91, 93, 101, 220

Dessicators, 85, 131

Detergents, 66

Developmental toxicity, 45-46, 230-231

information sources, 34, 46

Dewar flasks, 57, 85, 99, 128, 130-131

Diacyl peroxides, 163

Diakyl peroxides, 163

Diamide, see Hydrazine

Diazirine, see Diazomethane

Diazomethane,40, 54, 102, 290-291

Diborane, 292-293

Dibromochloropropane, 40

1, 2-Dibromoethane, see Ethylene dibromide

Dichloromethane (methylene chloride),37, 294-295

Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, 40

Diethyl ether,46, 48, 50, 58, 67, 88, 95, 102, 296-297

1, 4-Diethylene dioxide, see Dioxane

Diethylene ether, see Dioxane

Diethylnitrosamine, 298-299

Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), 97

Differential thermal analysis (DTA), 97

Digestive tract, see Ingestion

2, 4-Diisocyanato-1-methyl benzene, see Toluene diisocyanate

Dilution, 95-96, 100-101

Dimethoxyethane, 88

Dimethyl sulfate, 300-301

Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO),38, 50, 102, 302-303

Dimethylene oxide, see Ethylene oxide

1, 1-Dimethylethyllithium, see Butyllithiums

Dimethylformamide (DMF), 304-305

Dimethylhydrazines, see Hydrazines

Dioxane,102, 306-307

Diphosgene (trichloromethyl) chloroformate, 66

"Dirty Dozen", 57, 58

Disinfection, 6, 7, 60, 151, 156-157

Disposal, see Waste disposal. Note: Information about specific chemicals (indicated by boldface) is included in the Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries.

Distillation, 55, 65, 101, 112

DMF, see Dimethylformamide

DMSO, see Dimethyl sulfoxide

Documentation and record-keeping, 22, 23, 24, 91, 176, 224, 228

adverse reactions, 211-212

emergency response, 23, 24, 176, 228

waste disposal, 6, 141, 146

Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices,34

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

Donations and gifts of chemicals, 4, 64

Dose-response relationship, 35, 36, 44

DOT, see Department of Transportation

Drains, 175,

see also Sewer disposal

Dromilac, see Ethidium bromide

Dry benzoyl peroxide, 102

Dry boxes, 67, 98

Dry ice, 60, 99, 102, 121, 128, 129

Dusts, 37, 38, 39, 82, 91, 92, 136

explosibility, 50, 56, 97, 102-103

E

Earthquakes, see Seismic activity

Eating and drinking, 82, 94, 230

EDB, see Ethylene dibromide

Education and training in safety

practices, 2, 11, 14, 17, 90, 223, 229

emergencies and spills, 23, 87, 89, 92, 93, 149, 210, 229

safety personnel role, 16

shipment and transport, 68-69

student manuals, 3

teaching laboratories, 2, 16-18

waste disposal, 2, 146, 151

Electrical equipment, 5, 59, 109-112, 118-121

codes, 109, 112

as ignition sources, 50, 59, 95, 109, 111, 114-115, 116, 176

insulation, 59, 110-111

wiring and cables, 110-111, 114-115, 119, 175

see also Heaters and heating equipment;

Refrigerators and refrigeration;

Vacuum systems and operations

Electrical fires, 59, 134

Electrical power interruption, 59, 81, 86

Electrochemical equipment, 109

Electrocution and electric shock, 59, 109, 110, 111, 113, 114, 115

Electromagnetic radiation, 58-60, 109, 119-120,

see also Radiation and radioactive materials

Electron beams (E-beams), 119-120

Electronic systems, see Computer systems and services

Elephant trunks, 26, 190

Elevators, 68, 84

Embryos, see Developmental toxicity

Emergency preparation and response, 4, 25-26, 73, 81, 86-90, 92-93, 137, 210, 229

chemical inventories, 9, 10, 24, 69, 70, 72, 93

contingency plans, 10, 23, 23-24, 25-26, 47, 81, 93, 146

drills, 93

equipment, 5, 81, 86, 87, 92-93, 133-137

facilities, 26, 84

information sources, 33, 34

in Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries, 4, 33

in Material Safety Data Sheets, 31, 32

waste facilities, 146

see also Fire fighting and fire safety;

First aid procedures

Environmental health and safety programs, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 11, 16, 18, 20, 31, 177

emergency response and planning, 23-24

Environmental laboratories, 6, 151

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

institutional identification numbers, 10

waste disposal regulations, 6, 7, 9, 10, 143-145, 151, 152, 153, 159-160

Environmental rooms, 70, 194

1, 2-Epoxyethane, see Ethylene oxide

Equipment, 5, 109

cutting and drilling, 109, 120

low temperature, 129-130

pressure extremes, 124-128, 175-176

repair and maintenance, 26, 85, 109, 111, 112, 125, 175-176

rotating, 109, 120, 176

stirring and mixing, 50, 59, 95, 99, 109, 110, 111, 114

see also Electrical equipment;

Vacuum systems and operations

Ergonomics, 109, 121

Esophagus, 38, 39

Ethanal, see Acetaldehyde

Ethane, 40

Ethanoic acid, see Acetic acid

Ethanol,156, 308-309

Ethers, 55, 58, 101, 102,

see also Diethyl ether

Ethidium bromide, 310-311

Ethyl acetate, 312-313

Ethyl alcohol, see Ethanol

Ethyl ethanoate, see Ethyl acetate

Ethyl ether, see Diethyl ether

N-Ethyl-N-nitrosoethanamine, see Diethylnitrosamine

Ethylene bromide, see Ethylene dibromide

Ethylene dibromide (EDB),40, 314-315

Ethylene oxide,103, 316-317

Ethyne, see Acetylene

Evacuated systems, 57, 85, 130

Evacuation, 24, 87, 89, 97

Excess material, see Unused and excess material

Exhaust systems, 26, 113, 118, 190-191, 192-193, 227

Exits, 72, 84, 86, 91, 176, 228

Experiment planning, 2-3, 22-23, 23-24, 25, 64, 81, 90-91, 230

information sources, 3, 4, 23, 25, 31

regulations, 23, 25, 26-27

steps in, 24-27, 47

see also Risk assessment

Experimental materials, 71-72, 211

Expiration, see Shelf life and expiration dates

Explosibility, 41, 46, 54-57, 58, 93, 96-104

airborne concentrations, 48-49, 50

information sources, 34, 98

in Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries, 4, 33, 236

in Material Safety Data Sheets, 32

protective shields and devices, 76, 82, 92, 96, 97, 98, 101, 124, 125, 127, 128, 130, 133-134 Note: Information about specific chemicals (indicated by boldface) is included in the Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries.

