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National Science Education Standards (1996)

Chapter: Appendix

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix." National Research Council. 1996. National Science Education Standards. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4962.
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Appendix

National Committee on Science Education Standards and Assessment

Klausner, Richard D. (Chair), Director, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland.

Ebert*, James D. (Past Chair), Professor of Biology, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland.

Alberts*, Bruce, President, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, District of Columbia.

Alexander*, Joseph K., Jr., Deputy Assistant Administrator for Science, Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, District of Columbia.

Arceneaux, Janice M. H., Specialist, Magnet Programs Department, Houston Independent School District, Houston, Texas.

Atkin, Myron J., Professor of Education, Stanford University, Palo Alto, California.

Barton*, Jacqueline K., Professor of Chemistry, Division of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California.

Belter, Catherine A., Chair, National Parent Teacher Association Education Commission, Springfield, Virginia.

Boyce, Joseph M., Mars Scientist, Solar System Exploration Division, NASA, Washington, District of Columbia

Brown, Rexford G., Founding Executive Director, P.S. 1, Denver, Colorado.

Brunkhorst, Bonnie J., Professor of Science Education, Geology, Institute for Science Education, California State University, San Bernadino, California.

Bugliarello, George, President, Polytechnic University, Brooklyn, New York.

Chamot*, Dennis, Associate Executive Director, Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems, National Research Council, Washington, District of Columbia.

Delacote, Goery, Executive Director, The Exploratorium, San Francisco, California.

Frye, Shirley M., Mathematics Educator, Scottsdale, Arizona.

Glaser, Robert, Director, Learning Research and Development Center, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Goodlad, John I., Director, Center for Educational Renewal; Professor of Education, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington.

Hernandez, Sonia C., Special Assistant to the Superintendents of Public Instruction, California State Department of Education, Sacramento, California.

Keller, Thomas E., President, Council of State Science Supervisors; Science Education Specialist, Maine Department of Education, Augusta, Maine.

Lang*, Michael, Past President, Council of State Science Supervisors; Instructional Specialist for Science, Phoenix Urban Systemic Initiative, Phoenix, Arizona.

Linder-Scholer, William, Executive Director, SCIMATH(MN), St. Paul, Minnesota.

LongReed, William, Biology Teacher, Tuba City High School, Tuba City, Arizona.

McLain, Sandra Stephens, Science Teacher, Joseph Keels Elementary School, Columbia, South Carolina.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix." National Research Council. 1996. National Science Education Standards. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4962.
×

Malcom*, Shirley M., Head, Directorate for Education and Human Resources Program, American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, District of Columbia.

Mills, Richard P., Commissioner of Education, Vermont State Department of Education, Montpelier, Vermont.

Mohling, Wendell G., Associate Executive Director, National Science Teachers Association, Arlington, Virginia.

Oakes, Jeannie, Professor of Education, University of California, Los Angeles, California.

Oglesby, James R., Dissemination Director, Project 2061, American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, District of Columbia.

Ollie, C. Arthur, Assistant Minority Leader, Iowa State House of Representatives, Clinton, Iowa.

Payzant*, Thomas W., Assistant Secretary for Elementary and Secondary Education, Department of Education, Washington, District of Columbia.

Rowe, Mary Budd, Professor of Science Education, Stanford University, Palo Alto, California.

Russell, Juanester Colbert, Principal, Daniel Boone Elementary School, University City, Missouri.

Sanchez, Bobby J., Southern Regional Coordinator, New Mexico MESA, Las Cruces, New Mexico.

Scott, Lana, Client Services, Epic Systems Corporation, Madison, Wisconsin.

Stokes, Gerald M., Director, Global Studies Program, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, Washington.

Tinker, Robert F., Physicist and Chief Science Officer, Technical Education Research Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Trimble, Virginia L., Professor of Physics, University of California at Irvine, Irvine, California; Astronomy Department, University of Maryland at College Park, College Park, Maryland.

Wyatt, Terry L., Teacher, Physics and Chemistry, Roy C. Start High School, Toledo, Ohio.

Zen, E-an, Professor, Department of Geology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland.

*  

past members

Chair's Advisory Committee

Klausner, Richard D. (Chair), Director, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland.

Aldridge, Bill G., Director of Special Projects, Former Executive Director, National Science Teachers Association, Arlington, Virginia.

Carley, Wayne, Executive Director, National Association of Biology Teachers, Reston, Virginia

Gates*, James, Past Executive Director, National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, Reston, Virginia.

