National Academies Press: OpenBook

National Science Education Standards (1996)

Chapter: Index

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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1996. National Science Education Standards. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4962.
×

Index

A

Active learning, 28, 62

characteristics of, 2, 20

in professional development of teachers, 56

American Association for the Advancement of Science, 14, 15, 200

American Association of Physics Teachers, 14

American Chemical Society, 14

Assessment(s)

of ability to inquire, 98-100

achievement measures, 79-82

authentic approach, 78, 83-84

avoiding methodological bias in, 86

changes in emphases in standards, 76-78, 100

conceptual development, 5-6

conceptual trends, 76-78

content standards and, 112

criteria for evaluation of, 5

cross-test comparison, 78

curriculum planning and, 87

data analysis, 38-42, 90

data collection, 38, 84, 85

design standards, 78-79

for development of self-directed learners, 88

equity issues in, 222

examples of implementation, 39-41, 47-49, 80-81, 136, 146-147, 162-164, 202-203

fairness in, 85-86

to improve classroom practice, 87

internal consistency, 79

large-scale, 89-90

methods, 6, 37-38, 84

with multiple variables, 76

opportunity for students to demonstrate achievement, 84

of opportunity to learn, 6, 76-78, 79, 82-83

process components of, 76

professional development of teachers, 42-43, 63, 67, 89, 97-98

program standards, 211

public perception and understanding, 89, 211

regional and national application, 78, 89-90

reliability, 84

reporting and interpreting results, 43, 86-87, 88-89

resource expenditures for, 79

role of, 5-6, 38, 76, 87-89

role of standards for, 5, 75-76

sample assessments of student science achievement, 91-100

scoring rubrics, 93, 95, 97

stability of measures, 84-85

Standard A, 78-79

Standard B, 79-83

Standard C, 83-85

Standard D, 85-86

Standard E, 86-87

stated purpose of, 79

student evaluations of scientific inquiries and results, 171, 202-203

student goals and, 30

student self-assessment, 42, 88

of students with disabilities, 86, 222

of student understanding of natural world, 91-98

system standards and, 230-231

teacher collaborations for, 67

teacher self-assessment, 69

teaching standards, 37-43

technical quality of, related to use, 83-85

validity issues, 78, 83

Atomicity, scientific concept of, 149, 150, 177, 178-179

Authentic assessment, 78, 83-84

B

Benchmarks for Science Literacy, 15, 200

Biological Sciences Curriculum Study, 14

Biology. See Life science

Business and industry

consideration in curriculum planning, 231

in implementation of standards, 245

importance of scientific literacy, 1-2, 12

C

Cell biology, 155, 156, 181, 184-185

Certification for teaching

organizational participants, 229-230

role of professional development standards in, 56

Chemical reactions, 179

Classification concepts and practice, 128, 181, 185

Colleges and universities

admissions requirements, 231

education of science teachers, 60-61, 63-67, 238

Community contexts

curriculum design, 231

design of science program content, 231

development of science program in, 51

educational resources outside the school, 45, 220-221

educational system in, 227-228

health concepts, 197-198

implementation of standards, 245

professional development of teachers in, 57, 67

social perspectives of science, 138-141

Computers, 145, 175

Content Core, The, 14

Content standards, 6-7

changes in emphases in, 113

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1996. National Science Education Standards. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4962.
×

criteria for selection of, 109-110

curriculum and, 20, 22-23, 103, 110, 111, 212-214

in development of student goals, 30

diversity of learning experiences and, 20, 221-222

earth and space science, 106

grades K-4, 130-134

grades 5-8, 158-161

grades 9-12, 187-190

examples of implementation, 34-35, 39, 47-49, 64-66, 80-81, 124-125, 131-133, 136, 146-147, 150-153, 162-164, 182-183, 194-196, 202-203, 215-217

