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sex Segregation .~ +~ Workplace l Treed Ions "S. ~ 4~/~/W' Remedies Barbara F. Reskin, Editor Committee on Women's Employment and Related Social Issues Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1984
NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 CONSTITUTION AVENUE, NW WASHINGTON, DC 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engi- neering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was established by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and of advising the federal government. The Council operates in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy under the authority of its congressional charter of 1863, which establishes the Academy as a private, nonprofit, self- governing membership corporation. The Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in the conduct of their services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. It is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Engineering and the Institute of Medicine were established in 1964 and 1970, respectively, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences. Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Main entry under title: Sex segregation in the workplace. Revised versions of papers originally presented at a workshop held in May 1982. 1. Sex discrimination in employment- United States Congresses. 2. Sex discrimination against women United States Congresses. I. Reskin, Barbara F. II. National Research Council (U.S.~. Committee on Women's Employment and Related Social Issues. HD6060.5.U5S475 1984 331.4'133'0973 84-8342 ISBN 0-309-03445-0 Printed in the United States of America
Committee on Women's Employment and Related Social Issues ALICE S. ILCHMAN (Chair), President, Sarah Lawrence College CECILIA BURCIAGA, Office of the President, Stanford University CYNTHIA FUCHS EPSTEIN, Department of Sociology, Queens College and the Graduate Center, City University of New York LAWRENCE M. KAHN, Institute of Labor and Industrial Relations, University of Illinois GENE E. KOFKE, American Telephone and Telegraph Co., New York ROBERT E. KRAUT, Bell Communications Research, Murray Hill, N.~. JEAN BAKER MILLER, Stone Center for Developmental Services and Studies, Wellesley College ELEANOR HOLMES NORTON, Georgetown University Law Center GARY ORFIELD, Department of Political Science, University of Chicago NAOMI R. QUINN, Department of Anthropology, Duke University ISABEL V. SAWMILL, The Urban Institute, Washington, D.C. ROBERT M. SOLOW, Department of Economics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology LOUISE A. TILLY, Department of History, University of Michigan DONALD J. TRElMAN, Department of Sociology, University of California, Los Angeles BARBARA F. RESKIN, Study Director MARIE A. MATTHEWS, Administrative Assistant . . .
Contributors JAMES N. BARON, School of Business, Stanford University ANDREA H. BELIER, Department of Family and Consumer Economics, University of Illinois SUE E. BERRYMAN, The Rand Corporation, Santa Monica, California WILLIAM T. BlELBY, Department of Sociology, University of California, Santa Barbara FRANCINE D. BLAU, Department of Economics and Institute of Industrial and Labor Relations, University of Illinois MARY C. BRINTON, Department of Sociology, University of Washington PAMELA S. CAIN, Department of Sociology, Hunter College MARY CORCORAN, Department of Political Science and Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan GREG J. DUNCAN, Department of Economics and Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan KEE-OK KIM HAN, Department of Family and Consumer Economics, University of Illinois SHARON L. HARLAN, Center for Research on Women, Wellesley College MARYELLEN R. KELLEY, College of Management, University of Massachusetts, Boston MARGARET MOONEY MARINI, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Vanderbilt University KAREN OPPENHEIM MASON, Department of Sociology and Population Studies Center, University of Michigan BRIGID O FARRELL, Center for Research on Women, Wellesley College MICHAEL PONZA, Department of Economics, University of Michigan BARBARA F. RESKIN, Department of Sociology, University of Michigan PATRICIA A. BOOS, Department of Sociology, State University of New York, Stony Brook RACHEL A. ROSENFELD, Department of Sociology and Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina MYRA H. STROBER, Center for Research on Women and School of Education, Stanford University LINDAJ. WAITE, The Rand Corporation, Santa Monica, California WENDY C. WOLF, Public/Private Ventures, Philadelphia V
Contents Preface . 1 Introduction. Barbara F. Reskin 1 · V11 I EXTENT, TRENDS, AND PROJECTIONS FOR THE FUTURE 2 Trends in Occupational Segregation by Sex and Race, 1960-1981 . Andrea H. Beller 3 A Woman's Place Is With Other Women: Sex Segregation Within Organizations William T. Bielky and James N. Baron 4 Job Changing and Occupational Sex Segregation: Sex and Race Comparisons Rachel A. Rosenfeld 5 Commentary Pamela Stone Cain 6 Occupational Sex Segregation: Prospects for the 1980s Andrea H. Beller and Kee-ok Kim Han v 9 11 27 56 87 91
