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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Governance and Opportunity in Metropolitan America. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6038.
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INDEX

A

Accountability, 8, 126

Act 250 (Vermont), 177

African Americans, see Black persons

Agglomeration economies, 19, 32-34, 125-126

see also Economies of scale

Agricultural land, see Rural areas

Aid, see Equalization aid;

Subsidies and aid

Air quality, 296, 304, 310-321

automobile use, 296, 299, 300, 304, 309, 314, 316-318, 319

federal regulations, 304, 310, 313-317, 319-320

funding, 304, 313

Air Pollution Control District Act (CA), 310

Air Quality Act, 310

Alabama, 60-61, 260-263

Alaska, 262-263

Alcohol use and abuse, 56, 226

Annexation, 28-29, 63, 95, 96, 203, 240, 243, 268, 276

see also Elasticity

Anti-Snob Zoning Act (MA), 158

Arizona, 262-263

Arkansas, 260

Asians, 178

children, 20

residential segregation, 27

Attitudes, 11, 127, 106-107

home ownership, 193

individualism and equal opportunity, 18

neighborhood effects, 54-55;

see also Peer influences

racial prejudice, 46, 90-91, 195, 201, 238-239, 242

residential segregation, 57

suburban residents toward inner city, 10, 52, 89, 132, 201, 271

suburban residents toward low-income housing, 29-30, 90-91, 158, 236, 238-239, 242

see also Racial discrimination

Automobiles, 6, 84, 160-161, 170, 287

gasoline taxes, 84, 299

regional transportation policy, 296, 299, 300, 304, 309, 314, 316318, 319

B

Black persons, 46, 119, 121

central cities, general, 25, 26, 57, 193-194, 230, 240

central-city/suburban disparities, 42, 69, 195, 202, 205, 207, 208, 209, 214-216

children, 20, 54

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Governance and Opportunity in Metropolitan America. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6038.
×

educational attainment, 47, 49, 50, 52, 61- 62, 67, 69, 70, 195, 220-221, 229

employment, spatial mismatch hypothesis, 5-6, 52, 57, 217, 220-221, 223, 224-225, 227, 228

gender factors, 54, 214, 215

housing, 83, 90-91, 228;

see also ''segregation, residential'' infra

income, 5, 16, 20, 27, 46-50, 61, 62, 67, 120, 158, 195, 215-216;

see also "poverty" infra

local government fragmentation/consolidation, 106-107

neighborhood effects, 218, 227, 228, 240

poverty, 5-7, 16, 20, 27, 48, 54, 57, 195, 202, 205, 207, 208, 209, 214-216

segregation, educational, 26, 49

segregation, residential, 6-7, 18-19, 26, 27, 49, 56-57, 58-59, 67, 69-70, 198-199, 202, 205, 206, 228, 229, 237-238, 242

spatial distribution, general, 214-216

suburbs, 195, 213;

see also "central-city/suburban disparities" supra

Boston, Massachusetts, 57, 154, 161-162, 225

Bridges to Work, 89, 235

Building codes, 31, 130-131

Bureau of the Census, 9, 20, 117, 195

C

California, 80, 82, 94, 161, 162, 165, 255, 262-263, 279, 302, 310-311, 312-316, 317, 320

see also Los Angeles, California;

San Francisco, California

Canada, 171

Census Bureau, see Bureau of the Census

Central cities, vii, 12, 14

agglomeration economies, 32-34, 35, 125-126

black persons, general, 25, 26, 57, 193-194, 230, 240

costs of urban decline, 11, 14, 19-20, 35, 36, 71, 127, 192, 288

definition of metropolitan area, 22, 38-39(n.1), 199-206

economic competitiveness, 22, 32-34, 115

elasticity, 10, 45, 63-64, 120, 127, 193, 203, 206-207, 208, 240, 254, 269

annexation, 28-29, 63, 95, 96, 203, 240, 243, 268, 276

local government fragmentation and, 64, 65, 66

employment, 22, 33-34, 52-53, 131, 132

spatial mismatch hypothesis, 5-6, 7-8, 32, 51-52, 57, 61, 67, 216-217, 220-230 (passim)

enterprise zones, 86-87, 123, 230-233, 234

low-income housing, 53, 59, 130-131, 153

low-income minorities. isolation, 3, 5, 6-7, 10, 56-59, 201, 237

minorities, general, 25, 201, 230

place-based strategies, 87-88, 123, 230-234

political factors, 22, 36-38, 254

racial segregation, 25-26

spatial distribution, general, 24-26, 230

spatial mismatch hypothesis, 5-6, 7-8, 32, 51-52, 57, 61, 67, 216-217, 220-230 (passim)

suburbs' relation to, 4-6, 10, 11, 14, 15, 16, 19-20, 21, 24-25, 34-36;

see also Central city/suburban disparities

value of central cities, 32-38

see also Tax/service disparities

Central-city/suburban disparities

black persons, 42, 69, 195, 202, 205, 207, 208, 209, 214-216

educational attainment, 41-43, 45, 46, 58, 67-68, 194-199 (passim), 204, 273-274

educational services, 4, 17, 35

employment, 4, 5, 16, 17, 33-34, 35, 36, 41, 45, 52, 58, 62-63, 68, 69, 194-204 (passim), 214-217, 225, 281-282, 306;

see also "worker mobility strategies" infra

spatial mismatch hypothesis, 5-6, 7-8, 32, 51-52, 57, 61, 67, 216-217, 220-230 (passim);

see also "worker mobility strategies" infra

Gautreaux program (Chicago), 57-58, 90, 123, 218-219, 227-228, 238

gender factors, 214, 215

Hispanics, 195, 202, 205, 206, 207, 208, 209, 240

historical perspectives, 4, 20, 24-25, 27, 35, 41-43, 51, 63, 193, 196-197, 200, 214-215

income, 4, 16, 20, 35, 36, 41-42, 43-45, 58-59, 62-68, 120, 194-208 (passim), 215-216, 217;

see also "poverty" infra

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Governance and Opportunity in Metropolitan America. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6038.
×

individuals, disparities among, 41-46

local government fragmentation/consolidation, 65, 66, 106-107

population size and density, 43-44, 192, 193, 201, 205

poverty, 4, 16, 26-27, 29, 42, 43-44, 52-53, 90-91, 97-98, 110, 194-198 (passim), 254, 267-268, 307-309

racial segregation, general, 57-58

regional factors, 43, 44-45, 120, 200-201, 203-205, 207, 208, 209

spatial mismatch hypothesis, 5-6, 7-8, 32, 51-52, 57, 61, 67, 216-217, 220-230 (passim);

see also "worker mobility strategies" infra

sprawl, 152, 158, 159, 176

taxation, general, 34, 35, 37;

see also Tax/service disparities

transportation, general, 305-306, 307

worker mobility strategies, 10, 86, 88-89, 94, 95, 123, 131, 132, 227, 235-236;

see also "spatial mismatch hypothesis" supra

see also Tax/service disparities

Centralization/decentralization policies, 3, 7-9, 10, 11, 23-24, 64-67, 96-98, 104-115, 116, 128, 160, 203, 206, 240, 242-243