grades K-4, 110

Standard A, 121-123

Standard B, 123-127

Standard C, 127-129

Standard D, 130-134

Standard E, 135-138

Standard F, 138-141

Standard G, 141

grades 5-8, 110

Standard A, 143-148

Standard B, 149-155

Standard C, 155-158

Standard D, 158-161

Standard E, 161-166

Standard F, 166-170

Standard G, 170-171

grades 9-12, 110

Standard A, 173-176

Standard B, 176-181

Standard C, 181-187

Standard D, 187-190

Standard E, 190-193

Standard F, 193-199

Standard G, 200-202

history and nature of science, 104, 107

grades K-4, 141

grades 5-8, 170-171

grades 9-12, 200-202

implementation, 7, 103, 110-112

life science, 106

grades K-4, 127-129

grades 5-8, 155-158

grades 9-12, 181-187

local considerations, 231

personal and social perspectives of science

grades K-4, 138-141

grades 5-8, 166-170

grades 9-12, 193-199

physical science, 106

grades K-4, 123-127

grades 5-8, 149-155

grades 9-12, 176-181

presentation format, 108-109

program standards and, 209-210, 212, 213

rationale, 104

scientific inquiry, 104, 105

grades K-4, 121-123

grades 5-8, 143-148

grades 9-12, 173-176

system standards and, 230-231

technology and science, 106-107

grades K-4, 135-138

grades 5-8, 161-166

grades 9-12, 190-193

unifying concepts and processes, 104-105, 115-119

Council of State Science Supervisors, 14

Creative thinking, 46

Critical thinking, 33, 145, 175

Curriculum

assessment practice and, 87, 211

college/university preparation of science teachers, 61, 238

components of, 22, 212

content standards and, 6-7, 20, 22-23, 103, 110, 111

coordination across subjects, 214

defined, 2-3, 22

developmentally appropriate, 212-214

development of student goals and, 30

equity issues in design of, 222

flexibility, 30, 213

framework, 211

mathematics-science coordination, 214-218

patterns in program design, 212-214

program standards, 7-8

research and development process, 213

selection of units and courses of study, 211

social considerations, 231

teaching practice consistent with, 211

teaching standards for planning of, 30-31

Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics, 13

D

Diet and nutrition, 139, 140, 168, 197

Disabilities and handicaps, 37

access to learning opportunities, 20, 221

assessment of students with, 86, 222

District level

assessment activities, 89-90

changes in emphases in system standards, 240

in educational system, 227, 228

implementation of program standards, 8, 210

implementation of standards, example of, 234-237

science program planning, 51-52, 211-212

Duration of class, 37

E

Earth and space science

developing student understanding

grades K-4, 130-134

grades 5-8, 158-159

grades 9-12, 187-189

earth system, 159-160, 189

evolution of earth, 160, 189-190

fundamental concepts underlying standards for

grades K-4, 134

grades 5-8, 159-161

grades 9-12, 189-190

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1996. National Science Education Standards. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4962.
×

geochemical cycles, 189

grades K-4, content standards for, 106, 130-134

grades 5-8, content standards for, 106, 158-161

grades 9-12, content standards for, 106, 187-190

nature of change, 134

objects in space, 134

origin and evolution of universe, 190

properties of earth materials, 134

solar system, 160-161, 215-217

Earth Science Education Coalition, 14

Earthworms, 34-35

Ecosystem studies, 157-158

Education, Department of, 14

Educational system, 8

communication within, 231

components of, 8, 228-229

coordination and cooperation in, 8, 51

government functioning in, 228

reform of, 9, 21, 28, 52, 211

role of, 228

role of assessments in, 5, 76

role of national standards in, 12

science program planning, 51-52

state functioning in, 227-228, 229

structure and functioning, 8, 227-228

support for science teaching, 4, 27, 28, 37, 211, 222-224

See also System standards

Education Development Center, 14

Egg drop experiment, 162-164

English as second language, 37

Environmental studies, 139, 140, 167, 168

ecosystems, 157-158, 193-197

environmental quality issues, 198

interdependence of organisms, 186, 193

natural and human-induced hazards, 168-169, 198-199

natural resource management, 11, 198

Equity, 2

fairness in assessment practice, 85-86

in science education policy-making, 232-233

science teaching standards and, 4, 16, 20

student access to opportunities, 221-222

Evaporation, 124-125

Everybody Counts: A Report to the Nation on the Future of Mathematics Education, 13

