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Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 1997. An Evaluation of the U.S. Navy's Extremely Low Frequency Submarine Communications Ecological Monitoring Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5410.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 1997. An Evaluation of the U.S. Navy's Extremely Low Frequency Submarine Communications Ecological Monitoring Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5410.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 1997. An Evaluation of the U.S. Navy's Extremely Low Frequency Submarine Communications Ecological Monitoring Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5410.
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Page 150
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 1997. An Evaluation of the U.S. Navy's Extremely Low Frequency Submarine Communications Ecological Monitoring Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5410.
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Page 151
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 1997. An Evaluation of the U.S. Navy's Extremely Low Frequency Submarine Communications Ecological Monitoring Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5410.
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References AIBS (American Institute of Biological Sciences). 1985. Assessments and Viewpoints on the Biological and Human Health Effects of Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) Electromagnetic Fields. Compilation of Commissioned Papers for the ELF Literature Review Project. Washington, D.C.: American Institute of Bio- logical Sciences. Anderson, L.E. 1990. Biological effects of extremely low-frequency and 60 Hz fields. Chapter 9 in Biological Effects and Medical Applications of Electromagnetic Energy, O.P. Gandhi, ed. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall. Antai, S.P., and D.L. Crawford. 1981. Degradation of softwood, hardwood, and grass lignocelluloses by two Streptomyces strains. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 42:378-380. Beaver, D.L., R.W. Hill, and S.D. Hill. 1994. ELF Communication System Ecologi- cal Monitoring Program: Small Vertebrate Studies- Final Report. Technical Report D06212-1. Prepared for Submarine Communications Project Office, Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command, Washington, D.C., by IIT Re- search Institute, Chicago, Ill. Brayman, A.A., M.W. Miller, C. Cox, E.L. Carstensen, and M. Schaedle. 1985. Absence of a 45 or 60 Hz electric field-induced respiratory effect in Physarum polycephalum. Radial. Res. 104:242-261. Bruhn, J.N., S.T. Bagley, and J.B. Pickens. 1994. ELF Communication System Ecological Monitoring Program: Litter Decomposition and Microflora Stud- ies Final Report. IITRI Tech. Rep. D06212-3. IIT Research Institute, Chicago, Ill. Burton, T.M., R.J. Stout, S. Winterstein, T. Coon, D. Novinger, R. Stelzer, and M. Rondinelli. 1994. ELF Communications System Ecological Monitoring Program: 148

REFERENCES 149 Aquatic Ecosystem Studies- Final Report. IITRI Tech. Rep. D06212-5. IIT Research Institute, Chicago, Ill. Carpenter, S.R., T.M. Frost, J.F. Kitchell, and T.K. Kratz. 1993. Species dynamics and global environmental change. Pp. 267-279 in Biotic Interactions and Global Change, P.M. Kareiva, J.G. Kingsolver, and R.B. Huey, eds. Sunderland, Mass.: Sinauer Associates. Caswell, H. 1976. Community structure Neutral model analysis. Ecol. Monogr. 46(3):327-354. Crawford, D.L. 1978. Lignocellulose decomposition by selected streptomyces strains. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 35~6~:1041-1045. Dill, M.W. 1984. ELF ground design and installation. IEEE J. Oceanic Eng. OE- 9: 128-135. Goodman, E.M., and B. Greenebaum. 1988. The Effects of Exposing the Slime Mold P~san~m polycephalum to Electromagnetic Fields, Vol. 1 of 3, Tab C in Com- pilation of 1987 Annual Reports of the Navy ELF Communications System Ecological Monitoring Program. IITRI Tech. Rep. E06595-2. IIT Research Institute, Chicago, Ill. Goodman E., and B. Greenebaum. 1990. ELF Communications System Ecological Monitoring Program: Slime Mold Studies Final Report. IITRI Tech. Rep. E06620-3. IIT Research Institute, Chicago, Ill. Guntenspergen, G., J. Keough, F. Stearns, D. Wikum. 1988. ELF Communications System Ecological Monitoring Program: Wetlands Studies, Annual Report 1987. Vol. 3 of 3, Tab I in Compilation of 1987 Annual Reports of the Navy ELF Communications System Ecological Monitoring Program. IITRI Tech. Rep. E06595-2. IIT Research Institute, Chicago, Ill. Guntenspergen, G., J. Keough, F. Stearns, and D. Wikum. 1989. ELF Communica- tions System Ecological Monitoring Program: Wetlands Studies Final Report. IITRI Tech. Rep. E06620-2. IIT Research Institute, Chicago, Ill. Hanowski, J., J.G. Blake, G.J. Niemi, and P.T. Collins. 1991. ELF Communications System Ecological Monitoring Program: Wisconsin Bird Studies Final Report. IITRI Tech. Rep. E06628-2. IIT Research Institute, Chicago, Ill. Hanowski, J., G.J. Niemi, and J.G. Blake. 1994. ELF Communications System Ecological Monitoring Program: Michigan Bird Studies Final Report. IITRI Tech. Rep. D06212-2. IIT Research Institute, Chicago, Ill. Haradem, D.P., J.R. Gauger, and J.E. Zapotosky. 1992. ELF Communications Sys- tem Ecological Monitoring Program: Electromagnetic Field Measurements and Engineering Support 1992. IITRI Tech. Rep. D06205-1. IIT Research Insti- tute, Chicago, Ill. Haradem, D.P., J.R. Gauger, and J.E. Zapotosky. 1994. ELF Communications Sys- tem Ecological Monitoring Program: Electromagnetic Field Measurements and Engineering Support Final Report. IITRI Tech. Rep. D06209-1. IIT Research Institute, Chicago, Ill.

