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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1996. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5140.
×

Index

A

Accidents and emergencies, 17, 18, 46, 62

Acclimation and adaptation, 28-29

of newly acquired animals, 57, 58

to outdoor housing, 25, 30

Acquisition of animals, 57

Activity and exercise, 37, 38

Agricultural research, 4-5

Airborne contaminants, 17, 22-23, 24, 33, 62-63

Airflow, see Ventilation and airflow

Air pressure. 17, 31, 76, 79

Albinism, 35

Alternatives to animal research, 1, 10, 117

recommended readings, 82-83

American Association for Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care (AAALAC), 102-103

American Association for Laboratory Animal Science (AALAS), 13, 103

American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine (ACLAM), 103

American Humane Association (AHA), 103-104

American Humane Education Society (AHES), 110

American Society of Heating. Refrigeration, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), 32

American Society of Laboratory Animal Practitioners (ASLAP), 104

American Society of Primatologists (ASP), 104

American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA), 65, 104-105

Amphibians, recommended readings, 83

Analgesia and analgesics. 12, 64-65

recommended readings, 83-84

Anesthesia and anesthetics, 12, 63, 64-65

recommended readings, 83-85

recovery from, 63-64, 79

waste gases, 17

Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), 112-113, 114

Animal care and use protocols, 8-11

Animal training, 11, 25

Animal Welfare Act, 113, 114

Animal Welfare Information Center (AWIC), 13, 37, 105

Animal Welfare Institute (AWI), 105

Animal Welfare Regulations (AWRs), 2, 4, 8, 9, 10, 11, 114, 117

housing guidelines, 25, 26

on personnel qualifications, 13, 61

on transport, 57

on veterinary care, 13

Antibiotics, 61

Anxiolytics, 65

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1996. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5140.
×

Apes, see Nonhuman primates

Association of Primate Veterinarians (APV), 105-106

Australia and New Zealand Council for the Care of Animals in Research and Teaching (ANZCCART), 106

Autoclaving

of foods and bedding, 39, 41

for surgery, 62, 79

B

Barrier entry systems, 16

Bedding24, 32, 41

changing of, 24, 29, 34, 42, 44

disposal, 15, 16

Behavior and behavior changes, 2, 11, 12, 22, 23, 25, 36-38

Biologic agents and hazards, 14, 16, 18, 44

recommended readings, 85-86

waste disposal, 44, 45

Biologic-safety cabinets, 17, 76

Birds, recommended readings, 87

Bites and scratches, 14, 18

Bordetella bronchiseptica,59

Breeding and reproduction, 47, 57

environmental conditions for, 22, 25, 35

records, 46, 47

C

Cages and caging, 23, 38

cleaning and sanitation, 24, 43, 44

complexities in, 25, 36

dimensions and space allocation, 25-28

flooring, 24, 43

see also Primary enclosures

Calorie restriction, 40

Canadian Association for Laboratory Animal Medicine/L'Association canadienne dela medecine des animaux de laboratoire (CALAM/ACMAL) , 106-107

Canadian Association for Laboratory Animal Science/L'Association canadienne pour la technologie des animeaux laboratoire (CALAM/ACTAL) , 106-107

Canadian Council on Animal Care (CCAC), 13, 107

Carcass disposal, 45, 73, 77

Cats, 38, 46

housing requirements, 25, 28, 32

procurement, 57

recommended readings, 87

Cattle, space requirements, 26, 31, 38

Cedar shavings, 41

Ceilings, 75

Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing (CAAT), 107-108

Center for Laboratory Animal Welfare (CLAW), 110

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 16, 18

Cercopithecine herpesvirus,18, 59

Chairing, 11

Chemical cleaning agents, 14, 43, 62

Chickens, 28, 32

Circadian cycles, 34, 35

Cleaning and sanitation, 15, 24, 34, 42-44, 72, 77-78

Clinical records, 46-47

Clothing, 15, 17

Cold storage and refrigeration, 39, 45, 77

Committees, see Institutional animal care and use committees (IACUCs)