black persons, attitudes toward, 106-107

central-city/suburban disparities, 65, 66, 106-107

counties, 65, 97, 98

defined, 65

demographic factors, general, 66

economies of scale, 9, 33, 65, 104-105, 106, 112, 270, 271-272, 273, 279

elasticity and, 64, 65, 66

fiscal capacity, general, 65-66

historical perspectives, 106, 110, 114, 270

income, 66-67

minority groups, general, 107-108, 238

nested government, 11, 112-113, 128-129

quasi-governmental organizations, 286-287

racial/income segregation, 8, 11, 66-67, 124

regional factors, 66, 107, 110-111, 113-114, 116-117, 124-125, 276;

see also Special districts

research recommendations, 120-121, 124

services, general, 8-9, 10, 65-66, 110-112

spatial opportunity structures, 64-65, 241

state policies, 109-110, 115

municipal incorporation, 8, 28-29, 31, 115, 268

subsidies and aid, 111, 114-115, 129

taxation, general, 107-108, 203

tax/service disparities, 8, 75, 116, 203, 268, 269-272

transportation, 111, 274, 296-310, 318-321

two-tier governments, 21, 95, 96, 97, 106, 268, 272-274, 287

unequal opportunity, general, 8, 65-66

zoning, 80, 81, 176-177, 180

see also Special districts

Chicago, Illinois, 17, 57-58, 62, 74, 90, 91, 198, 281

Gautreaux program, 57-58, 90, 123, 218-219, 227-228, 238

Children, 54, 56, 91, 219, 239

black, 20, 54

income segregation, 59, 117, 158, 192

minority, general, 20

peer influences, 54-55, 59, 92, 94, 117, 122, 158, 218, 219, 226, 239

tax/service disparities, 75

youth employment, 221-224

see also Education

Cities Without Suburbs, 239

Civil Rights Act, 308, 319

Classification issues

elasticity, 62-63

employment, 14, 215

high-poverty areas, 39(n.4)

metropolitan areas, 22, 38-39(n.1, n.3), 199-206

metropolitan governance, 14-15, 176

urban problems, 14, 28

Clean Air Act (federal), 310, 313, 315-317

Clean Air Acts (CA), 314, 315, 316, 320

Cleveland, Ohio, 108, 113-114, 283, 297

Coleman report, 60

Colorado, 262-263

Community development corporations/financial institutions, 87-88, 123, 232-234

Commuters and commuting, 6, 22

commuter taxes, 7, 98, 101, 123, 133, 267, 281-282

gasoline taxes, 84

reverse commuting, 10, 89, 217, 235-236

suburbanization, 28, 159, 160-161, 162, 308

tax/service disparities, 7, 98, 101, 123, 133, 253-254, 270, 281-282

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Governance and Opportunity in Metropolitan America. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6038.
×

worker mobility, 10, 86, 88-89, 94, 95, 123, 131, 132, 227, 235-236

poverty and employment mobility, 10, 86, 88-89, 94, 95, 123, 131, 132, 227, 235-236

spatial mismatch hypothesis, 5-6, 32, 51-52, 56, 57, 61, 67, 89, 216-217, 220-230 (passim)

see also Mass transit

Computer applications

air quality controls, 315

employment databases, 236

Connecticut, 156

Consolidation/fragmentation, see Centralization/decentralization policies

Construction industry, see Building codes;

Housing

Counties, 15, 23, 39(n.1), 82, 243

air quality controls, 311-312

equalization aid, 101

government fragmentation/consolidation, 65, 97, 98

tax/service disparities, 255, 262-266, 270, 272, 273, 280-281

transportation policy, 297

Court cases

air quality control, 317

education, 279

mass transit, 308

zoning, 83, 154-155, 158, 165, 168, 174-175, 180-181

Crime, 9, 18, 70, 158

neighborhood effects, 6, 54, 56, 70, 226

police, 9, 19, 75-76, 83, 158, 218, 234, 267, 268, 273-274, 280, 286

segregation, general, 70

suburbs, 71, 81-82, 158, 161

tax/service disparities, 75, 267, 268, 273-274, 280, 286

Cultural factors

city institutions, 19

public choice factors, 105

residential segregation, 57

see also Neighborhood effects;

Social factors

D

Dayton, Ohio, 99-100, 285

Decentralization, see Centralization/decentralization policies

Delaware, 260

Demographic factors, 22, 201-202, 205

local government fragmentation, 66

tax/service disparities, general, 75

see also Family factors;

Gender factors;

Minority groups;

Neighborhood effects;

Population size and density;

specific minority groups

Department of Housing and Urban Development, 232

Department of Transportation, 301-302

Detroit, Michigan, 57, 69, 112, 225, 269

Discrimination, see Racial discrimination

District of Columbia, see Washington, D.C.

Drag use and abuse, 56, 226

E

Economic issues, general, 13-14

agglomeration economies, 19, 32-33, 125-126

costs of urban decline, 11, 14, 19-20, 35

globalization, 17-18, 33

speculation, 172-173

suburbanization, 28, 151, 152

see also Community development corporations;

Employment and unemployment;

Enterprise zones;

Funding;

Income;

Place-based initiatives;

Poverty;

Socioeconomic status;

Subsidies and aid;

Taxation;

Tax/service disparities

Economies of scale, 9, 33, 65, 104-105, 106, 112, 270, 271-272, 273, 279

see also Agglomeration economies

Education, 10, 60-61, 67, 107

black persons, segregation, 26, 49

central cities vs suburbs, 4, 17, 35

court cases, 279

equalization aid, 102-103, 123

expenditures, 10

Hispanics, segregation, 26

labor market skills, 86, 91-94, 133-134

life-style issues, 14

minorities, general, 26, 47, 131-132

neighborhood effects, 94, 219-220, 226, 239

poor children, 91-92, 94, 123, 131-132, 192

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Governance and Opportunity in Metropolitan America. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6038.
×

property tax, 174-175

segregation, 26, 69, 70, 94, 219-220, 226, 239

standards, 131, 132

tax/service disparities, 7, 75, 122, 174-175, 255, 267, 278, 279, 280

vouchers, 92-94, 104, 132

white flight, 239

Educational attainment, 5, 40, 60-61, 104, 122, 123

black persons, 47, 49, 50, 52, 61-62, 67, 69, 70, 195, 220-221, 229

central cities vs suburbs, 41-43, 45, 46, 58, 67-68, 194-199 (passim), 204, 273-274