150 EVALUATION OF ELF ECOLOGICAL MONITORING PROGRAM Hurlbert, S.H. 1984. Pseudoreplication and the design of ecological field experiments. Ecol. Monog. 54~2~:187-211. IITRI (Illinois Institute of Technology Research Institute). 1976. Seafarer Monitoring Plan. Prepared by Equitable Environmental Health, Rockville, Md., for IIT Research Institute, Chicago, Ill. Jones, E.A., D.D. Reed, P.J. Cattelino, and G.D. Mroz. 1991. Seasonal shoot growth of planted red pine predicted from air-temperature degree days and soil- water potential. For. Ecol. Manage. 46~3-4~:201-214. Knutson, D.M., A.S. Hutchins, and K. Cromack. 1980. The association of calcium oxalate utilizing Streptomyces with conifer ectomycorrhizae. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 46~6~:61 1-619. Krizaj, D., and V. Valencic. 1989. The effect of ELF magnetic-fields and temperature on differential plant-growth. J. Bioelectricity 8~2~:159-165. Martin, A.H. 1989. Electromagnetic fields and the developing embryo [abstract]. P. A-15 in the Annual Review of Research and Biological Effects of 50- and 60-Hz Electric and Magnetic Fields, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, NOV. 13-16, 1989, Portland, Oreg. Marx, D.H. 1982. Mycorrhizae in interactions with other microorganisms. Pp. 225- 228 in Methods and Principles of Mycorrhizal Research. N.C. Schenck, ed. St. Paul, Minn.: American Phytopathological Society. McClaugherty, C.A., J. Pastor, J.D. Aber, and J.M. Melillo. 1985. Forest litter decomposition in relation to soil nitrogen dynamics and litter quality. Ecology 66~11: 266-275. Meentemeyer, V. 1978. Macroclimate and liken control of litter decomposition rates. Ecology 59~3~:465-472. Melillo, J.M., J.D. Aber, and J.M. Muratore. 1982. Nitrogen and lignin control of hardwood leaf litter decomposition dynamics. Ecology 63~3~:621-626. Melillo, J.M., R.J. Naiman, J.D. Aber, and A.E. Linkens. 1984. Factors controlling mass-loss and nitrogen dynamics of plant litter decaying in northern streams. Bull. Mar. Sci. 35 :~3) 341-356. Michaelson, S.M. and J.C. Lin. 1987. PP. 157-164 in Biological Effects and Health Implications of Radiofrequency Radiation. New York: Plenum Press. Mroz, G.D., P.J. Cattelino, M.R. Gale, E.A. Jones, M.F. Jurgensen, H.O. Liechty, and D.D. Reed. 1994. ELF Communications System Ecological Monitoring Program: Upland Flora Studies Final Report. Tech. Rep. D06212-4. IIT Re- search Institute, Chicago, Ill. Nelson, S.O. 1991. Dielectric-properties of agricultural products Measurements and applications. IEEE Trans. Electr. Insul. 26~51:845-869. Niemi, G.J., and J.M. Hanowski. 1984. A Proposal for a Study to Monitor the Ef- fects of the ELF Antenna System on Bird Species and Communities: 1985-1987. Submitted to IIT Research Institute. Chicago, Ill. NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health), NIEHS (National