Computer modeling

as an alternative to animal use, 10, 117

in facility design, 31, 71

Conditioned-response protocols, 12

Construction materials, 23, 72

Contaminants

airborne, 17, 22-23, 24, 33, 62-63

in food, 38, 39

recommended readings, 88-89

in water, 40, 41

Corridors, 16, 73, 77

Cryopreservation, 47-48

D

Defecation, 23, 43

Dehydration, 12

Diagnosis, 59-60

Diet and dietary control, 12, 39, 40

Disaster planning, 46

Disease control, 57-58, 60

Disease susceptibility, 22-23, 37

Disinfection, 23, 24, 42-44

Disposable clothing, 15

Distress

and euthanasia, 10, 65, 66

procedures causing, 10-11, 65, 117

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1996. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5140.
×

Diurnal cycles, 35

Dogs, 11, 37, 38, 46

housing requirements, 24, 25-26, 28, 29n, 32, 38

procurement, 57

recommended readings, 87

Doors, 73

Double-corridor facilities, 16

Drafts, 31

Drainage, 17, 24, 74

Drugs, 11

recommended readings, 96-97

Dry-bulb temperature, 29, 31

E

Education and training of personnel, 13-14, 15, 16, 117

in noise reduction, 36

recommended readings, 100-101

in safety procedures, 15, 16

in surgical procedures, 61

Electric power systems, 76

Emergency procedures, 17, 18, 46, 62

Enclosures, see Cages and caging;

Primary enclosures;

Secondary enclosures

Endangered Species Act, 114-115

Entrapment, 23

Environmental conditions, 22-36

natural versus controlled, 4, 22, 25

see also Facilities;

Housing

Environmental enrichment, 21, 25, 27, 36-38

recommended readings, 88

Ergonomics, 15

Escape, 23, 24

Ether, 17

Ethics, recommended readings, 89

Euthanasia, 10, 65-66

recommended readings, 89

and surgical procedures, 62, 117

Exercise and activity, 37, 38

Exotic and wild species, 5, 30

endangered, 57, 114-115

recommended readings, 89-90

F

Facilities, 71-79

for cleaning and sanitation, 15, 72, 77-78

for hazardous-agent experimentation, 16-17, 72, 76

recommended readings, 87-88

safety design and support, 15-16

for surgery, 62-63, 78-79

see also Cages and caging;

Housing;

Outdoor housing;

Primary enclosures;

Secondary enclosures;

Space requirements

Farm animals, 4-5, 46

housing requirements, 4, 28, 30-31, 32, 38

recommended readings, 4-5, 90-91

surgery on, 63, 79

Field studies, 5

Fighting, 37

Filter-top cages, 24, 29, 33, 58

Fish and Wildlife Service, 57, 115

Fishes, recommended readings, 83

Flooring, 24, 74

in cages, 24, 43

Food and feeding, 23, 25, 38-40

autoclavings, 39, 41

bowls and devices, 26, 39-40, 43

recommended reading, 94-95

restrictions, 12, 40

storage, 39, 40, 41, 77

Foundation for Biomedical Research (FBR), 108

Furnishings, 23, 24, 26, 36-37

recommended readings, 88

G

Gas concentrations, 22, 33, 34

Genetics, 47-48

recommended readings, 91-92

Gerbils, 32

Goats, 26, 30, 58

Groups, see Social groups and social interaction

Guinea pigs, 27, 43, 58, 59

H

Hamsters, 27, 32, 43

Hazardous agents, 14, 16-17

recommended readings, 85-86, 88-89

waste disposal, 44, 45

Hearing protection, 17

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1996. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5140.
×

Heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems, 33, 34, 75-76

Heat loads, 30, 31, 32, 33

Height, of enclosures, 25, 26-27

HEPA filters (high-efficiency particulate air filters), 33-34, 76

Herpesvirus simine,18, 59

Herpesvirus tamarinus, 59

Holidays, care during, 46

Horses, space requirements, 31, 38

Housing, 23, 117

factors in planning, 21-22

safety design, 15-16

see also Cages and caging;

Outdoor housing;

Primary enclosures;

Secondary enclosures;

Space requirements;

and specific animals

Humane Society of the United States (HSUS), 108-109

Human interaction, 38

Humidity and moisture, 22, 23, 24, 29, 30, 34, 75

Husbandry and management practices, 2, 38-46

for outdoor housing, 24-25

recommended readings, 92-93

see also Bedding;

Cleaning and sanitation;

Food and feeding;

Records and record-keeping;

