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Suggested Citation:"FRONT MATTER." National Research Council. 1997. U.S. Supersonic Commercial Aircraft: Assessing NASA's High Speed Research Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5848.
×

U.S. SUPERSONIC COMMERCIAL AIRCRAFT

Assessing NASA's High Speed Research Program

Committee on High Speed Research

Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board

Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.
1997

Suggested Citation:"FRONT MATTER." National Research Council. 1997. U.S. Supersonic Commercial Aircraft: Assessing NASA's High Speed Research Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5848.
×

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, DC 20418

NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine.

This study was supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under contract No. NASW-4938 Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project.

Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 97-69127

International Standard Book Number 0-309-05878-3

Available for sale from:
National Academy Press
Box 285 2101 Constitution Ave., N.W. Washington, DC 20055 800-624-6242 202-334-3313 (in the Washington Metropolitan Area) http://www.nap.edu

Copyright 1997 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Printed in the United States of America

Suggested Citation:"FRONT MATTER." National Research Council. 1997. U.S. Supersonic Commercial Aircraft: Assessing NASA's High Speed Research Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5848.
×

COMMITTEE ON HIGH SPEED RESEARCH

RONALD W. YATES (chair),

U.S. Air Force (retired), Monument, Colorado

DONALD W. BAHR,

General Electric Aircraft Engines (retired), Cincinnati, Ohio

JAMES B. DAY,

Belcan Engineering Group, Inc., Cincinnati, Ohio

ANTONY JAMESON,

Stanford University, Stanford, California

DONALD T. LOVELL,

Boeing Commerical Airplane Group (retired), Bellevue, Washington

JOHN M. REISING,

U.S. Air Force Wright Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio

DAVID K. SCHMIDT,

University of Maryland at College Park

DANIEL P. SCHRAGE,

Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta

CHARLOTTE H. TEKLITZ,

American Airlines, Dallas-Fort Worth Airport, Texas

EARL R. THOMPSON,

United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, Connecticut

DIANNE S. WILEY,

Northrop Grumman, Pico Rivera, California

Staff

ALAN ANGLEMAN, Study Director

JOANN CLAYTON-TOWNSEND, Director,

Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board

MARY MESZAROS, Senior Project Assistant

Suggested Citation:"FRONT MATTER." National Research Council. 1997. U.S. Supersonic Commercial Aircraft: Assessing NASA's High Speed Research Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5848.
×

AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ENGINEERING BOARD

JOHN D. WARNER (chair),

The Boeing Company, Seattle, Washington

STEVEN AFTERGOOD,

Federation of American Scientists, Washington, D.C.

GEORGE A. BEKEY,

University of Southern California, Los Angeles

GUION S. BLUFORD, JR.,

NYMA Incorporated, Brook Park, Ohio

RAYMOND S. COLLADAY,

Lockheed Martin, Denver, Colorado

BARBARA C. CORN,

BC Consulting Incorporated, Searcy, Arkansas

STEVEN D. DORFMAN,

Hughes Electronics Corporation, Los Angeles, California

DONALD C. FRASER,

Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts

DANIEL HASTINGS,

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge

FREDERICK HAUCK,

International Technology Underwriters, Bethesda, Maryland

WILLIAM H. HEISER,

U.S. Air Force Academy, Colorado Springs, Colorado

WILLIAM HOOVER,

U.S. Air Force (retired), Williamsburg, Virginia

BENJAMIN HUBERMAN,

Huberman Consulting Group, Washington, D.C.

