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Suggested Citation:"NOTES AND REFERENCES." National Research Council. 1999. New Strategies for New Challenges: Corporate Innovation in the United States and Japan. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5823.
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NOTES AND REFERENCES 9 Chapter 2 outlines the major factual and perceptual factors which have informed our understanding of the U.S. and Japanese innovation systems in the past, including a review of strengths and weaknesses of the two systems and national and firm level differences. Chapter 3 discusses emerging trends and issues with special focus on evidence for and against convergence. Chapter 4 addresses the growing role of external relationships in corporate technology policy and innovation strategy, and the increasingly multilateral nature of U.S.-Japan technology relationships including the importance of industrial standard-setting. Chapter 5 discusses the need for new theoretical frameworks to analyze and compare the U.S. and Japanese corporate innovation systems, and Chapter 6 suggests areas where further work is needed. NOTES AND REFERENCES 1 United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, World Science Report 1996 (Paris: UNESCO Publishing, 1996). 2 Lewis M. Branscomb and Fumio Kodama, Japanese Innovation Strategy: Technical Support for Business Visions (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Center for Science and International Affairs, Occasional Paper No. 10, 1993). For an extended version of this monograph in Japanese, see Lewis M. Branscomb and Fumio Kodama, Nihon no haiteku gijutsu senryaku (Japan's High Technology Strategy), (Tokyo: NTT Publishing Co., 1995).

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Innovation, "the process by which firms master and get into practice product designs and manufacturing processes that are new to them," is vital for companies wishing to remain competitive in today's rapidly changing high technology industries. American and Japanese firms are among the world's most technologically innovative and competitive. However, the changing dynamics of global competition are forcing them to rethink their technological innovation strategies. The choices they make will have great impact on their futures as companies as well as on the livelihoods of their employees and the communities in which they operate.

In order to understand the ways in which Japanese and American companies are changing their technological innovation strategies and practices, the Committee on Japan of the National Research Council and the Committee on Advanced Technology and the International Environment (Committee 149) of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) organized a bilateral task force composed of leading representatives from industry and academia to assess developments in corporate innovation strategies and report on their findings. Through a workshop discussion of the issues and subsequent interaction, the task force explored the institutional division of innovation in both countries: the structure and performance of technology-based industries, the role of the government in the support of science and technology, and the role of universities in the science and technology system. The task force was particularly interested in exploring the points on which the two systems are converging,-i.e., becoming more similar in strategy and practice-and where they continue to be distinct and different.

Although a comprehensive study of these trends in U.S. and Japanese innovation was not easily feasible, the task force was able to develop several conclusions based on its workshop discussion and follow-up interactions that were substantial in time and content. This report identifies a set of issues whose further elucidation should be helpful in guiding public policy in both nations. These issues include the role of external sourcing of innovation, transnational activity and globalization, the organization and performance of R&D, and the role of consortia, joint ventures and other joint activities. A call for greater international efforts to collect and analyze data on these important trends is the central recommendation of the task force.

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