Repair and maintenance

I

Identification of animals, 46, 57

Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA), 35

Illumination, 34-35, 76

Immunizanon, 18

Immunocompromised animals, 15, 44

Inbreeding, 47, 48

Incineration, 45

Infectious-disease studies, 18

Inspections, 9

Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources (ILAR), 2, 13, 109

Institutional animal care and use committees (IACUCs), 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 9-10, 11, 22

and housing design, 24, 26, 27

recommended readings, 82

and surgical procedures. 12, 61

Interagency Research Animal Committee, 116

International Air Transport Association (IATA) Live Animal Regulations , 57

International Council for Laboratory Animal Science (ICLAS), 109-110

Isolation, see Quarantine;

Separation and isolation

L

Laboratory Animal Management Association (LAMA), 110

Laboratory personnel

medical evaluation, 17-18

qualifications and training, 13-14, 117

recommended readings, 100-101

see also Occupational health and safety

Laundering services, 15

Light, 34-35, 76

Litter boxes, 26

Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, 60

M

Macaques, 18, 59

Macroenvironment, 22

Major survival surgery, 11-12, 61

Massachusetts Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (MSPCA), 110

Medical examinations (personnel), 17-18

Metabolic processes, 22-23

Mice, 35, 58

diseases, 59, 60

housing requirements, 27, 32

Microenvironment, 22-23, 31

Modeling, see Computer modeling

Moisture, see Humidity and moisture

Monkeys, see Nonhuman primates

Mouse hepatitis virus, 59, 60

Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, 59

N

National Association for Biomedical Research (NABR), 111

National Institutes of Health (NIH), 16, 18, 111

National Research Council (NRC). 14, 16, 18

Natural environments, 4, 22, 25

Neuromuscular blocking agents, 65

Nocturnal animals, 35

Noise, 17, 36, 73, 77

Nomenclature, 48

recommended readings, 91-92

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1996. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5140.
×

Nonhuman primates, 17, 36, 40

clinical records, 46, 47

diseases of, 18, 58, 59

housing requirements, 24-29 passim, 32, 37

imports, 57

recommended readings, 93-94

restraint, 11

Nontraditional species, see Exotic and wild species

Nutrition, see Food and feeding

O

Occupational health and safety, 5, 10, 14-18

recommended readings, 85-86

Odors, 32, 33, 34, 42, 44

Office for Protection from Research Risks, 111

Outbreeding, 47, 48

Outdoor housing, 24-25

acclimation, 25, 30

pest control, 45

water sources, 41

P

Pain, 64, 117

control, 2, 10, 12, 64-65, 117

and euthanasia, 10, 65, 66

procedures causing, 10-11, 65, 117

recommended readings, 83-85

Paralysis, 65, 117

Parasites, readings, 95

Particulate concentrations, 22, 33, 34

Pasteurella multocida,59

Pastures, 4, 24, 25, 38

Pathology, readings, 95

Pedigrees, 47

Pens, 23, 24, 42-43

Perches, 23, 24, 25, 36

Perishable foods, 39

Pest control, 45-46

Pets, 57

Pharmacology, recommended readings, 96-97

Photoperiod, 34, 35, 74

Photostressors, 34

Phototoxic retinopathy, 35

Physical activity, 37, 38

Physical hazards, 14, 15, 16

Physical restraint, 11

Physiologic function, 11-12, 22-23

Pigeons, 28

Pigmentation, 35

Pilot studies, 10

Policies, 2-3

recommended readings, 93

see also Animal care and use protocols

Ponies, 31

Postures and postural adjustments, 2, 11, 23, 25, 27

Poultry, 32

Power systems, 76

Primary enclosures, 22, 23-24

cleaning and sanitation, 42-44

dimensions and space allocation, 25-28

flooring, 24

furnishings, 23, 26, 36-37

temperature and humidity, 29

ventilation and airflow, 22, 24, 31-33

see also Cages and caging

Primate Information Center, 111

Primates, see Nonhuman primates

Primate Supply Information Clearinghouse (PSIC), 112

Procurement of animals, 57

Professional societies, 13, 102-112 passim

Protective clothing, 15, 17

Protocols, 8-11

Public Health Service (PHS) Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, 2, 8, 9, 10, 111, 116

housing guidelines, 26

on personnel qualifications, 13, 61

on safety, 14

on veterinary care, 13

Purina Mills, Inc., 112

Q

Quail, 28

Quarantines, 57, 58

see also Separation and isolation

R

Rabbits, 28, 32, 40, 43

diseases, 59

recommended readings, 97-98

Radiation, 14, 15, 45

Rats, 27, 32, 58

albinism and photoxicity, 35

diseases, 59, 60

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1996. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5140.
×