FRANK E. MARBLE,

California Institute of Technology, Pasadena

C. JULIAN MAY,

Tech/Ops International Incorporated, Kennesaw, Georgia

GRACE M. ROBERTSON,

McDonnell Douglas, Long Beach, California

GEORGE SPRINGER,

Stanford University, Stanford, California

Staff

JOANN CLAYTON-TOWNSEND, Director

Suggested Citation:"FRONT MATTER." National Research Council. 1997. U.S. Supersonic Commercial Aircraft: Assessing NASA's High Speed Research Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5848.
×

Preface

The United States leads the world in the manufacture of commercial aircraft, and civil aviation is an important part of American life, providing safe travel and important economic benefits. However, the United States did not always hold this preeminent position in aeronautics, and there is no guarantee that the current success will last indefinitely. Continued leadership will depend upon many factors, including successful innovation in the design and manufacture of safe and affordable aircraft.

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently developing advanced technologies as a foundation for the next breakthrough in civil aviation: an economically viable, environmentally acceptable supersonic transport. The High Speed Research Program is working with industry to identify and address critical technological challenges that must be overcome to initiate commercial development of a practical supersonic transport.

In support of the High Speed Research Program, NASA requested that the National Research Council conduct an independent assessment of the program's planning and progress. Areas of particular interest include the ability of technologies under development to meet program goals related to noise, emissions, service life, weight, range, and payload.

In response, the National Research Council established the High Speed Research Committee. The study committee met five times between June 1996 and January 1997, collecting information, assessing relevant issues, and generating appropriate recommendations. As detailed herein, the committee concluded the High Speed Research Program is well organized and has made substantial progress. Even so, significant changes are needed to enable the program to meet its stated objectives.

Gen Ronald W. Yates, U.S. Air Force (retired)

Chairman, High Speed Research Committee

Suggested Citation:"FRONT MATTER." National Research Council. 1997. U.S. Supersonic Commercial Aircraft: Assessing NASA's High Speed Research Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5848.
×

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering.

The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine.

The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

Suggested Citation:"FRONT MATTER." National Research Council. 1997. U.S. Supersonic Commercial Aircraft: Assessing NASA's High Speed Research Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5848.
×
Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"FRONT MATTER." National Research Council. 1997. U.S. Supersonic Commercial Aircraft: Assessing NASA's High Speed Research Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5848.
×
Suggested Citation:"FRONT MATTER." National Research Council. 1997. U.S. Supersonic Commercial Aircraft: Assessing NASA's High Speed Research Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5848.
×

Tables, Figures, and Boxes

TABLES

1-1

 

HSR Program Work Breakdown Structure

 

13

1-2

 

Total NASA Funding for the HSR Program from Program Inception in FY 1990 through Planned Completion in FY 2002

 

14

1-3

 

HSR Funding Allocation by Technology

 

14

2-1

 

HSCT Schedule between New York City (NYC) and London Heathrow (LHR) (local times)

 

30

2-2

 

HSCT Schedule between Tokyo (NRT) and Los Angeles (LAX) (local times)

 

31

2-3

 

Risk-Weighting Factors

 

39

2-4

 

Key Product and Process Characteristics Ranked by Risk-Weighted Importance

 

41

3-1

 

Calculated Steady-State Total Column Ozone Change between 40°N and 50°N Averaged over a Year

 

53

3-2

 

Concerns and Risks Associated with Ultralow NOx Combustors

 

55

3-3

 

Suggested Time Line for Combustor Development

 

57

FIGURES

ES-1

 

Time line for comprehensive risk reduction program leading to program launch

 

3

1-1

 

Critical enabling technologies for a commercially viable HSCT

 

13

1-2

 

Schedule of top-level milestones and objectives

 

15

1-3

 

HSR integrated product and process team hierarchy

 

16

1-4

 

HSR Program technology integration

 

17

1-5

 

Blank technology audit data sheet

 

18

1-6

 

Definition of TRLs

 

20

Suggested Citation:"FRONT MATTER." National Research Council. 1997. U.S. Supersonic Commercial Aircraft: Assessing NASA's High Speed Research Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5848.
×

1-7

 

Time line for a comprehensive risk reduction program leading to program launch

 

24

2-1

 

HSCT/HSR QFD product planning matrix

 

37

2-2

 