Evolution, scientific concept of

adaptation, 156, 158

example of classroom activity, 182-183

grades 9-12 content standards, 185

natural selection, 181-184, 185

as unifying concept, 119

Examples of implementation

of assessment standards, 39-41, 47-49, 80-81, 136, 146-147, 162-164, 202-203

of content standards, 34-35, 39, 47-49, 64-66, 80-81, 124-125, 131-133, 136, 146-147, 150-153, 162-164, 182-183, 194-196, 202-203, 215-217

of professional development standards, 34-35, 64-66, 131-133, 150-153, 234-237

of program standards, 34-35, 39, 47-49, 64-66, 80-81, 124-125, 131-133, 146-147, 150-153, 162-164, 182-183, 194-196, 215-217, 234-237

student science achievement assessment, 91-99

of system standards, 34-35, 39, 64-66, 124-125, 150-153, 162-164, 234-237

of teaching standards, 34-35, 39, 47-49, 64-66, 80-81, 124-125, 131-133, 136, 146-147, 150-153, 162-164, 182-183, 194-196, 202-203, 215-217

F

Federal government

changes in emphases in system standards, 239

in educational system, 228

system standards, 230-231

in teacher certification, 229, 230

Field experiences, 44, 220-221

for development of pedagogical content knowledge, 67

Form and function, scientific concept of, 119

Fossils, 182-183

G

Gender issues, in assessment, 85-86

Genetics, 64-66, 157, 185

Goals of standards, 2, 10, 13, 21

for professional development of teachers, 55-56

for science teaching, 27

for student assessment, 75, 76

for student inquiry skills, 105

Grades K-4

content standards, 110

earth and space science content standard, 130-134

history and nature of science, content standard for understanding, 141

life science content standard, 127-129

personal and social perspectives of science, content standard for, 138-141

physical science content standard, 123-127

science and technology content standard, 135-138

scientific inquiry in, content standards for, 121-123

teacher knowledge, 60

unifying concepts and processes in, 104-105, 115-119

Grades 5-8

content standards, 110

earth and space science content standard, 158-161

history and nature of science, content standard for understanding, 170-171

personal and social contexts of science, content standard for understanding, 166-170

physical science content standard, 149-155

science and technology content standard, 161-166

science as inquiry in, content standards for, 143-148

unifying concepts and processes in, 105, 115-119

Grades 9-12

content standards, 110

earth and space science content standards, 187-190

graduation requirements, 231

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1996. National Science Education Standards. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4962.
×

history and nature of science, content standards for, 200-202

life science content standards, 181-187

personal and social perspectives of science, content standards for understanding, 193-199