II EXPLAINING SEGREGATION: THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES AND EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 7 Occupational Segregation and Labor Market Discrimination Francine D. Blab 8 Toward a General Theory of Occupational Sex Segregation: The Case of Public School Teaching Myra H. Stroloer 117 144 9 Commentary: Strober's Theory of Occupational Sex Segregation . . . 157 Karen Oppenheim Mason 10 Work Experience, Job Segregation' and Wages Mary Corcoran, Greg]. Duncan, and Michael Ponza 171 11 Sex Typing in Occupational Socialization . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192 Margaret Mooney Marini and Mary C. Brinton 12 Commentary .... Wendy C. Wolf 13 Institutional Factors Contributing to Sex Segregation in the Workplace 233 Patricia A. Roos and Barbara F. Reskin 14 Commentary: The Need to Study the Transformation of Job Structures..... Maryellen R. Kelley III REDUCING SEGREGATION: THE EFFECTIVENESS OF INTERVENTIONS 15 Job Integration Strategies: Today s Programs and Tomorrow s Needs B rigid O'Farrell and Sharon L. Harlan . 265 267 16 Occupational Desegregation in CETA Programs . . . . . . . . . . 292 Linda ]. Waite and Sue E. Berryman 17 Commentary ..... Wendy C. Wolf 308 18 Concluding Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310 Francine D. Blab vim
Preface The segregation of the sexes into different occupations, industries, and (within firms) specific jobs is one of the most stable and striking features of the American workplace. Although the sexes have become increasingly similar in their likelihood of employment outside the home, within the workplace women and men differ dramatically in the kinds of jobs they hold. Sex segregation is problematic for several reasons. Most importantly, it promotes and sustains the wage gap between the sexes. Barring substantial changes in the ways that jobs are evaluated and wages set, women's prospects for economic parity will depend on their migration into mainstream "male" jobs, away from the many low-paying jobs~most frequently hell] by women. In view of the pervasiveness of segregation and its adverse consequences for women, in 1981 several groups sponsored an examination of sex segregation in the workplace by the Committee on Women's Employment and Related Social Issues of the National Research Council. The sponsors are the U.S. Department of Ed- ucation, the Employment and Training Administration of the U. S. Department of Labor, and the Carnegie Corporation of New York. The committee's mandate was twofold: to convene a major interdisciplinary work- shop on job segregation and to prepare a state-of-the-art report on the topic. The two-day workshop, held in May 1982, brought together two dozen scholars. This volume includes revised versions of several papers presented there and the remarks of commentators, along with three papers the committee subsequently commis- sioned. These papers served as a resource to the committee in preparing its final report, Women's Work, Men's Work: Segregation on the Job, and stand as a com- panion to that volume. The purposes of the workshop were to bring together scholars from several disciplines to review the evidence for various theoretical explanations for segregation and to report empirical research they were conducting that would enlarge our understanding of its extent, form, and causes. For this reason some of the papers, · ~ vie
ant! thus the chapters in this volume, primarily review the literature (Blau, Marini and Brinton, Boos and Reskin, and O'Farrell and Harlan), while others offer up- to-date empirical findings (Belier, Bielby and Baron, Beller and Han, Rosenfeld, and Waite and Berryman). Two papers combine the presentation of original research with either a critical review of a theoretical perspective (Corcoran, Duncan, and Ponza) or the presentation of a new theoretical approach (Strober). Many of the authors of this volume thank colleagues or assistants for their help. The workshop at which most of these chapters and comments were first presented and this volume also benefited from the work of several people, to whom ~ express my appreciation. As study director of the committee, Barbara F. Reskin was a valuable intellectual resource and an able manager of our work. Marie A. Matthews, administrative assistant to the committee, was indispensable in organizing the work- shop. The members of the Committee on Women's Employment and Related Social Issues and Heidi I. Hartmann, as associate executive director of the Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, helped identify workshop par- ticipants, participated in the workshop, and refereed papers for inclusion in this volume. Christine L. McShane, editor for the commission, worked with the authors and the National Academy Press in producing it. This volume would not exist without the behind-the-scene contributions of these people, and ~ thank them warmly. ALICE S. }LCHMAN, Chair Committee on Women's Employment and Related Social Issues · · ~ vail
Sex Segregation .~ +~ Workplace Trends, Explanations, Remedies ~ .