Market, technology, and financial uncertainties

 

43

3-1

 

Conceptual HSCT engine and nozzle (without air intake)

 

48

3-2

 

HSCT engine and exhaust nozzle

 

49

4-1

 

Predicted equilibrium skin temperatures for a Mach 2.4 HSCT

 

62

4-2

 

Estimated thermal stability of potential HSCT structural materials (20-year service life)

 

63

4-3

 

Materials and structures baselines for the TCA

 

75

4-4

 

Structures challenge

 

78

4-5

 

Current levels of technology readiness of composite materials are unequal, jeopardizing development of structural concepts

 

80

4-6

 

Full-scale large component test articles

 

84

5-1

 

Difference in frequency between unstable attitude mode and the lowest structural vibration mode frequency of the TCA design

 

93

5-2

 

APSE effects interact with many other issues and design activities

 

95

5-3

 

Droop nose versus synthetic vision for approach and landing

 

97

5-4

 

Artist's concept of one possible flight deck

 

98

5-5

 

Object detection and collision avoidance—conventional window versus external visibility system

 

101

5-6

 

Surface Operation Research and Evaluation Vehicle (SOREV)

 

102

5-7

 

Comparison of the SOREV and TCA designs (side view)

 

103

5-8

 

Flight deck system program schedule

 

104

6-1

 

Comprehensive risk reduction program leading to program launch

 

115

BOX

3-1

 

Conceptual propulsion system

 

47

Suggested Citation:"FRONT MATTER." National Research Council. 1997. U.S. Supersonic Commercial Aircraft: Assessing NASA's High Speed Research Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5848.
×
Page R1
Suggested Citation:"FRONT MATTER." National Research Council. 1997. U.S. Supersonic Commercial Aircraft: Assessing NASA's High Speed Research Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5848.
×
Page R2
Suggested Citation:"FRONT MATTER." National Research Council. 1997. U.S. Supersonic Commercial Aircraft: Assessing NASA's High Speed Research Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5848.
×
Page R3
Suggested Citation:"FRONT MATTER." National Research Council. 1997. U.S. Supersonic Commercial Aircraft: Assessing NASA's High Speed Research Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5848.
×
Page R4
Suggested Citation:"FRONT MATTER." National Research Council. 1997. U.S. Supersonic Commercial Aircraft: Assessing NASA's High Speed Research Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5848.
×
Page R5
Suggested Citation:"FRONT MATTER." National Research Council. 1997. U.S. Supersonic Commercial Aircraft: Assessing NASA's High Speed Research Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5848.
×
Page R6
Suggested Citation:"FRONT MATTER." National Research Council. 1997. U.S. Supersonic Commercial Aircraft: Assessing NASA's High Speed Research Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5848.
×
Page R7
Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"FRONT MATTER." National Research Council. 1997. U.S. Supersonic Commercial Aircraft: Assessing NASA's High Speed Research Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5848.
×
Page R8
Suggested Citation:"FRONT MATTER." National Research Council. 1997. U.S. Supersonic Commercial Aircraft: Assessing NASA's High Speed Research Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5848.
×
Page R9
Suggested Citation:"FRONT MATTER." National Research Council. 1997. U.S. Supersonic Commercial Aircraft: Assessing NASA's High Speed Research Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5848.
×
Page R10
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The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently developing advanced technologies to form the foundation for the next breakthrough in civil aviation: an economically viable, environmentally acceptable supersonic transport. NASA's High Speed Research Program works in conjunction with industry to identify and address critical technological challenges to initiating commercial development of a practical supersonic transport. The key technical areas investigated are engine emissions, fuel efficiency, service life, and weight; community noise; aircraft range and payload; and weight and service life of airframe structures. Areas of particular interest include the ability of technologies under development to meet program goals related to noise, emissions, service life, weight, range, and payload. This book examines aircraft design requirements, assesses the program's planning and progress, and recommends changes that will help the program achieve its overall objectives.

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