REFERENCES 151 Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, and DOE (U.S. Department of Energy). 1996. Questions and Answers: EMF in the Workplace. Washington, D.C.: Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office. NRC (National Research Council). 1977. Biologic Effects of Electric and Magnetic Fields Associated with Proposed Project Seafarer. Assembly of Life Sciences. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences. NRC (National Research Council). 1997. Possible Health Effects of Exposure to Residential Electric and Magnetic Fields. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRPB (National Radiological Protection Board). 1992. Electromagnetic Fields and the Risk of Cancer, Vol. 3. Chilton, Didcot, U.K.: National Radiological Pro- tection Board. Olson, J.S. 1963. Energy storage and the balance of producers and decomposers in ecological systems. Ecology 44~2~:322-331. ORAU (Oak Ridge Associated Universities) Panel. 1992. Health Effects of Low- Frequency Electric and Magnetic Fields. ORAU 92/F8. Committee on Inter- agency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination, Washington, D.C. ORAU (Oak Ridge Associated Universities) Panel. 1993. EMF and cancer. Science 260: 13-14. OTA (Office of Technology Assessment). 1989. Biological Effects of Power Fre- quency Electric and Magnetic Fields Background Paper. U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment. OTA-BP-E-53. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Govern- ment Printing Office. Pastor, J., and W.M. Post. 1986. Influence of climate, soil moisture, and succession on forest carbon and nitrogen cycles. Biogeochemistry 2:03-27. Polk, C., and E. Postow. 1986. CRC Handbook of Biological Effects of Electromag- netic Fields. Boca Raton, Fla.: CRC Press. Prosser, C.L. 1973. Comparative Animal Physiology, 3rd Ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders. Reed, D.D., E.A. Jones, M.J. Holmes, and L.G. Fuller. 1992. Modeling diameter growth in local-populations: A case-study involving four North-American decid- uous species . For. Ecol . M anage . 54( 1 -41: 95 - 1 1 4 . Reed, D.D., E.A. Jones, G.D. Mroz, H.O. Liechty, P.J. Cattelino, and M.F. Jurgen- sen. 1993. Effects of 76 Hz electromagnetic-fields on forest ecosystems in northern Michigan Tree growth. Int. J. Biometerol. 37~4~:229-234. Richter, D.L., T.R. Zuellig, S.T. Bagley, and J.N. Bruhn. 1989. Effects of red pine (pinus-resinosa Ait.) mycorrhizoplane-associated actinomycetes on in vitro growth of ectomycorrhizal fungi. Plant and Soil 115~1~: 109-116. Smith, M.L., J.N. Bruhn, and J.B. Anderson. 1992. The fungus Armillaria bulbosa is among the largest and oldest living organisms. Nature 356:428-431. Stearns, F., J. Keough, N.P. Lasca, and C.-Y. Yuen. 1982. Ecology and Geology of the Superior Upland Region: A Theme Study for the National Park Service. University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee.

~ 52 EVALUATION OF ELF ECOLOGICAL MONITORING PROGRAM Stearns, F., G. Guntenspergen, and J. Keough. 1984. ELF Communications System Ecological Monitoring Program: Wetland Studies, Annual Report, 1983. Vol. 2 of 2, Tab I, in Complication of 1983 Annual Reports of the Navy ELF Com- munications System Ecological Monitoring Program. IITRI Tech. Rep. E06549- 8. IIT Research Institute, Chicago, Ill. Strickler, K., and J.M. Scriber. 1994. ELF Communications System Ecological Moni- toring Program: Pollinating Insect Studies Final Report. IITRI Tech. Rep. D06212-6. IIT Research Institute, Chicago, Ill. Tenforde, T. S. 1996. Interaction of ELF magnetic fields with living systems. Pp. 185-230 in Handbook of Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Fields, 2nd Ed. C. Polk and E. Postow, eds. Boca Raton, Fla.: CRC Press. Wiewiorka, Z. 1990. The effects of electromagnetic and electrostatic fields on the development and yield of greenhouse tomato plants. Acta Agrobot. 43~1-2~:25- 36. Wiewiorka, Z., and J. Sarosiek. 1987. The effects of nononizing radiation on the aquatic liverwort ricciocarpus-natans 1. corda. Symp. Biol. Hung. 15:849-856. Wilson, B.W., R.G. Stevens, and L.E. Anderson. 1989. Neuroendocrine mediated effects of electromagnetic-field exposure: Possible role of the pineal gland. Life Sci. 45(15):1319-1332. Zapotosky, J.E., and J.R. Gauger. 1993. ELF Communications System Ecological Monitoring Program Summary Report for 1982-1992. IITRI Tech. Rep. D06205-3. IIT Research Institute, Chicago, Ill. Zapotosky, J.E., J.R. Gauger, and D.P. Haradem. 1996. ELF Communications Sys- tem Ecological Monitoring Program Final Summary Report. IITRI Tech. Rep. D06214-6. IIT Research Institute, Chicago, Ill.

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The U.S. Navy established an ecological monitoring program to determine whether electric and magnetic fields from extremely low frequency (ELF) communications systems influenced plant and animal populations near the transmitting facilities. Although some of the researchers believe that a few biological changes might have occurred, they concluded that the results do not indicate significant adverse ecological effects.

This book evaluates the 11 ecological studies of the Navy's monitoring program and examines the adequacy of experimental design, the data collection and analysis, and the soundness of the conclusions. It also addresses whether the monitoring program was capable of detecting subtle effects due to ELF exposure and examines the biological changes observed by some program researchers, such as enhanced tree growth.

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