physical science content standards, 176-181

science and technology, content standards for understanding, 190-193

science as inquiry in, content standards for, 173-176

unifying concepts and processes in, 104-105, 115-119

Graduation requirements, 231

H

Health science, 138-141, 157, 167, 168, 197-198

History and nature of science, 104, 107

culture and traditions of science, 21

developing student understanding

grades K-4, 141

grades 5-8, 170

grades 9-12, 200

example of classroom activity, 194-196

fundamental concepts underlying standards for

grades K-4, 141

grades 5-8, 170-171

grades 9-12, 200-204

grades K-4, content standards for, 141

grades 5-8, content standards for, 170-171

grades 9-12, content standards for, 200-202

student evaluations of scientific inquiries, 202-203

Human biology, 156-157, 186, 187

natural and human-induced hazards, 168-169, 198-199

I

Implementation of standards, 243-245

activities in, 244-245

challenges, 2, 9

changing emphases in assessment practice, 100

changing emphases in professional development, 72

changing emphases in teaching practice, 52

content standards, 103, 110, 111-112

equity in, 2, 16, 20

example of system functioning in, 234-237

learning environment for, 13

local contexts and policies in, 8, 29

long-term commitment, 13

as ongoing process, 9

professional development standards, 219

program standards, 210

responsibility for, 244

science content standards, 6-7

science program standards, 7-8

science teaching standards, 29, 137

system-wide participation in, 9, 12, 21

Inquiry. See Scientific inquiry

L

Laboratories, 220

Lawrence Hall of Science, 14

Leadership

continuity in policy and, 231-232

for reform of education of science teachers, 238

science program, 211-212, 223-224

Life science

cellular studies, 184-185

characteristics of organisms, 129

developing student understanding

grades K-4, 127-129

grades 5-8, 155-156

grades 9-12, 181-184

diversity and adaptation of organisms, 158

environmental studies, 129

evolutionary concepts, 185

fundamental concepts underlying standards for

grades K-4, 129

grades 5-8, 156-158

grades 9-12, 184-187

grades K-4, content standards for, 106, 127-129

grades 5-8, content standards for, 106, 155-158

grades 9-12, content standards for, 106, 181-187

interdependence of organisms, 186

life cycles of organisms, 129

living systems studies, 156-157, 186-187

populations and ecosystems, 157-158

regulation and behavior, 157, 187

reproduction and heredity, 157, 185

M

Mathematics, 116-117, 148, 175, 176

coordination with science program, 214-218

Measurement, as science practice, 118

skills in grades K-4, 126-127

skills in grades 5-8, 149

Musical instruments, 47-49

N

National Association of Biology Teachers, 14

National Committee on Science Education Standards and Assessment (NCSESA), 14-15

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM), 13, 15, 218

National Education Goals Panel, 13

National Governors Association, 13

National Research Council (NRC), 13, 14, 15

National Science Education Standards

conceptual basis, 19-21

guide to using, 15-16, 17

historical evolution, 13-15

role of, 12

terminology, 22-24

See also Goals of standards;

Implementation of standards;

specific standard

National Science Foundation, 14

National Science Resources Center, 14

National Science Teachers Association, 14

Nation at Risk, A, 14

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1996. National Science Education Standards. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4962.
×

O

Opportunity to learn

assessment of, 76-78, 79, 82-83

in conceptual basis of standards, 20, 221-222

elements of, 2

program standards, 221-222

See also Equity

P

Parents

in implementation of standards, 245

student progress reports for, 88-89

in system reform, 238

Peer review, student, 174

Pendulums, 146-147

Personal and social perspectives of science

challenges of science and technology, 140-141, 199

content standards, 104, 107

developing student understanding

grades K-4, 138-139

grades 5-8, 166-168

grades 9-12, 193-197

environmental issues, 140, 198

fundamental concepts underlying standards for

grades K-4, 139-141

grades 5-8, 168-170

grades 9-12, 197-199

grades K-4, content standard for, 138-141

grades 5-8, content standard for, 166-170

grades 9-12, content standards for, 193-199

importance of scientific literacy, 1

natural and human-induced hazards, 168-169, 198-199

natural resource issues, 198

personal and community health, 139-140, 169, 197-198

population studies, 140, 168, 198

risk-benefit analysis, 169

technology issues, 140-141, 167-168, 169-170, 197

Photosynthesis, 194-196

Physical science

chemical reactions, 179

conservation of energy, 180

developing student understanding

grades K-4, 123, 126-127

grades 5-8, 149-154

grades 9-12, 176-178

fundamental concepts underlying standards for

grades K-4, 127

grades 5-8, 154-155

grades 9-12, 178-181

grades K-4, content standards for, 106, 123, 126-127

grades 5-8, content standards for, 106, 149-155

grades 9-12, content standards for, 106, 176-181

interactions of energy and matter, 180-181

motions and forces, 127, 154, 179-180

properties of objects and materials, 127, 154, 178-180

structure of atoms, 178

transfer of energy, 155

Population studies, 140, 157-158, 168, 193, 198

Prediction, as science practice, 116-117, 145, 148

Probability, mathematical, 116-117

Professional development of teachers

in assessment practice, 67

benefits of, 67-68

college/university science education, 60-61, 238

design and evaluation of assessments, 97-98

field experiences for, 67

as lifelong process, 57, 68-70

opportunities to reflect on practice, 69

participants in, 57-58

program planning and, 51-52

reform of, 56

resources for, 70, 223

settings for, 58, 67, 68, 69-70

teacher responsibilities, 69

See also Professional development standards

Professional development standards, 4-5

changes in emphases in, 72

continuous activities in, 57, 68-70

examples of implementation, 34-35, 39, 64-66, 131-133, 150-153, 234-237

focus of, 58-59

grade-specific science knowledge, 60

implementation, 219

for knowledge and understanding of science, 59-61

for knowledge of science teaching, 62-68

for professional development programs, 70-71

role of, 5, 55-56

Standard A, 59-61

Standard B, 62-68

Standard C, 68-70

Standard D, 70-71

system standards and, 230-231

underlying assumptions, 56-58

See also Professional development of teachers

Professional societies, 229

Program standards, 7-8

assessment practice in, 211

assumptions underlying, 210

changes in emphases in, 224

content standards and, 212, 213

coordination with mathematics program, 214-218

correspondence with other school subjects, 214

curriculum framework and, 211

curriculum patterns and, 212-214

equity of student access to opportunities, 221-222

examples of implementation, 34-35, 39, 47-49, 64-66, 80-81, 124-125, 131-133, 146-147, 150-153, 162-164, 182-183, 194-196, 215-217, 234-237