Hispanics, 5, 47, 49-51, 195

income and, 61, 239

low-skilled workers, 4, 5, 17, 18, 32, 34, 42, 46, 62, 63, 68, 121, 217, 219, 222, 224, 236, 282

minorities, general, 26, 47, 131-132

neighborhood effects, 49, 54-55, 56, 69, 219-220, 226

peer influences, 54-55, 219, 239

population size and, 61-62

segregation, 26, 69, 70, 195, 220-221, 229

vouchers and, 93-94

white persons, less educated, 217, 222

Elasticity, 10, 45, 63-64, 120, 127, 193, 203, 206-207, 208, 240, 254, 269

annexation, 28-29, 63, 95, 96, 203, 240, 243, 268, 276

local government fragmentation vs, 64, 65, 66

see also Sprawl

Ellen, Ingrid Gould, 44, 49, 56, 58, 64, 66, 238-239, 242

Employment and unemployment, 9, 40, 218-219, 220

black persons, 5-6, 47, 49, 52, 61, 67, 68-69, 71, 89, 95, 195, 214-216, 229

gender factors, 54, 214, 215

reverse commuting, 236

spatial mismatch hypothesis, 5-6, 52, 57, 217, 220-221, 223, 224-225, 227, 228

central cities, 22, 33-34, 52-53, 131, 132

central cities vs suburbs, 4, 5, 16, 17, 33-34, 35, 36, 41, 45, 52, 58, 62-63, 68, 69, 194-204 (passim), 214-217, 225, 281-282, 306

classification issues, 14, 215

community development corporations, 233

databases, 236

enterprise zones, 86, 231, 232

gender factors, 214, 215, 222, 223

globalization, 17-18, 33

Hispanics, 49-51, 52, 195

information networks, 89

labor market skills, 86, 91-94

low-skilled workers, 4, 5, 17, 18, 32, 34, 42, 46, 62, 63, 68, 121, 217, 219, 222, 224, 236, 282

market forces, 14, 17-18, 33, 229

minorities, general, 4-5, 16, 20, 47

neighborhood effects, 6, 54, 55, 56, 57, 218, 220, 227, 228, 240

population size, 61

poverty and mobility, 10, 86, 88-89, 94, 95, 123, 131, 132, 227, 235-236

property rights, 179

racial discrimination, 5-6, 10, 52, 57, 68-69, 89, 94-95, 121, 132

regional factors, 200-201

research recommendations, 117

segregation, 68-69, 71, 214-216, 229

state politics, 177

suburbs, 22, 33-34, 132, 163-164

discrimination, 5-6, 10, 19, 57, 95, 132

worker mobility strategies, 10, 86, 88-89, 94, 95, 123, 131, 132, 227, 235-236

see also "central cities vs suburbs" supra

worker mobility, 10, 86, 88-89, 94, 95, 123, 131, 132, 227, 235-236

poverty and, 10, 86, 88-89, 94, 95, 123, 131, 132, 227, 235-236

youth, 221-224

see also Commuters and commuting

Enterprise zones, 86-87, 123, 230-233, 234

Environmental protection, 13, 38

air quality, 296, 299, 300, 304, 309, 310-321

sprawl, 175-176, 177-178

study at hand, methodology, vii

Environmental Protection Agency, 316, 317, 319

Equalization aid, 7, 10, 72, 101-103, 123, 125, 133, 268, 278-280, 284

place-based initiatives, 86-88, 123, 230-234

Equity, general, 16, 53

centralization/decentralization, 8

regional air quality, 318-319

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Governance and Opportunity in Metropolitan America. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6038.
×

regional transportation, 307-309

Ethical issues, see Moral and ethical issues

Ethnicity, see Minority groups

Europe, 31

immigrants from, residential segregation, 56-57

income segregation, 59

suburbs, 162-163, 165, 167

F

Fair Housing Act (NJ), 155

Family factors, 16, 54, 94, 164, 218

single parents, 58, 70, 226

Farmland, see Rural areas

Federal government, 21

air quality control, 304, 310, 313-317, 319-320

enterprise zones, 86

equalization aid, 101-102

housing, 90, 91, 237

metropolitan governance, 111, 114-115

subsidies and aid, 74, 101-102, 111, 114-115, 298-303, 304, 306-307

suburbanization, 28, 175-176

tax/service disparities, 98, 253, 254, 268, 278, 281, 287-288

transportation, 298-303, 304, 306-307

worker mobility programs, 89

see also Legislation, specific federal;

specific departments and agencies

Federal Highway Acts, 298

Federal Highway Trust Fund, 299

Fiscal capacity, 29, 72-77, 120, 126, 127, 281-282

community development corporations/financial institutions, 87-88, 123, 232-234

local government fragmentation, 65-66

suburbanization, 28, 281-282

see also Equalization aid;

Taxation;

Tax/service disparities

Fischel, William, 59, 81, 83, 84-85

Florida, 80, 180-181, 262-263

Jacksonville, Florida, 97, 107

Foreign countries, see International perspectives

Fragmentation/consolidation, see Centralization/decentralization policies

Funding

air quality control, 304, 313

educational vouchers, 92-93

enterprise zones, 86

equalization aid, 101-103

growth controls, 84

metropolitan governance, 111

study at hand, vii, viii

transportation, 298-303, 304, 306-308

worker mobility programs, 89

see also Subsidies and aid;

Taxation

G

Gasoline taxes, 84, 299

Gautreaux program (Chicago), 57-58, 90, 123, 218-219, 227-228, 238

Gender factors

black persons, 54, 214, 215

central-city/suburban disparities, 214, 215

employment, 214, 215, 222, 223

high-poverty neighborhoods, 54

Geography, see Spatial distribution factors

Georgia, 260-263

Government revenues and expenditures, 65, 75, 120

consolidation of local governments, 106

criminal justice system, 71

see also Funding;

Public services;

Subsidies and aid;

Taxation;

Tax/service disparities

Grants, see Subsidies and aid

H

Hawaii, 177, 278

Highways, see Transportation

Hispanics, 119

central cities, 25, 26, 46, 193-194, 195

central-city/suburban disparities, 195, 202, 205, 206, 207, 208, 209, 240

children, 20

educational attainment, 5, 47, 49-51, 195

educational segregation, 26

poverty, 4-5, 16, 27, 195

residential segregation, 27, 58-59, 176, 205, 206, 208, 209, 237

suburbs, 195, 202, 205, 208

Historical perspectives, 27, 63

agglomeration economies, 34

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Governance and Opportunity in Metropolitan America. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6038.
×

air quality controls, 310-316

central-city/suburban disparities, 4, 20, 24-25, 27, 35, 41-43, 51, 63, 193, 196-197, 200, 214-215

commuter taxes, 282

educational segregation, 26

equalization aid, 102

income segregation, 153, 154, 157, 197-198

land area of metropolitan areas, 23, 63-64

local government fragmentation/consolidation, 106, 110, 114, 270

national politics, 18

population living in metropolitan areas, 22-23, 24-25, 27, 193-194

residential segregation, 26, 56-57, 240

suburbanization, 24, 28, 153, 154, 157, 158, 159-161, 175, 193, 195, 196

taxation, 101, 256-267, 282, 288

transportation policy, 296-304, 309

zoning, 153, 154

Housing

attitudes toward home ownership, 193

blacks, 83, 90-91, 228

building codes, 31, 130-131

discrimination, 11-12;

see also Residential segregation

federal programs, 90, 91, 237

market forces, general, 14

minorities, general, 89

sprawl, 13, 33, 84-85, 109, 151-191, 237

state policies, 8, 80-81, 236-237

transportation and, 309

vouchers, 10, 58, 90, 123, 131, 227, 237

see also Land use;

Low-income housing;

Residential segregation;

