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NOTES AND REFERENCES 9 Chapter 2 outlines the major factual and perceptual factors which have informed our understanding of the U.S. and Japanese innovation systems in the past, including a review of strengths and weaknesses of the two systems and national and firm level differences. Chapter 3 discusses emerging trends and issues with special focus on evidence for and against convergence. Chapter 4 addresses the growing role of external relationships in corporate technology policy and innovation strategy, and the increasingly multilateral nature of U.S.-Japan technology relationships including the importance of industrial standard-setting. Chapter 5 discusses the need for new theoretical frameworks to analyze and compare the U.S. and Japanese corporate innovation systems, and Chapter 6 suggests areas where further work is needed. NOTES AND REFERENCES 1 United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, World Science Report 1996 (Paris: UNESCO Publishing, 1996). 2 Lewis M. Branscomb and Fumio Kodama, Japanese Innovation Strategy: Technical Support for Business Visions (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Center for Science and International Affairs, Occasional Paper No. 10, 1993). For an extended version of this monograph in Japanese, see Lewis M. Branscomb and Fumio Kodama, Nihon no haiteku gijutsu senryaku (Japan's High Technology Strategy), (Tokyo: NTT Publishing Co., 1995).