Records and record-keeping

clinical, 46-47

genetic management, 47-48

identification, 46

Recycled airflow, 33-34, 76

Regulations, 2-3, 8, 10, 57

recommended readings, 93

Regulatory Enforcement of Animal Care (REAC), 112-113

Removals from experiments, 10, 11, 12

Repair and maintenance, 23, 34

Reproduction, see Breeding and reproduction

Reptiles, recommended readings, 83

Respiratory protection, 17

Resting areas, 23, 25, 26, 36

Restraint, 11

Risk assessment, 14

Rodents, 36, 40, 43, 58

albinism and photoxicity, 35

diseases of, 59, 60

housing requirements, 24, 25, 26, 27, 32

inbreeding, 47

pathogen-free, 60

recommended readings, 97-98

surgery on, 63, 78

toe-clipping, 46

Runs, 23, 24, 42-43

S

Safety, see Occupational health and safety

Sanitation, see Cleaning and sanitation

Scientists Center for Animal Welfare (SCAW), 112

Secondary enclosures, 22, 29, 44

doors and windows, 73-74

ventilation and airflow, 22, 31-33

see also Cages and caging

Security, 46, 73

Sedation and sedatives, 12, 65

Separation and isolation, 46, 58-59, 60, 72

Serial publications, 99-100

Sheep, 26, 30, 38

Shelf-life, of food, 39

Sheltered housing, 24

Shelves, 24, 36

Showers, 15, 17, 73

Sialodacryoadenitis virus, 59

Simian hemorrhagic fever, 59

Simian immunodeficiency virus, 59

Social groups and social interaction, 21-27, 37-38, 40

Solid-bottom flooring, 24, 43

Space requirements, 25-28, 30, 31, 32, 38

Stabilization, 57, 58

Sterilization

of cages and equipment, 24, 44

of food, 39

of hazardous wastes, 45

for surgery, 62

Storage facilities and containers, 72, 77

for food and bedding, 39-40, 41, 77

for waste, 45, 72, 77

Subclinical infections, 59, 60

Surgical procedures, 11-12, 60-64, 117

autoclaving, 62, 79

facilities, 62-63, 78-79

oversight, 56

postsurgical care, 63-64, 79

recommended readings, 83-85

Surveillance, 16, 18, 58, 59-60

Swine

diseases, 59

space requirements, 26, 30

T

Temperature, 22, 24, 28-34, 74, 75

Tetanus, 18

Tethering, 11

"3 R's" (replacement, reduction, and refinement), 108, 109

Timed lighting systems, 35, 76

Toe-clipping, 46

Training, see Animal training;

Education and training of personnel

Transgenic animals, 47-48

Transport of animals, 57

Traps, 46

Treatment and therapeutic procedures, 60

Tuberculosis, 18, 57

Tunnels, 36

U

Universities Federation for Animal Welfare (UFAW), 112

Urine, 23, 43

U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), 57, 112-113, 114

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1996. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5140.
×
Page 119
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1996. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5140.
×
Page 120
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1996. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5140.
×
Page 121
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1996. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5140.
×
Page 122
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1996. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5140.
×
Page 123
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1996. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5140.
×
Page 124
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A respected resource for decades, the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals has been revised by a committee of experts, based on input from scientists and the public. The Guide incorporates recent research on commonly used species, including farm animals, and includes extensive references. It is organized around major components of animal use:

  • Institutional policies and responsibilities. The committee discusses areas that require policy attention: the role and function of the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee, protocols for animal care and use, occupational health and safety, personnel qualifications, and other areas.
  • Animal environment, husbandry, and management. The committee offers guidelines on how to design and run a management program, addressing environment, nutrition, sanitation, behavioral and social issues, genetics, nomenclature, and more.
  • Veterinary care. The committee discusses animal procurement and transportation, disease and preventive medicine, and surgery. The Guide addresses pain recognition and relief and issues surrounding euthanasia.
  • Physical plant. The committee identifies design and construction issues, providing guidelines for animal-room doors, drainage, noise control, surgery, and other areas. The Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals provides a framework for the judgments required in the management of animal facilities--a resource of proven value, now updated and expanded. This revision will be important to researchers, animal care technicians, facilities managers, administrators at research institutions, policymakers involved in research issues, and animal welfare advocates.
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