Exposure duration and frequency, 35, 36-37

Exposure limits, 41-42, 47, 91

ACGIH, 32, 34, 42, 203

in Material Safety Data Sheets, 32

OSHA, 8, 32, 42, 91, 199, 203

see also Lethal dose and lethal concentration values

Exposure minimization, 3, 22, 47, 64, 81, 82-84, 226, 229-230

biohazards, 93-94

highly toxic substances, 90-93, 231-232

radioactive materials, 94-95

Exposure routes, 35, 37-39

in Material Safety Data Sheets, 32

in risk assessment, 42, 47

see also Eye contact and effects;

Ingestion;

Inhalation;

Injection;

Skin contact and effects

Exposure signs and symptoms, 32, 33, 34, 42

neurotoxicity, 40-41

Express delivery of chemicals, 67, 68

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

Extension cords, 110

Eye contact and effects, 38, 39, 128

lasers, 58, 59

protection against, 26, 43, 81, 92, 94, 98, 119, 128, 132, 230

Eyewashes and eyewash fountains, 88, 92, 136, 137, 228

F

Face shields, 26, 43, 82, 92, 98, 119, 128, 132, 149

Fail-safe devices, 115

Falls, 60, 109, 120-121

Fat-soluble substances, 37, 38, 39

Federal Water Pollution Control Act, 201, 207

Ferrous sulfate, 101, 163

Fertility, 40

Fetal effects, see Developmental toxicity;

Reproductive toxicity

Filters and filtrates, 26, 65, 66, 85, 92, 96, 148, 154, 188-190

Fines, 6, 8, 19, 147, 198, 201

Fire extinguishers, 49, 84, 86, 87, 89, 93, 97, 134, 137

automatic, 134, 135

in Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries, 236

Fire fighting and fire safety, 32, 34, 86, 89-90, 95, 133, 134-135, 137

codes, 34, 67, 72, 74

electrical equipment, 110

hoses, 134-135

waste facilities, 146

Fire Protection for Laboratories Using Chemicals,34

Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials,34, 49

Fires, see Electrical fires;

Flammability

First aid procedures and equipment, 81, 87-88, 92, 137, 228, 229

eyes, 82, 88, 137, 229

information sources, 33, 34

in Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries, 4, 33

in Material Safety Data Sheets, 31, 32, 87

skin, 87, 229

Flammability, 41, 46, 48-51, 58, 75, 85-86, 93, 95-96, 220

information sources, 32, 34, 50, 86, 95

in Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries, 4, 33, 95, 236

lasers, 58, 59

limits, 46, 48-49, 50, 96

and refrigeration, 74, 84, 95, 96, 113-114

storage hazards, 49, 73, 74, 84, 191

of wastes, 142, 144, 145, 148 Note: Information about specific chemicals (indicated by boldface) is included in the Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries.

Flash arresters, 85, 96

Flash points, 46, 48, 50, 104, 144, 220. Note: Information about specific chemicals (indicated by boldface) is included in the Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries.

Floods, 109

Flowcharts, 3, 20, 22, 24

Fluorides, 318-319

Fluorination, 66-67

Fluorine,66-67, 320-321

Formaldehyde,36, 37, 40, 322-323,

see also Formalin

Formalin,156, 322-323

Formula. Note: Information about specific chemicals (indicated by boldface) is included in the Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries.

Freezers and freezing, 7, 59, 67, 156

Friction, 54, 100

Frostbite, 128, 129

F-TEDA-BF4, 67

Fume hoods, 8, 38, 59, 81, 83, 96, 110, 178-187, 221, 227, 230

and acutely toxic substances, 42, 91-92, 122

exhaust systems, 188-190, 192-193

face velocities, 83, 178

housekeeping, 73, 83, 180

radioisotope hoods, 187-188

sashes, 83, 92, 98, 180

and volatiles, 38, 148, 188-189

and waste disposal, 8, 9, 26, 92, 179-180

Furnaces, 59, 114, 118

G

Gamma rays, 60, 61

Gas burners, 95

Gas cylinders, 51, 57, 67, 68, 74-75, 84, 104, 121-124, 128, 129

labeling, 10, 74, 121-122

leaks, 51, 88-89, 96, 122-123

Gases

corrosive, 39, 89

flammable, 46, 51, 57, 88-89, 95, 96, 123-124, 128

inhalation of, 37

oxidants, 50, 88-89

reactivity, 57, 104, 105

toxicity, 57, 104, 105

see also Compressed gases;

Liquefied gases

Gastrointestinal tract, see Ingestion

Gauges, 58, 125

Genoprotection, 44

Gifts of chemicals, 4, 64

Gland joints, 125

Glass and glassware, 49, 58, 60, 65, 75, 85, 92, 230

breakage, 57, 120, 126

pressure and vacuum containers, 57, 101, 126, 127-128, 130-131

waste disposal, 6, 7, 85, 145, 148

Glassblowing, 85, 126

Glove boxes, 26, 91, 92, 94, 193-194

Gloves and hand protection, 26, 32, 43, 83, 85, 88, 89, 92, 94, 98 -99, 111, 129, 132-133, 149, 230

Goggles, 82, 88, 98, 119, 149

GOX, see Oxygen

Ground-fault circuit interruptor (GFCI), 110, 111, 112, 118

Grounding, 50, 95, 96, 99, 110, 111, 112, 123

Guidelines, see Experiment planning; Information sources;

Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries;

Material Safety Data Sheets;

Regulations and legislation

H

Hair and hair follicles, 38, 83, 131

Halides, 51, 102, 166

Halocarbons, 51

Halogens and halogenating agents, 54, 55, 85, 97, 103

in wastes, 142, 143, 146

Halon, 135

Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, 34

Hands, see Gloves and hand protection

Hazard evaluation, 3-4, 5, 25-26, 31, 81,

see also Risk assessment

information sources, 3, 31-35, 81

toxicity, 3, 35-46

Hazardous Materials Transportation Uniform Safety Act, 201, 209

Hazard reduction, see Source reduction;

Waste treatment methods

Hazardous Substance Data Base (HSDB), 35

HCN, see Hydrogen cyanide

Health hazards, see Acute toxicity;

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

Carcinogens;

Chronic toxicity;

Exposure routes;