Zoning

Houston, Texas, 17, 176, 269

I

Ihlanfeldt, Keith, 52, 55, 57-58, 61, 87, 88-89, 90, 192

Illinois. 232, 262-263

see also Chicago, Illinois

Immigrants

central cities, 32, 53

residential segregation, 56-57

sprawl, 177-178

Income

black persons, 5, 16, 20, 27, 46-50, 61, 62, 67, 120, 158, 195, 215-216

central cities, 32, 158

central-city/suburban disparities, 4, 16, 20, 35, 36, 41-42, 43-45, 58-59, 62-68, 120, 194-208 (passim), 215-216, 217

children, 59, 117, 158, 192

classification of urban problems, 14

disparities, general, 40

educational attainment and, 61, 239

globalization and wages, 18

Hispanics, 48, 49-51, 195

minorities, general, 195

neighborhood effects, 7, 16, 21, 30, 56, 59, 118, 124, 151, 153-154, 192, 197-198

population size and, 62

research recommendations, 117

residential segregation, 6-7, 9, 10, 16, 18-19, 21, 27, 29-31, 59-60, 65, 66-67, 70, 80, 117, 118, 124, 131, 151, 153-161, 169, 182, 192, 197-198, 199, 201-202, 229, 237

spatial mismatch hypothesis, 222

suburbanization, 28, 153-161, 169, 170

see also Employment and unemployment;

Poverty

Income tax, 34, 77, 101, 133, 172, 173, 255, 256, 260-261, 266, 267, 282, 283-284, 295

Indiana, 231, 232, 260

Indianapolis, Indiana, 107, 109, 111, 115

Infrastructure, 15, 107, 178, 269

system maintenance, 14, 15, 19, 306-307

see also Public services;

Tax/service disparities;

Transportation

Inner-City Poverty in the United States, vii

Inner-ring suburbs, 3, 4, 41, 76, 162-163, 170, 192

Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act, 111, 274, 288, 304

International perspectives

enterprise zones, 232

European countries, 31, 56-57, 59, 162-163, 165, 167

globalization, 17-18, 33

housing costs, 178

local government factors in spatial distribution, 29, 30, 31, 118-119

mass transit, 170

spatial distribution factors, general, 29, 30, 31, 118-119

suburbs, 29, 118, 151, 153, 162-163, 165, 168, 170, 171

tax/service disparities, 287

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Governance and Opportunity in Metropolitan America. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6038.
×

Interact, 180

Iowa, 260-263

J

Jacksonville, Florida, 97, 107

K

Kansas, 262-263

Kentucky, 260

L

Land use, 16, 154

land area of metropolitan areas, historical perspectives, 23, 63-64

local government, general, 8, 59, 64, 80, 130

international perspectives, 29, 30, 31, 118-119

spatial distribution, general, 22, 29, 30, 119

political factors, 81,237, 239-241

state policy, 8, 11, 80-81, 82-84, 119, 130, 154-155, 168, 177, 180-181, 236-237

transportation policy and, 309-310

see also Elasticity;

Housing;

Property rights;

Property tax;

Rural areas;

Spatial distribution factors;

Zoning

Legal issues

antidiscrimination laws, 11-12, 94-95, 108, 131, 132, 237, 308, 319

see also Court cases;

Property rights;

Regulatory issues;

Zoning

Legislation, specific federal, 180, 319-320

Air Quality Act, 310

Civil Rights Act, 308, 319

Clean Air Act, 310, 313, 315-317

Federal Highway Acts, 298

Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act, 111, 274, 288, 304

Voting Rights Act, 108

Urban Mass Transportation Act, 301

Legislation, specific state, 177, 180-181, 283, 312, 314-315

Act 250 (Vermont), 177

Air Pollution Control District Act (CA), 310

Anti-Snob Zoning Act (MA), 158

Clean Air Acts (CA), 314, 315, 316, 320

Fair Housing Act (NJ), 155

Livable Communities Act (MN), 83-84

Mulford-Carrell Air Resources Act (CA), 310

Litigation, see Court cases

Livable Communities Act (MN), 83-84

Local government, 3, 15, 20

land use, 8, 59, 64, 80, 130

international perspectives, 29, 30, 31, 118-119

spatial distribution, general, 22, 29, 30, 119

political factors, 22, 36-38, 64, 104, 107-109, 110, 113, 126, 163, 176-177, 239-241, 270, 271, 272-273, 276-278

spatial distribution factors, general, 29-32

spatial opportunity structures, 213-214, 239-241

state policy and, 8, 11, 18, 21, 76, 98, 99, 101, 102-103, 104, 260-267, 277, 278, 280-281

metropolitan consolidation policies, 109-110, 115, 128-130

municipal incorporation policies, 8, 28-29, 31, 115, 268

tax/service disparities, 76, 98, 99, 101, 102-103, 104, 260-267, 277, 278, 280-285

see also Equalization aid

see also Centralization/decentralization policies;

Counties;

Regional factors;

Taxation;

Tax/service disparities;

Zoning

Los Angeles, California, 17, 25, 57, 157, 198, 225, 299, 300, 302, 310, 313-315, 316, 317, 319

Louisiana, 262-263

Low-income housing, 53, 59, 81-82, 84-85, 130-131, 237

central cities, 53, 59, 130-131, 153

Gautreaux program (Chicago), 57-58, 90, 123, 218-219, 227-228, 238

regulatory issues, 89-90, 130-131

suburbs, 81-82, 84-85, 89-91, 107, 110, 130

attitudes toward low-income housing, 29-30, 90-91, 158, 236, 238-239, 242

sprawl and, 151-152, 153, 154-158, 171-172, 176

vouchers, 10, 58, 90, 123, 131, 227, 237

Low-income persons, see Poverty

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Governance and Opportunity in Metropolitan America. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6038.
×

M

Maryland, 82, 84, 161, 260

Mass transit, 51, 170, 235, 286, 300-306, 307-309

Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act, 111, 274, 288, 304

international perspectives, 170

Massachusetts, 158

Metropolitan governance, general, 104-115, 116, 128-131, 176, 202-203

air quality control, 296, 304, 310-320

annexation, 28-29, 63, 95, 96, 203, 240, 243, 268, 276

automobiles, regional policies, 296, 299, 300, 304, 309, 314, 316-318, 319

defined, 14-15, 176

federal efforts, 111, 114-115

land use, 80, 81-82, 176, 241

local government fragmentation/consolidation, 66, 107, 110-111, 113-114, 116-117, 124-125, 276;

see also Special districts

metropolitan planning organizations, 111-112, 114, 125, 274, 277, 302, 303-304

metropolitanization, general, 104-111

opportunity structures, 104-115

politics of, 36, 37, 104, 107-109, 110

population distribution, 80

poverty, 107

scope of study at hand, vii-viii, 3, 13, 14, 20-21

state government role, 11, 109-110, 115

tax/service disparities, 96-98, 99, 107, 254, 277, 278

see also Centralization/decentralization policies;

Local government;

Regional factors;

State government

Metropolitan planning organizations, 111-112, 114, 125, 274, 277, 302, 303-304

Miami, Florida, 97, 106, 107, 108

Michigan, 260

Detroit, 57, 69, 112, 225, 269

Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 74-75, 98

Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota, 37-38, 81, 83-84, 99, 109-110, 115, 275, 284-285