field experiences, 220-221

goals and expectations of students, 210, 211

implementation, 8, 210

inquiry as component of, 214

leadership and responsibility, 211-212, 223-224

physical space requirements, 220

professional development of teachers, 70-71, 218-219

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1996. National Science Education Standards. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4962.
×

relationship to student's lives, 212-213

resources for teaching, 218-221

role of, 209-210

school scheduling, 219

Standard A, 210-212

Standard B, 212-214

Standard C, 214-218

Standard D, 218-221

Standard E, 221-222

Standard F, 222-224

support for teachers and teaching, 211, 219, 222-224

system standards and, 230-231

teaching practice, 211

Public perception and understanding

of assessment practice, 85, 89, 211

of system reform, 238

R

Race/ethnicity, assessment and, 85-86

Research activities for professional development, 58

Resource management in teaching, 43-45, 168

adaptation of externally produced materials, 213

assessment standards, 79

budget planning, 220

materials-support infrastructure, 220

necessities for scientific inquiry, 220

physical space requirements, 220

policy-making and, 232

for professional development of teachers, 70

program standard, 218-221

resources outside the school, 45, 220-221

responsibility for, 218

science program planning, 51-52

to sustain and encourage reform, 223

teachers as resource, 218-219

time as resource, 219

Risk-benefit analysis, as scientific concept, 167, 169

S

Safety, 44

Scheduling of classes, 44, 219

Science for All Americans, 14, 15

Science Olympiad, 39-41

Scientific inquiry, 23-24

abilities for, 145, 148, 175-176

grades K-4, 122-123

grades 5-8, 145-148

grades 9-12, 175-176

adult models of, 37, 50-51

assessment of student achievement, 98-100

characteristics of, 2

classroom environment for, 44

classroom resources for, 220

in college/university preparation of science teachers, 61

defined, 214

developing student abilities and understanding

grades K-4, 121-122

grades 5-8, 143-145

grades 9-12, 173-175

in development of teaching and learning models, 31

example of implementation in classroom, 34-35, 146-147

forms of, in classroom, 33

fundamental concepts underlying standards for

grades K-4, 123

grades 5-8, 148

grades 9-12, 176

goals for students, 13, 105

grades K-4, content standard for, 105, 121-123

grades 5-8, content standard for, 105, 143-148

grades 9-12, content standard for, 105, 173-176

historical development of, standards for understanding, 104, 107

meaning of, to students, 173-174

peer review of, 174

personal and social development and, 104, 107

professional development standards for teachers, 59

as program component, 214

responsibilities of system personnel in teaching of, 212

in science learning process, 2, 105

scientific method and, 144-145

skills assessment, 6

student collaboration in, 50

student evaluation of scientific studies and results, 171, 202-203

teacher's management of, 33, 36

technology as design and, 107, 166

See also Scientific literacy

Scientific knowledge and understanding

assessment of, 82

of cause-and-effect, 145

of chemical reactions, 179

college/university education of teachers, 60-61, 238

of constancy and change, 117-118

cultural and traditional elements of, 21

curriculum design for, 213

depth and breadth, 59, 110

of earth and space, 130-134, 158-161, 187-190

of energy, 154, 155, 157, 178, 180-181, 186-187, 189

of environmental and resource issues, 139, 140, 198-199

of evolution and equilibrium, 119

of form and function, 119

goals of standards, 13

of health, 138-140, 141

as human endeavor, 141, 170, 200-201

lifelong learning, 68-69

of living systems and organisms, 127-129, 155-158, 186-187

of measurement, 118, 126-127, 149

of motions and forces, 127, 154, 179-180

of natural selection, 181-184, 185

nature of, 23

pedagogical content knowledge, 62-68

of population issues, 140

of prediction, 116-117, 145, 148

of probability, 116-117

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1996. National Science Education Standards. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4962.
×