Toxicity

Heat, 58, 73

Heat-initiated explosions, 38, 46, 54, 57, 96, 97, 98

Heat of reaction, 57, 97

Heat sensors, 134

Heat transfer, 57, 86, 97

Heaters and heating equipment, 95, 99, 114-118, 176

baths, 95, 114, 115, 117-118, 127

guns, 50, 118

mantles and tapes, 95, 99, 109, 114, 116-117

Heavy metals, 36, 37, 66

disposal, 19, 66, 166

incompatibilities, 54

recycling, 76, 77

Helium, 40, 60, 101, 120, 128

HEPA (high-efficiency particulate air) filters, 92, 187

Hepatitis B virus, 7, 94, 157

Hexamethylphosphoramide (HMPA), 324-325

Hexamethylphosphoric triamide, see

Hexamethylphosphoramide

Hexane, 326-327

HF, see Hydrogen fluoride

High-pressure reactions, 57

High school laboratories, 2, 10, 16, 22

HMPA, see Hexamethylphosphoramide

Homidium bromide, see Ethidium bromide

Horseplay, 82, 230

Hose, see Tubing and hoses

Hot plates, 48, 95, 109, 116

Housekeeping and cleaning, 84, 90, 92, 120-121, 228, 230

solvents, 55-56, 65, 66, 76, 116

waste containers, 150

HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography), 50, 101, 155

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), 7, 94, 157

Hydrargyrum, see Mercury

Hydrazine,45, 328-329

Hydrazoic acid, see Sodium azide

Hydrides, 51

Hydrobromic acid, 330-331

Hydrochloric acid,39, 332-333

Hydrocyanic acid, see Hydrogen cyanide

Hydrofluoric acid,40, 88, 338-339

Hydrogen,50, 51, 54, 96, 98, 124, 128, 334-335

Hydrogen arsenide, see Arsine

Hydrogen bromide, 330-331

Hydrogen chloride,36, 37, 102, 332-333

Hydrogen cyanide (HCN),36, 40, 51, 93, 143, 336-337

Hydrogen dioxide, see Hydrogen peroxide

Hydrogen fluoride (HF), 338-339

Hydrogen peroxide,39, 40, 54, 96, 103, 170, 340-341

Hydrogen selenide, 105

Hydrogen sulfide,36, 96, 342-343

Hydrogenation, 57, 96, 101-102, 127

2-Hydroperoxy-2-methylpropane, see tert-Butyl hydroperoxide

Hydrosulfuric acid, see Hydrogen sulfide

Hydroxides, see Ammonium hydroxide;

Potassium hydroxide;

Sodium hydroxide

Hydroxybenzene, see Phenol

Hypodermics, see Needles and syringes

I

IARC, See International Agency for Research on Cancer

Ice, 60, 121

Ice chests, 82

Ignition sources, 46, 51, 85, 95, 96

electrical equipment, 50, 59, 95, 109, 111, 114-115, 116, 176

Ignition temperature, 48

Impact, 54, 100

Incineration, 6, 55, 147-148, 168-169

multihazardous waste, 6, 7, 151, 153, 155-156, 157, 158

Incompatibility of chemicals, 51-54, 57, 104, 145

information sources, 34, 46

in Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries, 235

and storage, 51, 54, 73, 75, 84 Note: Information about specific chemicals (indicated by boldface) is included in the Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries.

Induction heaters, 59

Induction periods, 57, 86, 97

Industrial hygiene offices, 23, 31, 42-43, 81

Industrial laboratories, 18, 32, 65

Industry, see Industrial laboratories;

Manufacturers and suppliers

Inert materials and gases, 55, 96, 101, 129, 149

cryogens, 57, 129

Infectious agents, 6, 7, 60, 93-94, 151, 156, 157

Inflammability, see Flammability

Information sources, 31-35

flammability, 32, 34, 49, 86, 95

risk assessment, 3, 4, 25, 31-35, 47

toxicity, 31, 33, 34, 35, 236

see also Documentation and record-keeping;

Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries;

Material Safety Data Sheets

Infrared radiation, 58, 59, 119, 132

Ingestion, 38-39

protection against, 82-83, 92, 94

Inhalation, 36, 37-38, 39, 40, 42

protection against, 83, 92, 94

Inhibitors, 51, 55, 101

Injection, 39, 83, 94

Injuries, 37, 57, 60, 104, 109, 120,

see also First aid procedures

Inorganic compounds waste treatment, 163-171

Inorganic Syntheses,160

Inspections and audits, 8, 11, 83, 175-177, 228

of experiment plans, 25

pressure devices, 124, 127

safety and emergency equipment, 7, 8, 11, 25, 136, 137

Institutional structures, 15-16, 18, 23-24

Instructors, see Teachers and instructors

Insurance requirements, 72

Interlocks, 91, 126

Intermittent exposure, 36, 37

International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 43, 44, 203, 204

International Loss Control Institute (ILCI), 176, 177

Intravenous exposure, see Injection

Inventory and tracking, 4-5, 10, 25, 69-72

and emergency response, 9, 10, 24, 69, 70, 72, 93

toxins, 76, 93

waste, 70, 93, 146

Iodine, 344-345

Iodomethane, see Methyl iodide

Ion exchange resins, 155

Ionizing radiation, 60-61

IRIS, 35

Irritants, 39, 41, 43

eye contact, 38, 39

gastrointestinal, 38

skin contact, 38, 39

Isocyanates, 40,

see also Toluene diisocyanate

Isopropyl alcohol, 50, 129

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

J

"Just in time" acquisition, 4, 64, 67

K

Kalium, see Potassium

Kjeldahl reactions, 65

L

Labels and labeling, 25, 68, 70, 71-72, 74, 84, 114, 224, 228-229

bar code, 5, 10, 70

cylinders, 10, 74, 121-122

flammability, 48, 86

pressure vessels, 124, 127

by suppliers, 33, 68, 70, 71

warning, 33, 50, 71, 84, 93, 122

waste, 4, 6, 141, 145, 146

Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries (LCSSs), 4, 25, 33, 47, 70, 81, 91, 235-236

information sources for, 235-236

limitations of, 235

preparation of, 34, 47, 235-236 Please also refer to the Laboratory Safety Summaries for specific chemicals (indicated by boldface page numbers in this index).