Minnesota, 37-38, 81, 104, 129, 262-263

Minority groups, general, 3-4, 16, 46-51, 123, 201

central cities, general, 25, 201, 230

education, 26, 47, 131-132

employment gap, 4-5, 16, 20, 47

income gap, 4-5, 16, 230

intergroup relations, 14

local government fragmentation/consolidation, 107-108, 238

municipal incorporation, 31

poverty, 4-5, 10, 16, 53

segregation, residential, 3, 5, 6-7, 10, 56-59, 201, 237

spatial distribution, other, 21, 119, 134, 194-195

spatial mismatch hypothesis, 52

suburban, 3, 25, 26, 28, 130

tax/service disparities, 97

see also Immigrants;

Racial discrimination;

specific groups

Missouri, 108, 260-261, 263-264

Mobility, 288

poverty and racial concentration, 10

research recommendations, 117

residential, 86, 89-91, 117, 230, 236-239, 241;

see also Residential segregation

workers, 10, 86, 88-89, 94, 95, 123, 131, 132, 227, 235-236

poverty and employment mobility, 10, 86, 88-89, 94, 95, 123, 131, 132, 227, 235-236

spatial mismatch hypothesis, 5-6, 32, 51-52, 56, 57, 61, 67, 89, 216-217, 220-230 (passim)

see also Commuters and commuting;

Transportation

Moral and ethical issues, 18, 151

Motor vehicles, see Automobiles

Mulford-Carrell Air Resources Act (CA), 310

N

Nashville, Tennessee, 97, 107, 108

National Commission on Urban Problems, 157

Nebraska, 264-265

Neighborhood effects, vii, 6, 14, 104, 131, 132, 213, 217-219, 225-227, 230

air quality, 318-319

attitudes, general, 54-55

black neighborhoods, 218, 227, 228, 240

community development corporations, 233

crime, 6, 54, 56, 70, 226

education, 94, 219-220, 226, 239

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Governance and Opportunity in Metropolitan America. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6038.
×

educational attainment, 49, 54-55, 56, 69, 219-220, 226

employment, 6, 54, 55, 56, 57, 218, 220, 227, 228, 240

income segregation, 7, 16, 21, 30, 56, 59, 118, 124, 151, 153-154, 192, 197-198

peer influences, 54-55, 59, 92, 94, 117, 122, 158, 218, 219, 226, 239

poverty, impacts of, 6, 7, 16, 17, 53-56, 59, 117-118, 197-198, 213, 217-219, 225

racial segregation, 7, 16, 21, 53, 118, 198-199, 206, 238, 240

research recommendations, 117, 118, 122, 242

spatial mismatch hypothesis, 56, 225, 227

see also Residential segregation

Nested government, 11, 112-113, 128-129

Nevada, 264-265

New Hampshire, 155

New Jersey, 63, 80, 82, 83, 97, 154-155, 174-175, 181, 231, 311

New Mexico, 264-265

New York State, 260

North Carolina, 61, 94, 264-265

North Dakota, 264-265

O

Ohio, 260, 264-265, 275-276, 283, 297, 311

Cleveland, 108, 113-114, 283, 297

Oklahoma, 264-265

Oregon, 38, 80-81, 82

Portland, 38, 81, 84, 109, 110-111, 172, 177

P

Pagano, Michael, 74, 76, 77, 96-97, 100, 103, 106, 108, 112

Peer influences

children, 54-55, 59, 92, 94, 117, 122, 158, 218, 219, 226, 239

educational attainment, 54-55, 219, 239

scientists, 179

Pennsylvania, 165, 223, 235, 260

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 235

Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 223

Place-based initiatives, 86-88, 123, 230-234

Police, 9, 19, 75-76, 83, 158, 218, 234, 267, 268, 273-274, 280, 286, 308

Policy options, viii, 4, 9, 11-12, 20, 127-134, 152

antidiscrimination laws, 11-12, 94-95, 108, 131, 132, 237, 308, 319

disparities, reduction of, 79-115

employment, 12, 57;

see also "worker mobility strategies" infra

fiscal, 87-88, 123, 232-234;

see also "tax/service disparities" infra

housing, 11-12, 80-82, 84-85, 89, 90

land use, 81-82

metropolitan governance, 11, 20-21, 104-115

neighborhood effects, 12, 218

residential, 86, 89-91, 117, 230, 236-239, 241

spatial opportunity structures, 11, 124, 85-115, 119, 213-214, 230-239

tax/service disparities, 95-104, 268-285

worker mobility strategies, 10, 86, 88-89, 94, 95, 123, 131, 132, 227, 235-236

see also Centralization/decentralization policies

Political factors, 8, 14, 29, 239, 254

air quality controls, 314

central cities, 22, 36-38, 254

land use policy, 81, 237, 239-241;

see also "zoning" infra

local governments, 22, 36-38, 64, 104, 107-109, 110, 113, 126, 163, 176-177, 239-241, 270, 271, 272-273, 276-278

metropolitan governance, general, 36, 37, 104, 107-109, 110

national, 18

public choice factors, 105

regional, 15, 36, 37, 110, 113-114, 300, 305-306, 307-309, 314

social science, 179

state-level, 11, 28, 37, 177, 181, 280

suburbanization. 28-29, 158, 163, 164-165, 176-178, 254

tax/service disparities, 95-98, 100, 105, 268-269, 270, 271, 272-273, 276-278, 280, 284-285, 288

transportation policy, 300, 305-306, 307-309

zoning, 158, 163, 164-165, 176-178, 181, 236

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Governance and Opportunity in Metropolitan America. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6038.
×

Population size and density, 61-63, 120

central-city/suburban disparities, 43-44, 192, 193, 201, 205

educational attainment and, 61-62

elasticity and, 10, 45, 63-64, 269

employment and, 61

historical perspectives, 22-23, 24-25, 27, 193-194

income and, 62

metropolitan area defined, 22, 38-39(n.1, n.3)

racial disparities, 48-49, 51

spatial distribution, general, 10, 61-62

sprawl, 13, 33, 109, 151-191, 237

tax/service disparities, 75, 254, 269, 277

Portland, Oregon, 38, 81, 84, 109, 110-111, 172, 177

Poverty, vii, 3-4, 107, 192

black persons, 5-7, 16, 20, 27, 48, 54, 57, 195, 202, 205, 207, 208, 209, 214-216

central cities vs suburbs, 4, 16, 26-27, 29, 42, 43-44, 52-53, 90-91, 97-98, 110, 194-198 (passim), 254, 267-268, 307-309

classification of poverty areas, 39(n.4)

community development corporations/financial institutions, 87-88

definitional issues, 39(n.4)

educational services, 91-92, 94, 123, 131-132, 192

employment mobility, 10, 86, 88-89, 94, 95, 123, 131, 132, 227, 235-236

enterprise zones, 86-87

gender factors, 54

Hispanics, 4-5, 16, 27, 195

income segregation, 6-7, 9, 10, 16, 18-19, 21, 27, 29-31, 59-60, 65, 66-67, 70, 80, 117, 118, 124, 131, 151, 153-161, 169, 182, 192, 197-198, 199, 201-202, 229, 237

minority groups, general, 4-5, 10, 16, 53

neighborhood effects, 6, 7, 16, 17, 53-56, 59, 117-118, 197-198, 213, 217-219, 225

research recommendations, 117-118, 125

social isolation, 6, 7-8, 52-53, 89, 156, 158-159;

see also "neighborhood effects" supra

spatial distribution factors, general, 27, 119

suburbs, 3, 4, 97-98;

see also "central cities vs suburbs" supra

tax/service disparities, 73, 76, 97-98, 254, 278, 281

transportation, 305-306, 307-308;

see also Mobility (workers)

zoning discrimination, 11-12, 29;

see also Zoning (exclusionary)

see also Low-income housing;

