National Academies Press: OpenBook

Allocating Federal Funds for Science and Technology (1995)

Chapter: Appendix E: Acronyms

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Acronyms." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and National Research Council. 1995. Allocating Federal Funds for Science and Technology. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5040.
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Page 96
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Acronyms." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and National Research Council. 1995. Allocating Federal Funds for Science and Technology. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5040.
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Page 97

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96 / APPENDIX E Appendix E Acronyms AAAS American Association for the Advancement of Science ACE Angiotensin converting enzyme AIDS Acquired immune deficiency syndrome ARPA Advanced Research Projects Agency ATP Advanced Technology Program CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention COSEPUP Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy CRADA Cooperative research and development agreement DHHS Department of Health and Human Services DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid DOD Department of Defense DOE Department of Energy DVA Department of Veterans Affairs EPA Environmental Protection Agency FDA Food and Drug Administration FFRDC Federally funded research and development center FS&T1 Federal science and technology GDP Gross domestic product GOCO Government-owned, contractor-operated laboratory GOGO Government-owned, government-operated laboratory GPRA Government Performance and Results Act of 1993 GPS Global positioning system HIV Human immunodeficiency virus HUD Department of Housing and Urban Development MEP Manufacturing Extension Partnerships program NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration NIH National Institutes of Health NIST National Institute of Standards and Technology NOAA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration NSF National Science Foundation 1 A term introduced by the committee to denote the science and technology base that underlies the broader national R&D enterprise, as well as the pool of federal funding that supports that base. 96 96

APPENDIX E / 97 NSTC National Science and Technology Council ODDR&E Office of the Director of Defense Research and Engineering OMB Office of Management and Budget ONR Office of Naval Research OSTP Office of Science and Technology Policy R&D Research and development RISC Reduced instruction set computing TRP Technology Reinvestment Program USAID U.S. Agency for International Development USDA U.S. Department of Agriculture USGS U.S. Geological Survey VLSI Very large scale integrated circuit program 97

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The United States faces a new challenge--maintaining the vitality of its system for supporting science and technology despite fiscal stringency during the next several years. To address this change, the Senate Appropriations Committee requested a report from the National Academies of Sciences and Engineering and the Institute of Medicine to address "the criteria that should be used in judging the appropriate allocation of funds to research and development activities; to examine the appropriate balance among different types of institutions that conduct such research; and to look at the means of assuring continued objectivity in the allocation process." In this eagerly-awaited book, a committee of experts selected by the National Academies and the Institute responds with 13 recommendations that propose a new budgeting process and formulates a series of questions to address during that process. The committee also makes corollary recommendations about merit review, government oversight, linking research and development to government missions, the synergy between research and education, and other topics. The recommendations are aimed at rooting out obsolete and inadequate activities to free resources from good programs for even better ones, in the belief that "science and technology will be at least as important in the future as they have been in the past in dealing with problems that confront the nation." The authoring committee of this book was chaired by Frank Press, former President of the National Academy of Sciences (1981-1993) and Presidential Science and Technology Advisor (1977-1981).

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