Laboratory coats, 83-84, 98, 131, 132

Laboratory Environment, The,34

Laboratory hoods, see Fume hoods

Lab Packs, 6, 19, 146, 147, 150

LAH, see Lithium aluminum hydride

Lamps, see Lasers; Light and lighting

Landfills, 6, 19, 141, 146, 147, 208

Lasers, 58-59, 82, 109, 119, 133

Latency and "delayed" toxicity, 36, 37, 39, 40, 45

allergens, 40, 43

Law, see Liability; Litigation and lawsuits; Regulations and legislation

LC, see Lethal dose and lethal concentration values

LCSS, see Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries

LD, see Lethal dose and lethal concentration values

Lead and lead compounds,56, 77, 103, 152, 153, 155, 156, 346-347

Leaks, 123, 125

flammable gases, 51, 88-89, 96

Legal issues, see Liability;

Litigation and lawsuits;

Regulations and legislation

LEL, see Lower explosive limit

Less Is Better: Laboratory Chemical Management for Waste Reduction, 4, 64

Lethal dose (LD) and lethal

concentration (LC) values, 36, 41, 42, 43, 47

"Letters to the Editor" column, 35, 46

Liability, 19-20

Life cycle analysis, 22, 64

Lifting, 109, 121

Light and lighting

explosive hazards, 48, 54, 96, 100

Liquefied gases, 74, 101, 128-130

cryogenic, 57, 58, 60, 74, 97, 101, 120, 128-129, 130

flammability, 51, 101, 128

Liquids

corrosive, 39

disposal, 85, 142, 148, 151

flammable, 46, 96, 191, 219

microscale amounts, 65

oxidants, 50

storage, 75

Liquid scintillation fluid (LSF), 7, 66, 152, 153, 159

Literature reviews, 3, 23, 25, 81, 98

Lithium, 97

Lithium aluminum hydride (LAH),58, 103, 163-164, 348-349

Lithium tetrahydroaluminate, see Lithium aluminum hydride

Litigation and lawsuits, 2, 19-20

Lower explosive limit (LEL), 48-49, 50

Low-level Radioactive Waste Policy Act, 158

Low-valent metal salts, 51

LOX, see Oxygen

Lungs, 37, 39

Lye, see Sodium hydroxide

M

Magnesium, 97

Magnetic fields, 59-60, 120

Maintenance and repair, 26, 85, 109, 111, 112, 125, 175-176, 228

Major hazards, see Hazard evaluation;

Hazard reduction;

Hazardous Materials Transportation Uniform Safety Act;

Hazardous Substance Data Base (HSDB). Note: Information about specific chemicals (indicated by boldface) is included in the Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries.

Male sterility, 40

Manometers, 58

Manufacturers and suppliers, 5, 10-11, 76

labeling by, 33, 68, 70, 71

and Material Safety Data Sheets, 3, 31, 32, 68

reporting, 68, 210

Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs), 4, 24, 25, 31-32, 33, 34, 47, 68, 70, 81, 210, 224

experimental materials, 72, 211

McLeod gauges, 58

Mechanical shock, 54, 96, 98, 100, 128

Medical certification and surveillance, 33, 91, 92, 136, 221, 223-224, 228

Medical waste, see Biological waste;

Multihazardous waste

MEK, see Methyl ethyl ketone

Melting points, 32

Mental planning and checklists, 3, 22-23

Mercaptans, 161

Mercury, 38, 112-113, 350-351

in meters and gauges, 58, 116

reclamation, 76, 89

spills, 89

waste, 65, 66, 113

Metal alkyls, 95

Metal fires and explosions, 89, 96, 97, 104, 134

Metal halides, 51, 165-166

Metal hydrides, 51, 95, 102, 163-164

Metal hydroxides, 40, 396-397

Metal nitrides, 51, 54

Metal oxides, 37, 51

Methanal, see Formaldehyde

Methane, 40, 96, 128

Methanol, 37, 48, 50, 155, 352-353

Methyl acetone, see Methyl ethyl ketone

Methyl alcohol, see Methanol

Methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE), 67

Methylene chloride, see Dichloromethane

Methyl chloride, 105

Methyl chloromethyl ether, see Chloromethyl methyl ether

Methyl cyanide, see Acetonitrile

Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), 354-355

Methyl iodide, 356-357

Methyl sulfate, see Dimethyl sulfate

Methyl sulfoxide, see Dimethyl sulfoxide

Methylbenzene, see Toluene

Methylcarbinol, see Ethanol

1-Methylpropyllithium, see Butyllitiums

Met-L-X, 97, 134

Microorganisms, see Biohazards

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

Microscale and miniaturized operations, 2, 4, 5, 18, 32, 57, 65, 153

Microwave devices, 59, 119

ovens, 50, 59, 109, 114, 118, 119

Minimization, see Exposure minimization;

Microscale and miniaturized operations;

Source reduction;

Waste minimization

Mixed waste, see Multihazardous waste

Molecular Sieves, 155, 162, 163, 188

Molecular weights, 32

Monitoring and testing, 91, 92, 100, 222

airborne concentrations, 42-43, 92, 228

fume hoods, 180-181

pressure equipment, 124, 127

regulatory compliance, 8, 16, 25

of wastes, 142-143, 144, 149-150

Mouth, 37, 38, 39

MSDS, see Material Safety Data Sheets

Mucous membranes, 37, 94

Multihazardous waste, 5, 6-7, 93, 95, 141, 150-152

autoclaving, 6, 7, 151, 156, 157, 159

chemical-biological, 7, 155-157

chemical-radioactive-biological, 7, 81, 159

chemical-radioactive (mixed), 7, 10, 152-155

commercial disposal, 151, 155, 156, 158

incineration, 6, 7, 151, 153, 155-156, 157, 158

minimization, 7, 67, 151, 152, 153, 157

radioactive-biological, 7, 152, 157-159

recycling, 154

regulations, 6, 7, 10, 151, 153, 156, 157, 159

storage, 154

substitution of materials, 7, 67, 152, 153

treatment, 6-7, 67, 153, 154-155, 159-160

Multimeters, 112

Muriatic acid, see Hydrochloric acid

Mutagenicity, 44

information sources, 33

N

NARM (naturally-occurring or accelerator-produced radioactive material) , 151, 152

National Electrical Code (NEC), 109, 112

National Fire Protection Association (NFPA)

electrical code, 109, 112, 212

fire hazard ratings, 34, 48, 50, 51

hazard diamond, 50

storage regulations, 74

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 121

National Institutes of Health, 60, 156, 160

National Library of Medicine, 35

National Pollutant Discharge Elimination Systems (NPDES), 201, 207

National Toxicology Program (NTP), 43, 44, 203, 204

Natrium, see Sodium

Natural products, 45

Needles and syringes, 39, 83, 94, 151

disposal, 6, 7, 39, 120, 157, 159

Neurotoxicity, 37, 40-41

Neutralization of waste, 6, 26, 85, 142, 147, 154, 155, 160-161

gas leaks, 89

spills, 88, 149

NFPA, see National Fire Protection Association

Nickel alloys, 124

Nickel carbonyl,58, 358-359

Nitrates, 54, 97, 103, 171

Nitric acid,39, 56, 97, 360-361

Nitrites, 54

Nitrogen, 40, 51, 57, 60, 99, 101, 103, 120, 128, 129

Nitrogen compounds, 54, 96, 103

Nitrogen dioxide (NO2),36, 37, 39, 54, 362-363

Nitrogen peroxide, see Nitrogen dioxide

Nitrogen triiodide, 54

Nitrosamines, 298-299.