Subsidies and aid;

Welfare

Property rights, 84-85, 152, 165, 168, 178-182

Property tax, 30, 75, 97, 99, 100-101, 102, 255, 256, 282

educational services and, 174-175

regional factors, 201

sprawl, 169, 173-175, 178

Public services, 6, 10, 30, 126

fragmented vs consolidated local government, and 8-9, 10, 65-66, 110-112

residential segregation, 57

surburbanization and, 152

unequal provision, 10, 60-61

see also Education;

Infrastructure;

Mass transit;

Police;

Special

districts;

Tax/service disparities;

Welfare

Public transportation, see Mass transit

Q

Quality of life, general, 14, 15, 129

suburban residents, 20

Quasi-governmental organizations, 286-287

R

Racial discrimination, 11-12, 18-19

antidiscrimination laws, 11-12, 94-95, 108, 131, 132, 237, 308, 319

attitudes, general, 46, 90-91, 195, 201, 238-239, 242

employment, 5-6, 10, 52, 57, 68-69, 89, 94-95, 121, 132

residential segregation, vii, 5-6, 8, 10, 25-26, 27, 31, 51, 56-59, 69-71, 118-119, 131, 158, 198-199, 201-202, 205, 213, 229, 237, 240

black persons, 6-7, 18-19, 26, 27, 49, 56-57, 58-59, 67, 69-70, 198-199, 202, 205, 206, 228, 229, 237-238, 242

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Governance and Opportunity in Metropolitan America. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6038.
×

educational attainment and, 49, 69

employment, 69

household mobility strategies, 90

international studies, 118-119

local government fragmentation, 8, 11, 66-67, 124

neighborhood effects, 7, 16, 21, 53, 118, 198-199, 206, 238, 240

see also Neighborhood effects

segregation, other, 6-7, 9, 10, 18-19, 46, 57-59, 118, 124, 202, 213

Racial factors, other, see Minority groups

Regional factors, 15, 20, 21, 49, 110, 120

air quality control, 296, 304, 310-320

automobiles, regional policies, 296, 299, 300, 304, 309, 314, 316-318, 319

central cities' relations with suburbs, 35

central-city/suburban disparities, 43, 44-45, 120, 200-201, 203-205, 207, 208, 209

income, black vs white, 47-48, 49

income, central cities vs suburbs, 43, 44-45, 120

local government fragmentation/consolidation, 66, 107, 110-111, 113-114, 116-117, 124-125, 276;

see also Special districts

local government, other, 24

metropolitan planning organizations, 111-112, 114, 125, 274, 277, 302, 303-304

metropolitanization, general, 104-111

place-based initiatives, 86

political factors, 15, 36, 37, 110, 113-114, 300, 305-306, 307-309, 314

research recommendations, 124-125, 242-243

system maintenance, 15, 19

tax/service disparities, 98, 99, 133, 276

transportation policy, 111, 274, 277, 296-310, 318-321

Regression analysis, 69, 70, 76, 193, 199-200, 206-208, 242-243

Regulatory issues

automobile use, 296, 299, 300, 304, 309, 314, 316-318, 319

low-income housing, 89-90, 130-131

sprawl, federal regulations, 28, 175-176

see also Building codes;

Environmental protection;

Standards;

State

government;

Zoning

Research recommendations, 10-11, 117-127

elasticity, 241

income segregation, 58-59, 118, 124

local government fragmentation/consolidation, 120-121, 124

neighborhood effects, 117, 118, 122, 242

segregation, 49

spatial distribution factors, 117-119

spatial opportunity structures, 241-243

unequal opportunity, 9, 10, 117, 127, 129-131

Residential segregation, 6, 8, 9, 52-53, 57, 220, 242-243

black persons, 6-7, 18-19, 26, 27, 49, 56-57, 58-59, 67, 69-70, 198-199, 202, 205, 206, 228, 229, 237-238, 242

elasticity, 240

Gautreaux program (Chicago), 57-58, 90, 123, 218-219, 227-228, 238

Hispanics, 27, 58-59, 176, 205, 206, 208, 209, 237

historical perspectives, 26, 56-57, 240

immigrants, 56-57

income segregation, 6-7, 9, 10, 16, 18-19, 21, 27, 29-31, 59-60, 65, 66-67, 70, 80, 117, 118, 124, 131, 151, 153-161, 169, 182, 192, 197-198, 199, 201-202, 229, 237

children, 59, 117, 158, 192

international studies, 29, 30, 31, 118-119

neighborhood effects, 7, 16, 21, 53, 118, 198-199, 206, 238, 240

study at hand, methodology, vii

see also Racial discrimination (residential segregation);

Zoning (exclusionary)

Revenue, see Government revenues and expenditures;

Taxation

Roads, see Transportation

Rural areas

transportation policy, 298, 300

zoning, 163-164, 169, 170-171, 172, 175-176

S

Sacramento, California, 313

San Francisco, California, 162, 169-170, 304, 308, 310, 311, 312, 313, 316, 317

Seattle, Washington, 109, 111

Seoul, South Korea, 178

Services, see Public services

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Governance and Opportunity in Metropolitan America. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6038.
×

Social factors, general, 9, 14, 16

family factors, 16, 54, 94, 164, 218

single parents, 58, 70, 226

life-style issues, 14, 15, 18

peer influences, 54-55, 59, 92, 94, 117, 122, 158, 218, 219, 226, 239

poverty and social isolation, 6-8, 52-53, 89, 156, 158-159;

see also Residential segregation

suburbanization, 28, 29-30

see also Demographic factors;

Minority groups;

Neighborhood effects;

Political factors;

Racial discrimination

Socioeconomic status, general

central cities' relations with suburbs, 35

classification of urban problems. 14

decentralized structures and inequality, 3

research recommendations, 117

see also Income;

Poverty;

Racial discrimination;

Residential segregation

South Carolina, 61, 264-265

South Dakota, 264-265

South Korea, 178

Spatial distribution factors, 10, 14, 21, 22, 23-28, 67-69, 192-213

black persons, general, 214-216

density of population, 10, 61-62

education, school location, 94

employment, 67-68

discrimination, 69

spatial mismatch hypothesis, 5-6, 7-8, 32, 51-52, 61, 67, 201, 216-217, 220-230 (passim)

international perspectives, 29, 30, 31, 118-119

local government, 29-32

minorities, general, 21, 119, 134, 194-195

place-based initiatives, 86-88, 123, 230-234

research recommendations, 117-119

spatial mismatch hypothesis, 5-6, 7-8, 32, 51-52, 56, 61, 67, 216-217, 220-230 (passim)

spatial opportunity structure, 10, 11, 16-17, 18, 21, 37, 40, 51, 54, 61, 79-115, 116-117, 121-122, 123-125, 127-128, 129, 133-135, 213-252

tax/service disparities, 268-269

see also Elasticity;