Groat, Charles, Executive Director, Center for Coastal Energy and Environmental Resources, Baton Rouge, Louisiana. (Earth Sciences Coalition)

Lapp, Douglas, Executive Director, National Science Resources Center, Washington, District of Columbia.

McWethy*, Patricia, Executive Director, National Science Education Leadership Association, Arlington, Virginia.

Rosen, Linda, Executive Director, National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, Reston, Virginia.

Rutherford, James, Chief Education Officer and Director, Project 2061, American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, District of Columbia.

Speece, Susan P., Associate Dean of Instruction, Division of Mathematics, Science, and Engineering, Fresno City College, Fresno, California. (National Association of Biology Teachers)

Suggested Citation:"Appendix." National Research Council. 1996. National Science Education Standards. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4962.
×

Spooner, William, Director, High School Education, North Carolina Department of Public Instruction, Raleigh, North Carolina. (Council of State Science Supervisors)

Stage, Elizabeth K., Co-Director, New Standards Project—Science, Oakland, California.

Stith, James H., Professor of Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. (American Association of Physics Teachers)

Ware, Sylvia, Director, Education Division, American Chemical Society, Washington, District of Columbia.

Wheeler, Gerald F., Executive Director, National Science Teachers Association, Arlington, Virginia.

*  

past members

Executive Editorial Committee

Klausner, Richard D. (Chair), Director, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland.

Alberts, Bruce, President, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, District of Columbia.

Black, Paul, Professor, Science Education, Center for Educational Studies, King's College, London, United Kingdom.

Brunkhorst, Bonnie J., Professor of Science Education, Geology, Institute for Science Education, California State University, San Bernadino, California.

Ezell, Danine L., Teacher, Biology and General Science; Computer/Math/Science Magnet Coordinator, Bell Junior High School, San Diego, California.

Kahle, Jane Butler, Condit Professor of Science Education, Miami University, Oxford, Ohio.

Pine, Jerome, Professor of Biophysics, Physics Department, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California.

Rutherford, James, Chief Education Officer and Director, Project 2061, American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, District of Columbia.

Spooner, William, Director, High School Education, North Carolina Department of Public Instruction, Raleigh, North Carolina.

Stokes, Gerald, Director, Global Studies Program, Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, Washington.

Working Group on Science Content Standards

Bybee, Rodger W. (Chair), Executive Director, Center for Science, Mathematics, and Engineering Education, National Research Council, Washington, District of Columbia.

Abella, Isaac D., Professor of Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois.

Borgford, Christie L., Project Director, The Role of the Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Portland State University, Portland, Oregon.

Eisenkraft, Arthur, Science Coordinator, Bedford Public Schools, Bedford, New York.

Elgin, Sarah C., Professor of Biology, Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri.

Ezell, Danine L., Teacher, Biology and General Science; Computer/Math/Science Magnet Coordinator, Bell Junior High School, San Diego, California.

Gray, JoAnne S., Assistant Principal, Staff Development, Lillian R. Nicholson Specialty School for Science and Math, Chicago, Illinois; formerly Science Department Chair, George Henry Corliss High School, Chicago, Illinois.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix." National Research Council. 1996. National Science Education Standards. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4962.
×

Heikkinen, Henry W., Co-Director, Mathematics and Science Teaching Center; Professor of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Northern Colorado, Greeley, Colorado.

Jackson, Laura A., Elementary and Middle Level Science Specialist, Columbia Public School District, Columbia, Missouri.

Marinez, Diana I., Dean, Science and Technology College, Texas A&M University, Corpus Christi, Texas.

Moore, C. Bradley, Professor, Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California.

Pratt, Harold A., Senior Staff Associate, Biological Sciences Curriculum Study, Colorado Springs, Colorado.

Ridky, Robert W., Associate Professor, Department of Geology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland.

Smith, Patricia J., Teacher and Chair (retired), Science Department, Air Academy High School, Colorado Springs, Colorado.

Sneider, Cary, Director, Astronomy and Physics Education, Lawrence Hall of Science, University of California, Berkeley, California.

Snow, John, Dean, College of Geosciences, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma.

Synder-Gordon, Judith, TEAMS, Science Distance Learning Instructor, Los Angeles County Office of Education, Downey, California.

Williams, David R., Earth Science Teacher, Caesar Rodney Junior High School, Camden, Delaware.

Working Group on Science Teaching Standards

Worth, Karen (Chair), Senior Associate, Education Development Center; Faculty Member, Wheelock College, Newton, Massachusetts.