See also Diethylnitrosamine

N-Nitroso compounds, 45, 54, 103

N-Nitrosodiethylamine, see Diethylnitrosamine

NLM, see National Library of Medicine

Noise extremes, 109, 118, 120

Nose, 37, 39

Notebooks, see Documentation and record-keeping

Nuclear Regulatory Commission (U.S. NRC)

radiation exposure limits, 61

waste disposal regulations, 7, 10, 144, 151, 152, 153, 158, 159

Nucleating agents, 56

O

Occupational Health Guidelines for Chemical Hazards,33

Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), 204

exposure limits, 8, 32, 42, 91, 199, 203

Hazard Communication Standard, 8, 32, 72, 199, 204-205

Hazardous Energy Standard, 109, 199

Laboratory Standard, 1, 8, 9, 19, 32, 41, 44-45, 72, 198, 199, 202 -205, 219-234

Material Safety Data Sheets, 31

Occupational Exposure to Blood borne Pathogens, 6, 7, 151, 156, 157, 199

Personal Protection Standard, 83, 199

Respiratory Standard, 136

Odor and odor thresholds, 42, 70, 236

Odor. Note: Information about specific chemicals (indicated by boldface) is included in the Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries.

Odorants, 51

Oil baths, 95, 114, 117

Oil of vitriol, see Sulfuric acid

Oily rags, 50

Olfactory fatigue, 42

On-line services, see Computer systems and services

Ordering, see Acquisition of chemicals

Organic compounds waste treatment, 156, 161-163

Organic peroxides, 54-55, 58, 75, 76, 97, 99-101, 162, 221

Organoaluminum compounds, 410-411

Organohalogen compounds, 45

Organometallic compounds, 51, 89, 97, 103

Organotin compounds, 412-413

Orphaned materials, 70, 71

OSHA, see Occupational Safety and Health Administration

Osmic acid, see Osmium tetroxide

Osmium(IV) oxide, see Osmium tetroxide

Osmium tetroxide, 364-365

Outlet receptacles, 109-110

Ovens, 59, 114, 116

microwave, 50, 59, 109, 114, 118, 119

Oxacyclopentane, see Tetrahydrofuran

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

Oxidants and oxidation, 40, 46, 50-51, 66, 85, 95, 129, 221

reactivity, 51, 54, 55-56, 75, 97, 100, 104

wastes, 142, 144, 154, 160, 170-171

Oxides, 51

Oxycyclopropane, see Ethylene oxide

Oxygen,46, 48, 51, 96, 101, 103, 129, 366-367

gas (GOX), 366-367

liquid (LOX),51, 57, 101, 128, 366-367

Ozone,37, 103, 368-369

P

Palladium on carbon,58, 96, 103, 370-371

Paracelsus, 36

Paraformaldehyde, see Formaldehyde

Parr bombs, 103

"Particularly hazardous substances",; 41-42, 47, 203-204

Particulates, 56

inhalation of, 37, 38, 136

Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology,34, 47

Pd/C, see Palladium on carbon

Peer inspections, 8, 177

Pentane, 88

Peracetic acid, 372-373

Perchlorates, 54, 55, 58, 96, 103, 374-375

Perchloric acid,55, 75, 95, 97, 103, 170-171, 374-375

Permanganates, 97, 103

Permissible exposure limits (PELs), 42, 47, 203, 204, 222

Perosmic oxide, see Osmium tetroxide

Peroxides and peroxide formation, 56, 67, 84, 96, 97, 102, 103, 162 -163

organic, 54-55, 58, 75, 76, 97, 99-101, 162, 221

Peroxyacetic acid, see Peracetic acid

Personal protective equipment, 26, 43, 90, 93, 98, 128, 131-133, 230

emergencies and spills, 32, 88, 135, 149

see also Clothing and protective apparel;

Gloves and hand protection;

Respirators

Petroleum ether, 88

Phenol,38, 39, 40, 152, 376-377

Phenylamine, see Aniline

Phenylmethane, see Toluene

Phorbol esters, 44

Phosgene,37, 66, 378-379

Phosphate buffer, 35

Phosphine, 105

Phosphorus,39, 50, 103-104, 380-381

Phosphorus pentoxide, 40, 102

Phosphorus trichloride, 104

Physical properties

information sources, 33, 34

in Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries, 33

in Material Safety Data Sheets, 4, 31, 32

of product mixtures, 25

in risk assessment, 25, 42, 90

of wastes, 6, 142 Note: Information about specific chemicals (indicated by boldface) is included in the Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries.

Pipets and pipetting, 82-83, 94, 230

Placenta, 40

Planning, see Chemical Hygiene Plans;

Emergency preparation and response;

Experiment planning

Plasma torches, 160

Plastic equipment, 126

Platinum, 96, 103

Poison, see Toxins and toxicity under headings beginning with "Exposure" in this index

Policy development, 15-16

emergency response planning, 23-24

Pollution control, see Recycling;

Source reduction;

Waste minimization;

Waste treatment methods

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 156, 212

Polymerization, 96, 97, 124

Polyols, 103

Postdoctoral training, 17

Potassium,50, 51, 58, 97, 103, 104, 382-383

Potassium chloride waste disposal, 6

Potassium cyanide, 394-395

Potassium fluoride, 318

Potassium hydrate, see Potassium hydroxide

Potassium hydride,164, 384-385

Potassium hydroxide, 396-397

Potassium iodide, 100

Potassium metals, 58

Potassium permanganate, 55-56, 188

Pregnancy, see Developmental toxicity;

Reproductive toxicity

Premanufacture notification (PMN), 210-211

Preparation, see Emergency preparation and response;

Experiment planning

Presidents of institutions, 15

Pressure bottle, 101

Pressure control, 193

Pressure extremes, 57, 109, 124-128, 175-176

Pressure regulators, 74, 122, 123, 124, 175, 176

Pressure relief devices, 124, 125, 127, 128

Primary school education, 2, 16

Principal investigators, 15, 16, 17-18

and safety violations, 19, 20

Proctor and Hughes' Chemical Hazards of the Workplace,34

Products of incomplete combustion (PICs), 156

Professional standards of conduct, 14, 18, 82

Project managers, 15, 16, 17

2-Propanone, see Acetone

2-Propenal, see Acrolein

2-Propeneamide, see Acrylamide

2-Propenenitrile, see Acrylonitrile

Protection, see Emergency preparation and response;