Land use;

Neighborhood effects;

Residential

segregation;

Special districts;

Sprawl;

Zoning

Special districts, 23, 98, 112, 125, 129, 269, 272-274, 277

air quality control, 296, 304, 310-321

metropolitan planning organizations, 111-112, 114, 125, 274, 277, 302, 303-304

Speculation, 172-173

Sprawl, 13, 33, 84, 109, 151-191, 237

central-city/suburban disparities, 152, 158, 159, 176

environmental impacts, 175-176, 177-178

immigrants, 177-178

international perspectives, 151, 153, 162-163, 165, 168, 170

opportunity costs, 176

property rights, 84-85, 152, 165, 168, 178-182

property tax, 169, 173-175, 178

see also Elasticity

Stable Neighborhood Initiatives Program, 238, 239

Standards

building codes, 31, 130-131

educational, 131, 132

State government, 3-4, 8, 11, 18, 21, 115, 129-130

air quality controls, 310-315

annexation, 28-29

commuter taxes, 123

education, 102-103, 104

employment, 177

enterprise zones, 86-87, 123, 230-233, 234

equalization aid, 7, 10, 72, 101-103, 123, 125, 133, 268, 278-280, 284;

see also Place-based initiatives

housing, 8, 80-81, 236-237

land use policies, 8, 11, 80-81, 82-84, 119, 130, 154-155, 168, 177, 180-181, 236-237

local governments and, 8, 11, 18, 21, 76, 98, 99, 101, 102-103, 104, 260-267, 277, 278, 280-281

metropolitan consolidation policies, 109-110, 115, 128-130

municipal incorporation policies, 8, 28-29, 31, 115, 268

tax/service disparities, 76, 98, 99, 101, 102-103, 104, 260-267, 277, 278, 280-285

metropolitan governance, general, 11, 109-110, 115

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Governance and Opportunity in Metropolitan America. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6038.
×

municipal incorporation policies, 8, 28-29, 115

political factors, 11, 28, 37, 177, 181, 280

rural property tax, 175

subsidies and aid, 74

tax policies, general, 8, 175, 255

tax revenues by state and/or type, tables, 256-257

tax/service disparities, 76, 98, 99, 101, 102-103, 104, 260-267, 277, 278, 280-285;

see also Equalization aid

transportation policies, 298, 299-300, 306

unequal opportunity, 18, 129-130

see also Court cases;

Legislation, specific state;

specific states

Statistical analyses

agglomeration economies, 34

central cities' relations with suburbs, 35-36

local government fragmentation effects, 66

municipal incorporation factors, 31

racial disparities, 49

see also Regression analysis

St. Louis, Missouri, 108

Subsidies and aid

community development corporations/financial institutions, 87-88, 123, 232-234

enterprise zones, 86-87, 123, 230-231, 234

Europe, 162-163, 165, 167

federal government, 74, 101-102, 111, 114-115, 298-303, 304, 306-307

growth controls, 84

housing, 90, 154-155

metropolitan consolidation, 111, 114-115, 129

sprawl, 171-172

tax/service disparities, 72, 74, 267;

see also Equalization aid

transportation, 298-303, 304, 306-308

zoning and, 30, 82-84, 85, 171-172, 179

see also Vouchers;

Welfare

Suburbs and suburban residents, 4-5, 15, 16, 21, 192

agglomeration economies, 33, 34

attitudes toward inner city, 10, 52, 89, 132, 201, 271

attitudes toward low-income housing, 29-30, 90-91, 158, 236, 238-239, 242

causes of, 10, 28-29, 30, 118, 151-191, 281-282

federal government role, 28, 175-176

political factors, 28-29, 158, 163, 164-165, 176-178, 254

transportation factors, 28, 159, 160-161

costs of urban decline, 11, 14, 19-20, 35, 36, 71, 127, 192, 288

crime, 71, 81-82, 158, 161

employment, 22, 33-34, 132, 163-164

discrimination, 5-6, 10, 19, 57, 95, 132

spatial mismatch hypothesis, 5-6, 7-8, 32, 51-52, 57, 61, 67, 216-217, 220-230 (passim)

see also Mobility (workers)

Hispanics, 195, 202, 205, 208

historical perspectives, 24, 28, 153, 154, 157, 158, 159-161, 175, 193, 195, 196

household mobility strategies, 86, 89-91

income segregation/stratification, 7-8, 151, 152, 153-159

inner-ring, 3, 4, 41, 76, 162-163, 170, 192

international perspectives, 29, 118, 151, 153, 162-163, 165, 168, 170, 171

low-income housing, 81-82, 84-85, 89-91, 107, 110, 130

attitudes toward, 29-30, 90-91, 158, 236, 238-239, 242

sprawl and, 151-152, 153, 154-158, 171-172, 176

minorities, 3, 25, 26, 28, 130

poverty, 3, 4, 97-98

property rights, 84-85, 152, 165, 168, 178-182

research recommendations, 118

spatial mismatch hypothesis, 5-6, 7-8, 32, 51-52, 57, 61, 67, 216-217, 220-230 (passim)

spatial opportunity structures, 17, 117

sprawl, 13, 33, 84, 109, 151-191

white flight, 237-238

zoning, 151-191

exclusionary, 8, 11, 12, 16, 21, 29, 30-32, 38, 61, 79-80, 81-82, 89-90, 104, 130, 131, 152, 153-159, 168-169, 175-182, 201, 236-237

inclusionary, 10, 38, 78, 81, 82-84, 130, 176, 177

see also Central-city/suburban disparities;

Commuters and commuting;

Tax/service disparities

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Governance and Opportunity in Metropolitan America. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6038.
×

T

Taxation, 9

classification of urban problems, 14

central cities' relations with suburbs, 34, 35, 37

commuter taxes, 7, 98, 101, 123, 133, 267, 281-282

enterprise zones, 86-87, 123, 230-233, 234

gasoline taxes, 84, 299

historical perspectives, 101, 256-267, 282, 288

home owners, advantages, 171-172

income taxes, 34, 77, 101, 133, 172, 173, 255, 256, 260-261, 266, 267, 282, 283-284, 295

local government fragmentation/consolidation, 107-108, 203

local revenues by state and/or type, 256-267

property taxes, 30, 75, 97, 99, 100-101, 102, 169, 173-175, 307

public choice factors, 105

racial/economic segregation, 7

residential segregation, 7, 57

sales taxes, 74, 75, 76, 255, 256, 258, 260, 262-267, 307

speculation and, 173

state policies, general, 8, 175, 255

transportation, 84, 299, 307, 309, 313;

see also "commuter taxes" supra

zoning and, 30, 169;

see also "enterprise zones" supra

Tax/service disparities, 7, 8, 10, 29, 30, 32, 72-77, 95-104, 107, 116, 119-120, 122-123, 132-133, 203, 253-295

children, 75;