Altman, Lynn Talton., Science Coordinator, Greenville County School District, Greenville, South Carolina.

Bingman, Kenneth J., Biology Teacher, Shawnee Mission West High School, Shawnee Mission, Kansas.

Brooks, Rhonda, Physical Science Teacher, Albuquerque Academy, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

Dyasi, Hubert M., Director, The Workshop Center for Open Education, City College of New York, New York.

Gallagher, James J., Professor of Science Education, College of Education, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan.

Kuerbis, Paul J., Professor, Education Department, The Colorado College, Colorado Springs, Colorado.

Lopez-Freeman, Maria Alicia, Director, Center for Teacher Leadership, California Science Project, University of California, Office of the President, Oakland, California.

Loucks-Horsley, Susan, Senior Associate, The National Center for Improving Science Education, Tucson, Arizona.

Padilla, Michael J., Department of Science Education, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia.

Pine, Jerry, Professor of Biophysics, Physics Department, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California.

Sink, Judy K., Instructor, Science Laboratory, Appalachian State University; Teacher, Hardin Park Elementary School, Boone, North Carolina.

Sprague, Susan, Director, Science/Social Science Resource Center, Mesa Public Schools, Mesa, Arizona.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix." National Research Council. 1996. National Science Education Standards. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4962.
×

Van Burgh, Dana, Jr., Co-Director, Project FutureScience; Teacher (retired), Earth Science and Field Science Programs, Dean Morgan Junior High School, Casper, Wyoming.

Walton, Edward D., Coordinator, Physical Science, Center for Science and Mathematics Education, California State Polytechnic University, Pomona, California.

Ward, Debra Susan L., Science and Mathematics Teacher, Carlisle Public Schools, Carlisle, Arkansas.

Zook, Douglas P., Assistant Professor of Science Education, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts.

Working Group on Science Assessment Standards

Champagne, Audrey B. (Chair), Professor of Chemistry, Department of Chemistry; Professor of Education, Department of Educational Theory and Practice, State University of New York at Albany, Albany, New York.

Badders, William D., Science Resource Teacher, Cleveland Public Schools, Cleveland, Ohio.

Black, Paul J., Professor of Science Education, Center for Educational Studies, King's College, London, United Kingdom.

Bond, Lloyd, Professor, Education Research Methodology, Center for Education Research and Evaluation, University of North Carolina, Greensboro, North Carolina.

Clark, Richard C., Science Specialist (retired), Minnesota Department of Education, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Comfort, Kathleen B., Senior Research Associate, Project 2061, American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, District of Columbia.

Greeno, James G., Professor of Education, School of Education, Stanford University, Stanford, California.

Kimmel, Ernest W., Jr., Executive Director, Academic Services, College Board Programs, Educational Testing Service, Princeton, New Jersey.

Kjeldsen, Barbara J., School Counselor, Kokomo High School Downton Campus, Kokomo, Indiana.

Lawrenz, Frances, Professor of Science Education, Department of Curriculum and Instruction, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Litman, Doris L., Director (retired), Division of Science Education, Pittsburgh Public Schools, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Minstrell, James, Teacher (retired), Physics and Integrated Physics and Mathematics, Mercer Island High School, Mercer Island, Washington.

Pane, Henrietta, Teacher, Westgate Elementary School; K-6 Science Facilitator, Westside Community Schools, Omaha, Nebraska.

Sisk, Jane S., Mathematics and Science Teacher, Mayfield Boys' Treatment Center, Calloway County Schools, Mayfield, Kentucky.

St. John, Mark, President, Inverness Research Associates, Inverness, California.

Weiss, Iris, President, Horizon Research, Inc., Chapel Hill, North Carolina.

White, David J., Math/Science Coordinator, Barre Town School District, Barre Town, Vermont.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix." National Research Council. 1996. National Science Education Standards. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4962.
×

Additional Individuals Who Lent Support to the Project

Alberts, Bruce, President, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, District of Columbia.

Anderson, Don L., Professor of Geophysics, Seismological Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California.

Ayala, Francisco J., Donald Bren Professor of Biological Sciences, University of California, Irvine, California.

Billington, David T., Professor, Civil Engineering and Operations Research, School of Engineering and Applied Science, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey.

Carlyon, Earl, Manchester High School, Manchester, Connecticut.

Duschl, Richard A., Associate Professor of Science Education, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Ebert, James D., Professor of Biology, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland.