Personal protective equipment

Prudent Practices ... (earlier editions), 1, 4, 5, 94, 160, 225

Prussic acid, see Hydrogen cyanide

Publicly owned treatment works (POTW), 148, 152, 154

Public notification and outreach, 2, 18, 82, 177, 201, 210

Pull stations, 86, 133

Pulmonary edema, 39

Purchasing systems, 67-68

Putrescible waste, 7, 151, 156, 158

Pyridine,102, 386-387

Pyrolysis, 160

Pyrophorics, 50, 51, 57, 75, 95

Q

Quicksilver, see Mercury

R

Radiation and radioactive materials, 23, 60-61, 67, 94-95, 109, 187 -188

disposal, 6, 7, 10, 94, 95, 151, 152, 157-159

see also Multihazardous waste

Radiofrequency (RF) hazards, 59, 109, 119

Raney nickel, 56, 96, 102, 103

RCRA, see Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

Reaction Hazard Index (RHI), 46

Reactive systems screening tool, 97

Reactivity, 46, 51-54, 93, 96-104, 144

with human body tissues, 37, 38

information sources, 34, 46

in Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries, 4, 33, 235

in Material Safety Data Sheets, 32

and refrigeration, 75, 76 Note: Information about specific chemicals (indicated by boldface) is included in the Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries.

Receiving rooms and loading areas, 64, 67, 68

Recombinant DNA, 23, 151, 156

Recycling, 2, 6, 9, 19, 26, 65, 76-77, 85, 145, 149

manufacturer and supplier role, 10

multihazardous waste, 154

solvents, 19, 71, 76

Red phosphorus, see Phosphorus

Reducing agents, 51, 54, 55, 75, 97, 100, 104

Reduction of hazards, see Source reduction;

Waste treatment methods

References, see Information sources

Refrigerators and refrigeration, 50, 59, 70, 74, 75, 82, 84, 93, 111, 113-114, 158

flammability hazards, 74, 84, 95, 96, 113-114

Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS), 35

Regulations and legislation, 2, 8-10, 15, 16, 19-20, 198-202

compliance monitoring, 8, 16, 25

electrical codes, 109, 112

and experiment planning, 23, 25, 26-27

fines, 6, 8, 19, 147, 198, 201

fire codes, 34, 67, 72, 74

geographic consistency, 9-10

multihazardous waste, 6, 7, 10, 150-160

performance-based, 9

radioactive waste, 6, 7, 10, 151-154, 157-159

shipping and transport, 25, 68-69, 209

state, 8, 204

storage, 25, 67, 72

waste disposal, 5-6, 7, 8-9, 26, 81, 84, 141, 143-145, 146, 205-209

waste treatment, 6, 7, 9, 76, 81, 147, 148, 208

see also Exposure limits;

Occupational Safety and Health Administration

Regulators, see Pressure regulators

Relief devices, see Pressure relief devices

Remote operations, 61, 94, 99, 125

Repair, see Maintenance and repair

Reproductively Active Chemicals: A Reference Guide,46

Reproductive toxicity, 36, 40, 41, 44-46, 61, 203, 204, 221

information sources, 33, 34, 46

Research laboratories, 2, 3, 18, 19, 22, 65, 71, 152, 156

Resins, 155

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), 6, 8-9, 76, 144, 147 , 152, 160, 198, 199, 205-209

Respiration, see Inhalation; Respirators

Respirators, 26, 92, 93, 94, 135-136, 137, 149, 224

Reuse, see Recycling

Review, see Experiment planning; Literature reviews

Risk assessment, 3-4, 24, 25, 31, 47, 64

emergency response, 25

explosibility, 46, 54-57

flammability, 46, 48-51

information sources, 3, 4, 25, 31-35, 47

physical hazards, 57-60

reactivity, 46, 51-54

toxicity, 41-46, 47, 90-91

waste disposal, 6, 67

Rotary evaporators, 131

Rotating equipment, 109, 120, 176

Route of exposure, see Exposure routes

Rubber buckets, 60, 69

Runaway reactions, 57, 86, 97, 124-125

S

Safety cans, 74, 75, 85, 145

Safety glasses, 26, 43, 81, 92, 98, 119, 132

Safety programs, see Environmental health and safety programs

Safety showers, 84, 86, 87, 89, 92, 135, 136, 137

Salmonella, 94

Salt baths, 95, 114, 117

Sand baths, 95, 114, 117

Sanitary sewers, see Sewer disposal

SARA, see Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act

Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials,34, 41

Scale of operation, 2, 19, 22, 23, 25, 32, 44, 66, 86, 160

and explosion hazards, 57, 58, 86, 97, 99

miniaturization, 2, 4, 5, 18, 32, 57, 65, 153

Schools, see Teaching laboratories

Scrubbers, 26, 92, 188

Sebaceous glands, 38

Secondary education, see High school laboratories

Security guards, 86, 91

Seismic activity, 51, 73, 74, 122

Select carcinogens, 41, 43-44, 203-204, 221

Sensitivity of instruments, 2, 65

Sensitizers, see Allergens and allergic reactions

Sewer disposal, 50, 85, 147, 148

hazard reduction, 66

multihazardous waste, 6, 7, 151, 152, 153, 154, 156, 159

Shaker vessels, 127

Sharing of chemicals, see Transfer and exchange

Sharps, 39, 83, 94

disposal, 6, 7, 39, 83, 120, 148, 151, 157, 159

Shelf life and expiration dates, 4, 25, 70, 75, 93, 99, 100

Shelving, 68, 72, 73

Shipment and transport, 4, 32, 49, 68-69

regulations, 25, 68-69, 209

waste, 146, 209

Shock, see Electrocution and electric shock;

Mechanical shock

Shoes and boots, 32, 132, 149, 230

coverings, 88, 132

Short-term exposure limits (STELs), 34, 42, 47, 203

Sigma-Aldrich Library of Chemical Safety Data, 34, 41

Signs, see Exposure signs and symptoms;