see also "education" infra

commuter taxes, 7, 98, 101, 123, 133, 267, 281-282

counties, 255, 262-266, 270, 272, 273, 280-281

crime, 75, 267, 268, 273-274, 280, 286

education, 7, 75, 122, 174-175, 255, 267, 278, 279, 280

equalization aid, 101-103, 123, 125, 133, 268, 278-280, 284;

see also Place-based initiatives

export taxes, 98, 100-101, 266, 283-284;

see also "commuter taxes" supra

federal government, 98, 253, 254, 268, 278, 281, 287-288

fragmentation/consolidation of metropolitan government, 8, 75, 116, 203, 268, 269-272

international perspectives, 287

metropolitan governance, general, 96-98, 99, 107, 254, 277, 278

minority groups, general, 97

political factors, 95-98, 100, 105, 268-269, 270, 271, 272-273, 276-278, 280, 284-285, 288

population size/density, 75, 254, 269, 277

poverty, 73, 76, 97-98, 254, 278, 281

public choice factors, 105-106

regional factors, general, 98, 99, 133, 276

spatial distribution, general, 268-269

state policy, 76, 98, 99, 101, 102-103, 104, 260-267, 277, 278, 280-285;

see also "equalization aid" supra

subsidies and aid, 72, 74, 267;

see also Equalization aid

suburbs, 74-75, 76, 270-271, 281-282, 285;

see also Commuters and commuting

tax-base sharing. 99-100, 268, 274-276, 284;

see also "equalization aid" supra

transportation, 254, 286;

see also Commuters and commuting

welfare, 76-77, 254

Telecommunications, 33

Interact, 180

Tennessee, 264-265

Texas, 264-265, 268

Transportation, 19, 230

automobiles, 6, 84, 160-161, 170, 287, 296, 299, 300, 304, 309, 314, 316-318, 319

central-city/suburban disparities, general, 305-306, 307

equity, general, 307-309

federal government, 298-303, 304, 306-307

funding, 298-303, 304, 306-308

gasoline taxes, 84, 299

historical perspectives, 296-304, 309

housing and, 309

Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act, 111, 274, 288, 304

land use policy, general, 309-310

local government fragmentation/consolidation, 111, 274, 296-310, 318-321

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Governance and Opportunity in Metropolitan America. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6038.
×

mass transit, 51, 111, 170, 235, 286, 288, 300-306, 307-309

political factors, 300, 305-306, 307-309

poverty, 305-306, 307-308;

see also Mobility (workers)

regional, 111, 274, 277, 296-310, 318-321

rural areas, 298, 300

special-purpose districts, 274

state policy, 298, 299-300, 306

study at hand, methodology, vii, 13

suburbanization, causes of, 28, 159, 160-161

taxation, 84, 299, 307, 309, 313;

see also Commuters and commuting (commuter tax)

tax/service disparities, 254, 286

worker mobility, 10, 86, 88-89, 94, 95, 123, 131, 132, 227, 235-236

poverty and employment mobility, 10, 86, 88-89, 94, 95, 123, 131, 132, 227, 235-236

spatial mismatch hypothesis, 5-6, 32, 51-52, 56, 57, 61, 67, 89, 216-217, 220-230 (passim)

see also Commuters and commuting

Two-tier governments, 21, 95, 96, 97, 106, 268, 272-274, 287

U

Unemployment, see Employment and unemployment

Unequal opportunity, general, 16-17, 19, 20, 27, 40-78, 69-71, 85-95, 116, 121, 127

exclusionary zoning, 8, 11, 12, 16, 21, 29, 30-32, 38, 61, 79-80, 81-82, 89-90, 104, 130, 131, 201, 236-237

sprawl and, 152, 153-159, 168-169, 175-182

globalization, 18

individualism and equal opportunity, 18

local government fragmentation/consolidation, 8, 65-66

metropolitan governance, 114

national policy, 18

policy options, 79-115

public services, 10, 60-61

research recommendations, 9, 10, 117, 127, 129-131

spatial opportunity structures, 21, 79-115, 116, 117, 127, 213-252

state policy, 18, 129-130

unemployment, underemployment and low-income, 9, 18, 19

see also Central-city/suburban disparities;

Neighborhood effects;

Poverty;

Racial discrimination;

Residential segregation;

Spatial

distribution factors;

Tax/service disparities

Urban Change and Poverty, vii

Urban Mass Transportation Act, 301

Urbanization economies, 32

Utah, 264-265

V

Vermont, 80, 177

Virginia, 115, 162, 260, 266-267

Voting Rights Act, 108

Vouchers

educational, 92-94, 104, 132

housing, 10, 58, 90, 123, 131, 227, 237

W

Washington, D.C., 17, 82, 97-98, 162, 198, 282

Washington State, 266-267, 311

Welfare, 237

neighborhood effects, 54

political factors, 18, 181-182

tax/service disparities, 76-77, 254

see also Low-income housing

Wisconsin, 266-267

Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 74-75, 98

Working Class Suburb, 195

World Wide Web, see Internet

Wyoming, 266-267

Z

Zoning, 11, 107

community development corporations, 88

court cases, 83, 154-155, 158, 165, 168, 174-175, 180-181

discriminatory, 11-12, 29;

see also "exclusionary" infra

enterprise zones, 86-87, 123, 230-233, 234

exclusionary, 8, 11, 12, 16, 21, 29, 30-32,

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. Governance and Opportunity in Metropolitan America. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6038.
×

38, 61, 79-80, 81-82, 89-90, 104, 130, 131, 201, 236-237

sprawl and, 152, 153-159, 168-169, 175-182

historical perspectives, 153, 154

local government fragmentation/consolidation, 80, 81, 176-177, 180

inclusionary, 10, 38, 78, 81, 82-84, 130, 176, 177

political factors, 158, 163, 164-165, 176-178, 181, 236

property rights, 84-85, 152, 165, 168, 178-182

rural areas, 163-164, 169, 170-171, 172, 175-176

sprawl and, 151-191

subsidies and aid, 30, 82-84, 85, 171-172, 179;

see also "enterprisezones" supra

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Governance and Opportunity in Metropolitan America Get This Book
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America's cities have symbolized the nation's prosperity, dynamism, and innovation. Even with the trend toward suburbanization, many central cities attract substantial new investment and employment. Within this profile of health, however, many urban areas are beset by problems of economic disparity, physical deterioration, and social distress.

This volume addresses the condition of the city from the perspective of the larger metropolitan region. It offers important, thought-provoking perspectives on the structure of metropolitan-level decisionmaking, the disadvantages faced by cities and city residents, and expanding economic opportunity to all residents in a metropolitan area. The book provides data, real-world examples, and analyses in key areas:

  • Distribution of metropolitan populations and what this means for city dwellers, suburbanites, whites, and minorities.
  • How quality of life depends on the spatial structure of a community and how problems are based on inequalities in spatial

    opportunity--with a focus on the relationship between taxes and services.

  • The role of the central city today, the rationale for revitalizing central cities, and city-suburban interdependence.

The book includes papers that provide in-depth examinations of zoning policy in relation to patterns of suburban development; regionalism in transportation and air quality; the geography of economic and social opportunity; social stratification in metropolitan areas; and fiscal and service disparities within metropolitan areas.

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