professional development standards for teachers, 59-61

of properties of objects and materials, 123, 126-127, 149-154, 178-179

of risk-benefit analysis, 167, 169

of scientific description, 145, 148, 176

of scientific explanation, 117, 122-123, 145, 148, 174, 175-176, 201

scientific inquiry and, 144-145

sources of, 31

of substance abuse, 140

of systems analysis, 116-117

teacher's, 28

of technological design, 135-138, 161-166, 192-193

unifying concepts and processes in, 104-105, 115-119

use of evidence, 117, 145, 174, 201

use of scientific models, 116, 117, 159, 175

See also Scientific inquiry

Scientific literacy

characteristics of, 21, 22

cultural and traditional elements of, 21

defined, 22

developmental approach, 18

goals of standards, 13

importance of, 1-2, 11-12

See also Scientific inquiry;

Scientific knowledge and understanding

Scientists, 233-238, 245

Self-directed learning, 88

Sexual behavior and reproduction, 156, 158, 168, 197-198

Social issues, 138-141

Solar system, 215-217

State government

changes in emphases in system standards, 239

in educational system, 227-228, 229

national standards and, 12

resource allocation, 232

system standards, 230-231

in teacher certification, 229, 230

Students

assessment reports, 43, 88-89

classroom inquiry, 33, 36

classroom organization of, 31-32

classroom participation, 36-37

as community of science learners, 45-46

determinants of learning, 28, 29

development of goals for, 30

encouraging classroom collaboration and discourse, 36, 50

grouping of, 222

in implementation of standards, 244

involvement in design of learning environment, 45, 46-50

program considerations, 212-213

responsibility for learning, 27, 36

self-assessment, 42, 88

social and cultural considerations in teaching strategies, 32, 37

student-teacher relationship, 29

teacher's respect for, 46

Substance abuse, 140, 168, 197

Systems analysis, 116-117

applied to educational systems, 227-228

earth and space science, 158-161, 187-190

interdependence of organisms, 186

living systems, 156-158, 186-187

System standards, 8

changes in emphases in, 239-240

congruence among standards, 230-231

continuity in policy-making, 231-232

coordination of policies, 231

equity considerations, 232-233

examples of implementation, 34-35, 39, 64-66, 124-125, 150-153, 162-164, 234-237

ongoing evaluation of policy, 233

resource considerations in policy-making, 232

responsibility for reform, 8, 233-238

role of, 227

Standard A, 230-231

Standard B, 231

Standard C, 231-232

Standard D, 232

Standard E, 232-233

Standard F, 233

Standard G, 233-238

T

Teacher collaboration

for assessment, 67

in college/university preparation of science teachers, 61

for design of professional development programs, 71

for development of pedagogical content knowledge, 63-68

development of scoring rubrics for assessment, 93

mathematics-science, 214-218

new forms of, 67

with outside institutions, 223

for professional development, 57-58

for research on practice, 223

school environment for, 222-223

for science program planning, 32, 51

with scientists, 233-238

for self-assessment, 69

Teaching practice

as active learning process, 2, 20, 28

assessment of, 6, 42-43

assessment practice consistent with, 211

classroom organization of students, 31-32

consistent with curriculum framework, 211

culture and traditions of science, 21

determinants of student learning, 28, 29

equitable access to opportunities for students, 221-222

flexibility, 213

good qualities, 12, 218-219

grouping of students, 222

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1996. National Science Education Standards. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4962.
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National Science Education Standards Get This Book
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Americans agree that our students urgently need better science education. But what should they be expected to know and be able to do? Can the same expectations be applied across our diverse society?

These and other fundamental issues are addressed in National Science Education Standards--a landmark development effort that reflects the contributions of thousands of teachers, scientists, science educators, and other experts across the country.

The National Science Education Standards offer a coherent vision of what it means to be scientifically literate, describing what all students regardless of background or circumstance should understand and be able to do at different grade levels in various science categories.

The standards address:

  • The exemplary practice of science teaching that provides students with experiences that enable them to achieve scientific literacy.
  • Criteria for assessing and analyzing students' attainments in science and the learning opportunities that school science programs afford.
  • The nature and design of the school and district science program.
  • The support and resources needed for students to learn science.

These standards reflect the principles that learning science is an inquiry-based process, that science in schools should reflect the intellectual traditions of contemporary science, and that all Americans have a role in improving science education.

This document will be invaluable to education policymakers, school system administrators, teacher educators, individual teachers, and concerned parents.

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