Warning signs and signals

Silane, 105

Silica, 37

Silver and silver compounds,125, 388-389

Silyl halides, 105

Simulation, see Computer simulation

Siphons and siphoning, 83, 230

Skellysolve B, see Hexane

Skin contact and effects, 38, 39, 81, 83, 92, 129

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

allergens, 38, 40

cold and cryogenic substances, 128-129

Slips and falls, 60, 109, 120-121

Slot hoods, 190

Smoke detectors, 134

Smoking, 82, 94, 95, 100, 230

Sodium,51, 58, 97, 103, 104, 390-391

Sodium amide, 104

Sodium azide,102, 392-393

Sodium bicarbonate, 88, 134

Sodium borohydride, 164

Sodium cyanide, 36, 37, 394-395

Sodium fluoride, 318

Sodium hydrate, see Sodium hydroxide

Sodium hydride,164, 384-385

Sodium hydroxide,39, 396-397

Sodium hypochlorate, 161

Sodium salt, see Sodium azide

Solids

corrosive, 39, 144

disposal, 85, 142

microscale amounts, 65

oxidants, 50

Solubility, 46

in human body, 37, 38

Solvents

airborne concentrations, 38

disposal, 84-85, 146

flammability, 49, 59, 84, 86, 88

incompatibilities, 51, 84-85

minimizing use of, 65, 66, 67

recycling, 19, 71, 76

spills, 88

Source reduction, 4, 18-19, 24, 25, 26, 64-67, 90

in acquisition, 4, 64-65, 153

Speed of operation, 2

Spills and spill control, 19, 87, 88, 92-93, 94, 133, 137

contigency plans, 87

disposal, 87, 88, 141, 149

flammability, 50, 60, 88

in Material Safety Data Sheets, 32

peroxides, 100, 101

Spontaneous combustion, 50, 56, 96

Sprays, see Mists and sprays

Stabilization and stabilizers, 19, 55, 100, 101

Staggered gait, 41

Standards Completion Program, 33

Standards for Protection Against Radiation from Sealed Gamma Sources,

Stannous fluoride, 318

Static electricity, 50, 95, 96, 99, 123-124

Sterility, 40, 59

Still pots, 58, 76

Stirring and mixing, 86, 100, 103

equipment, 50, 59, 95, 99, 109, 110, 111, 114

Stockrooms, see Storage

Stomach, 38, 39

Storage, 4-5, 24, 25, 64, 67, 69, 72-76, 84, 228

compatibility guidelines, 51, 54, 73, 75, 84

and container sizes, 64, 67, 74, 75

difficult-to-reach, 60, 72, 84, 121

flammability hazards, 49, 73, 74, 84, 191

in Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries, 4, 33, 236

in Material Safety Data Sheets, 4, 31, 32, 75

peroxides, 55, 75, 76, 100, 101

regulations, 25, 67, 72

toxins, 76, 93

waste, 6, 84, 145-146, 154 Note: Information about specific chemicals (indicated by boldface) is included in the Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries.

Students, 15, 16, 19, 204

Stuffing boxes, 125

Styrofoam buckets, 131

Substitution of less hazardous

materials, 5, 65, 66-67, 90

multihazardous waste, 7, 67, 152, 153

Sulfides

incompatibilities, 51, 54

wastes, 142, 161

Sulfonyl halides, 161-162

Sulfur, 89

Sulfur dioxide (SO2), 398-399

Sulfur hydride, see Hydrogen sulfide

Sulfur monochloride, 166

Sulfur oxide, see Sulfur dioxide

Sulfuric acid,39, 55, 56, 104, 400-401

Sunlight, 73

Superconducting magnets, 60, 120

Supercritical fluids, 57, 67, 130, 155, 160

Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA), 9, 200, 210

Supervision, see Administration and supervision

Suppliers, see Manufacturers and suppliers

Sweat glands, 38

Swern oxidation, 66

Symptoms, see Exposure signs and symptoms

Syringe injection calorimetry (SIC), 97

Syringes, see Needles and syringes

Systemic toxicity, 35, 39, 41

T

TBHP, see tert-Butyl hydroperoxide

TDI, see Toluene diisocyanate

Teachers and instructors, 2, 10, 16, 17

Teaching laboratories

biohazards, 60

and computer simulation, 2, 18

experiment planning, 22, 24

graduate, 2, 16, 17-18, 22

legal issues, 19-20, 204

material reduction and

miniaturization, 18, 57, 65, 66

and Material Safety Data Sheets, 32

recycling and transfer, 71, 76, 77

and source reduction, 18, 19

undergraduate, 2, 16, 17, 22, 24, 57, 76

waste management, 10, 16, 65, 66, 141, 150

Teamwork, 14, 15

Technicians, 15, 17

Technological advances, 2, 4, 18

Teflon, 100, 124, 126, 127

Telephones, 81, 83, 86, 87, 133, 137

Temperature extremes, 57, 109, 126, 127

Teratogens, see Developmental toxicity;

Reproductive toxicity

Testing, see Monitoring and testing

Tetracarbonyl nickel, see Nickel carbonyl

Tetrachloromethane, see Carbon tetrachloride

Tetrahydrofuran (THF),88, 102, 161, 402-403

Tetramethylene acid, see Tetrahydrofuran

TFA, see Trifluoroacetic acid

Thermal analysis, 46, 56, 86, 97

Thermal desorption, 160

Thermal oxidizers, 190

Thermometers, 116

THF, see Tetrahydrofuran

Thiols, 161

Thorium dioxide, 58

Threshold dose, 36

carcinogens, 44

Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices. 34

Threshold limit values (TLVs), 33, 34, 42, 47, 203

Throat, 37, 98

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

Time weighted average (TWA), 42, 47

TLV, see Threshold limit values

Toluene,67, 71, 100, 404-405

Toluene diisocyanate (TDI), 406-407

Toluol, see Toluene

Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), 144, 152, 154

Toxicity data, see Toxins and toxicity. Note: Information about specific chemicals (indicated by boldface) is included in the Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries.

Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), 9, 200, 210-212

Toxins and toxicity, 3, 41-46, 47, 90-91

information sources, 31, 33, 34, 35, 236

in Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries, 4, 33, 235, 236

in Material Safety Data Sheets, 4, 31, 32

mixtures and combinations, 3, 25, 35-36, 51, 57, 81, 93

reduction of, 65, 90

spills, 88, 92-93

target organs, 35, 39, 41

see also Acute toxicity;

Allergens and allergic reactions;

Asphyxiants;

Carcinogens;

Chronic toxicity;

Corrosives and corrosivity;

Developmental toxicity;

Irritants;

Neurotoxicity;

Reproductive toxicity; and under headings beginning with "Exposure" in this index