English, Janet, Serrano Intermediate School, Lake Forest, California.

Epstein, Samuel, Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California.

Florio, David, Consultant, Washington, District of Columbia.

Goldsmith, Timothy, Department of Biology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut.

Goodstein, David, Professor of Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California.

Gray, Harry B., Beckman Institute, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California.

Hazen, Robert, Carnegie Institute of Washington, Washington, District of Columbia.

Hoffman, Kenneth, Professor of Mathematics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Holton, Gerald, Professory of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Johnson, George B., Department of Biology, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri.

Kahle, Jane Butler, Condit Professor of Science Education, Miami University, Oxford, Ohio.

Kirschner, Marc W., Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Labinger, Jay A., Beckman Institute, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California.

McInerney, Joseph D., Director, Biological Sciences Curriculum Center, Colorado Springs, Colorado.

Moore, John A., Emeritus Professor of Biology, University of California, Riverside, California.

Pister, Karl S., Chancellor, University of California, Santa Cruz, California.

Pollard, Thomas D., Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.

Press, Frank, Cecil and Ida Green Senior Research Fellow, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, District of Columbia.

Raven, Peter H., Director, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, Missouri.

Rigden, John S., Professor of Physics, University of Missouri, St. Louis, Missouri.

Rubin, Vera, Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institute of Washington, District of Columbia.

Silver, Leon Theodore, Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California.

Singer, Maxine, President, Carnegie Institute of Washington, Washington, District of Columbia.

Smith, Philip M., Executive Officer (former), National Research Council, Washington, District of Columbia

Stolper, Edward M., Professor of Geology, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California.

Trefil, James, Robinson Professor, George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia.

Waldvogel, Jerry, Biology Program, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix." National Research Council. 1996. National Science Education Standards. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4962.
×

Special Thanks to Funders

Bither, Eve, Acting Director, Office of Reform, Assistance, and Dissemination, U.S. Department of Education, Washington, District of Columbia.

Eckstrand, Irene, Acting Director, Office of Science Education, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.

Owens, Frank C., Director, Education Division, Office of Human Resources and Education, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, District of Columbia.

Williams, Luther, Assistant Director, Education and Human Resources, National Science Foundation, Arlington, Virginia.

Additional thanks for the many efforts of the following people:

Erma Anderson, Cathy Chetney, Janet Coffey, Barbara Cozzens, Doug Disrud, Cynthia Doherty, Megan Fitch, Edith Gummer, Lolita Jackmon, Keith Lutman, Sue McCutchen, Tonya Miller, Darlene Scheib, Maureen Shiflett, Sam Spiegel, Ginny Van Horne, Judy Van Kirk, John Weigers, Yvonne Wise.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix." National Research Council. 1996. National Science Education Standards. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4962.
×
Page 247
Suggested Citation:"Appendix." National Research Council. 1996. National Science Education Standards. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4962.
×
Page 248
Suggested Citation:"Appendix." National Research Council. 1996. National Science Education Standards. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4962.
×
Page 249
Suggested Citation:"Appendix." National Research Council. 1996. National Science Education Standards. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4962.
×
Page 250
Suggested Citation:"Appendix." National Research Council. 1996. National Science Education Standards. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4962.
×
Page 251
Suggested Citation:"Appendix." National Research Council. 1996. National Science Education Standards. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4962.
×
Page 252
Suggested Citation:"Appendix." National Research Council. 1996. National Science Education Standards. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4962.
×
Page 253
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National Science Education Standards Get This Book
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Americans agree that our students urgently need better science education. But what should they be expected to know and be able to do? Can the same expectations be applied across our diverse society?

These and other fundamental issues are addressed in National Science Education Standards--a landmark development effort that reflects the contributions of thousands of teachers, scientists, science educators, and other experts across the country.

The National Science Education Standards offer a coherent vision of what it means to be scientifically literate, describing what all students regardless of background or circumstance should understand and be able to do at different grade levels in various science categories.

The standards address:

  • The exemplary practice of science teaching that provides students with experiences that enable them to achieve scientific literacy.
  • Criteria for assessing and analyzing students' attainments in science and the learning opportunities that school science programs afford.
  • The nature and design of the school and district science program.
  • The support and resources needed for students to learn science.

These standards reflect the principles that learning science is an inquiry-based process, that science in schools should reflect the intellectual traditions of contemporary science, and that all Americans have a role in improving science education.

This document will be invaluable to education policymakers, school system administrators, teacher educators, individual teachers, and concerned parents.

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