TOXLINE, 35

Toxoplasma, 94

Trace metals, 97

Trachea, 37

Training, see Education and training in safety practices

Transfer and exchange of chemicals, 69, 70-71

inventory and tracking, 69, 70, 71

unused and excess material, 65, 67, 69

Transport, see Shipment and transport

Treatment, see Waste treatment methods

Treatment, storage, and disposal facilities (TSDF), 147, 149-150

Trialkyaluminum reagents, see Trimethylaluminum

Tributyltin chloride, see Organotin compounds

Tributyltin hydride, see Organotin compounds

Trichloracetic acid (TCA), 154

Trichloroaluminum, see Aluminum trichloride

Trichloroethylene, 37, 104

Trichloromethane, see Chloroform

Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA), 408-409

Trifluoroborane, see Boron trifluoride

Trifluoroethanoic acid, see Trifluoroacetic acid 1, 8, 9-Trihydroxyanthracene , 44

Trimethylalane, see Trimethylaluminum

Trimethylaluminum, 410-411

Trimethyltin chloride, 412-413

Triphosgene

bis(trichloromethyl)carbonate, 66

Trips, 60, 109, 120-121

TSCA, see Toxic Substances Control Act

Tube furnaces, 118, 128

Tuberculosis, 94

Tubing and hoses, 85, 99, 109, 124, 126, 128, 175

TWA, see Time weighted average

Tygon, see, Tubing and hoses

U

UEL, see Upper explosive limit

Ulcers, 39

Ultrasonic equipment, 66, 109, 118-119

Ultraviolet peroxidation, 160

Ultraviolet radiation, 58, 59, 82, 119, 133

Unattended experiments, 25, 86, 91, 127, 176, 230

Underground storage tanks, 209

Universities, see Graduate research laboratories

Unstable materials, 67, 68, 75

Unused and excess material

disposal, 4, 64-65, 67

exchange and transfer, 65, 67, 69

peroxides, 100

storage, 84

Upper explosive limit (UEL), 48-49

Used-chemical stockrooms, 67, 71

V

Vacuum systems and operations, 57-58, 85, 92, 109, 110

explosive hazards, 103, 111, 125, 128, 130-131

pumps, 99, 112-113, 130

spill cleanup, 89

Vapor density. Note: Information about specific chemicals (indicated by boldface) is included in the Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries.

Vapor pressure, 37-38, 46. Note: Information about specific chemicals (indicated by boldface) is included in the Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries.

Vapors, 91, 92

eye protection, 82

flammability, 46, 48, 50, 59, 95-96, 111

inhalation of, 37

releases, 6, 8, 38, 141, 148, 154

Variable autotransformers, 110, 111, 114, 115, 117, 127

Vehicles, 69

Venting and ventilation systems, 3, 8, 26, 38, 51, 81, 94, 191-192, 227,

maintenance, 83, 194-195

pumps, 99, 113

storage, 72, 76, 145, 154, 191

see also Fume hoods

Vials, 59

Vinyl amide, see Acrylamide

Vinyl cyanide, see Acrylonitrile

Visible radiation, 58, 59

Visitors, 82, 98, 132

Vitrification, 160

Volatile substances, 37, 38, 73, 83, 93, 112

W

Warning properties, 42

Warning signs and signals, 26, 68, 88, 89, 91, 93, 99, 125, 229

emergencies and spills, 88, 92

hazard diamond, 50

storage, 74, 75, 76, 113

Waste characterization, 6, 141-143

regulatory definitions, 5, 144-145, 206

Waste disposal, 2, 4, 5-6, 6, 19, 24, 25, 26, 65, 67, 70, 84-85, 93, 229, 230,

accumulation times and amounts, 9, 10, 206

atmospheric releases, 6, 8, 38, 141, 148, 154

central accumulation, 6, 84, 145-146, 150

commingling, 6, 145, 147, 150

containers, 74, 75, 84, 85, 145, 148, 157, 207-208

in Laboratory Chemical Safety Summaries, 4, 33

land, 6, 19, 141, 146, 147, 208

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
×

in Material Safety Data Sheets, 31, 32

nonhazardous, 6, 65, 85, 148-149

offsite TSDF, 147, 149-150

peroxides, 55, 100-101, 102

radioactive, 6, 7, 10, 94-95, 150-155, 157-160

records, 6, 141, 146

regulations, 5-6, 7, 8-9, 26, 81, 84, 141, 143-145, 146, 205-209

satellite accumulation, 84, 145, 146, 206-207

sharps, 6, 7, 39, 83, 120, 148, 151, 157, 159

at small institutions, 10, 147, 150

storage, 6, 84, 145-146, 154

surplus material, 4, 64-65, 67

toxins, 93, 144-145

see also Incineration;

Multihazardous waste;

Sewer disposal;

Waste minimization;

Waste treatment methods

Waste minimization, 2, 9, 18, 19, 22, 26, 64, 65-67, 76, 147, 208

multihazardous, 7, 67, 151, 152, 153, 154-155, 157

unused material, 64-65

see also Recycling;

Source reduction

Waste treatment methods, 6, 26, 65, 93, 146-147, 160-171

multihazardous waste, 6-7, 67, 153, 154-155, 159-160

neutralization, 6, 26, 85, 142, 147, 154, 155, 160-161

regulations, 6, 7, 9, 76, 81, 147, 148, 208

Wastewater, see Sewer disposal

Water, 36, 82, 98, 134

Water-cooled equipment, 109

Water gas, see Hydrogen

Water-miscible substances, 85, 148

Water pressure, 81

Water reactivity, 50, 51, 54, 55, 75, 95, 97, 103, 165-166

of wastes, 142, 144

Water solubility

and body tissues, 37, 38, 39

of wastes, 142, 148

Welding gas, see Acetylene

Wet oxidation, 160

White phosphorus, see Phosphorus

Wiring and cables, 110-111, 114-115, 119, 175

Wood alcohol, see Methanol

Work flow, 3, 20, 22, 24

Working alone, 86, 90, 230

X

X-rays and x-ray equipment, 60, 61, 109, 119-120

Xylene, 76

Z

Zirconium, 56, 102

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4911.
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This volume updates and combines two National Academy Press bestsellers--Prudent Practices for Handling Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories and Prudent Practices for Disposal of Chemicals from Laboratories--which have served for more than a decade as leading sources of chemical safety guidelines for the laboratory.

Developed by experts from academia and industry, with specialties in such areas as chemical sciences, pollution prevention, and laboratory safety, Prudent Practices for Safety in Laboratories provides step-by-step planning procedures for handling, storage, and disposal of chemicals. The volume explores the current culture of laboratory safety and provides an updated guide to federal regulations. Organized around a recommended workflow protocol for experiments, the book offers prudent practices designed to promote safety and it includes practical information on assessing hazards, managing chemicals, disposing of wastes, and more.

Prudent Practices for Safety in Laboratories is essential reading for people working with laboratory chemicals: research chemists, technicians, safety officers, chemistry educators, and students.

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