Aasman, J. 1995. Modeling driver behavior in Soar. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation. University of Groningen. Royal PTT Nederland NV, KPN Research.
Adams, M.J., Y.J. Tenny, and R.W. Pew. 1991. State-of-the-Art Report: Strategic Workload and the Cognitive Management of Advanced Multi-Task Systems. SOAR CSERIAC 91-6. Crew System Ergonomics Information Analysis Center, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH.
Agre, P.E., and D. Chapman. 1987. PENGI: An implementation of a theory of activity. In AIAA Proceeding of the 6th National Conference on Artificial Intelligence. Menlo Park, CA: AIAA.
Air Force Systems Command. 1980. AFSC Design Handbook Series 1-0. Human Factors Engineering, DH 1-3.
Ajzen, I. 1996. The social psychology of decision making. In Social Psychology: Handbook of Basic Principles, E.T. Higgins and A.W. Kruglanski, eds. New York, NY:The Guilford Press.
Ajzen, I., and M. Fishbein. 1980. Understanding Attitudes and Predicting Social Behavior. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Akyurek, A. 1992. On a computational model of human planning. Pp. 81-108 in Soar: A Cognitive Architecture in Perspective, J. Michon and A. Akyurek, eds. Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Alberts, D. 1996. The Unintended Consequences of Information Age Technologies. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Aldrich, H. 1979. Organizations and Environments. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Allais, M. 1953. Le comportement de l'homme rationnel devant le risque: Critique des postulates et axiomes de l'école Américaine. Econometrica 21:503-546.
Allender, L., L. Salvi, and D. Promisel. 1997. a Evaluation of human performance under diverse conditions via modeling technology. In Proceedings of Workshop on Emerging Technologies in Human Engineering Testing and Evaluation. Brussels, Belgium: NATO Research Study Group 24.
Allender, L., T. Kelley, S. Archer, and R. Adkins. 1997b. IMPRINT: The transition and further development of a soldier-system analysis tool. MANPRINT Quarterly 5(1):1-7.
Allender, L., J. Lockett, T.D. Kelley, L. Salvi, D. Mitchell, D.B. Headley, D. Promisel, C. Richer, and T. Feng. 1995. Verification, validation, and accreditation of a soldier-system modeling tool. In Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society (39th Annual Meeting). San Diego, CA: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.
Allport, D.A., E.A. Styles, and S. Hsieh. 1994. Shifting intentional set: Exploring the dynamic control of tanks. In Attention and Performance XV, C. Umilta and M. Moscovitch, eds. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Alterman, R. 1988. Adaptive planning. Cognitive Science 12:393-421.
Altmann, E.M., and B.E. John forthcoming Episodic indexing of external information. To appear in the Cognitive Science Journal.
Anderson, J.A. 1997. An Introduction to Neural Networks. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Anderson, J.A., J.W. Silverstein, S.A. Ritz, and R.S. Jones. 1977. Distinctive features, categorical perception, and probability learning: Some applications of a neural model. Psychological Review 84:413-451.
Anderson, J.R. 1976. Language, Memory, and Thought. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
1983 The Architecture of Cognition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
1990 The Adaptive Character of Thought. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
1993 Rules of the Mind. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Anderson, J.R., and G.H. Bower. 1980. Human Associative Memory. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum Associates
Anderson, J.R., and C. Lebiere. 1998. Atomic Components of Thought . Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Anderson, J.R., L.M. Reder, and C. Lebiere. 1996. Working memory: Activation limitations on retrieval. Cognitive Psychology 30(3):221-256.
Anderson, N.H. 1959. Test of a model for opinion change. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 59:371-381.
1964 Linear models for responses measured on a continuous scale. Journal of Mathematical Psychology 1:121-142.
1971 Integration theory and attitude change. Psychological Review 78:171-206.
Anderson, N.H., and C. Hovland. 1957. The representation of order effects in communication research. In The Order of Presentation in Persuasion, C. Hovland, ed. New Haven, CT:Yale University Press.
Anno, G.H., M.A. Dore, and T.J. Roth. 1996. Taxonomic Model for Performance Degradation in Combat Tasks. DNA-TR-95-115. Defense Nuclear Agency, Alexandria, VA.
Anonymous. 1997. Federated Laboratory Workshop on Commander's Intent, North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, Greensboro, NC, October 28-29.
Antis, W., J.M. Honeycutt, and E.N. Koch. 1973. The Basic Motions of MTM. Naples, FL: The Maynard Foundation.
Arbib, M.A., ed. 1995. The Handbook of Brain Theory and Neural Networks . Cambridge, MA:MIT Press.
Archer, R.D., and J.F. Lockett. 1997. WinCrew--A tool for analyzing performance, mental workload and function allocation among operators. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Allocation of Functions . Galway, Ireland: COHSS.
Argyris, C. 1957. Personality and Organization. New York, NY: Harper and Row.
Arkes, H.R., and C. Blumer. 1985. The psychology of sunk cost. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 35:124-140.
Aschenbrenner, K., D. Albert, and F. Schmalhofer. 1983. Stochastic choice heuristics. Acta Psychologica 56:153-166.
Atkinson, R.C., and R.M. Shiffrin. 1968. Human memory: A proposed system and its control processes. Pp. 89-195 in The Psychology of Learning and Motivation: Advances in Research and Theory (Vol. 2), K.W. Spence and J.T. Spence, eds. New York, NY:Academic Press.
Aube, M., and A. Sentini. 1996. Emotions as commitments operators: A foundation for control structure in multiagent systems. In Agents Breaking Away, W. Van de Velde and J.W. Perram, eds. New York, NY: Springer-Verlag.
Axelrod, R. 1997. Advancing the Art of Simulation in the Social Sciences. Working Paper 97-05-048. Santa Fe Institute.
Axelrod, R.M., and D. Dion. 1988. The further evolution of cooperation. Science 242(4884):1385-1390.
Baddeley, A.D. 1986. Working Memory. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
1990 Human Memory: Theory and Practice. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Badler, N., C. Phillips, and B. Webber. 1993. Simulating Humans. Oxford University Press.
Badre, A.N. 1978. Selecting and Representing Information Structures for Battlefield Decision Systems. ARI Technical Report 79-A20. U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences, Alexandria, VA.
Bagozzi, R.P., and R.E. Burnkrant. 1979. Attitude organization and the attitude-behavior relationship. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 37:913-919.
Baligh, H.H., R.M. Burton, and B. Obel. 1987. Design of organizational structures: An expert system method. In Economics and Artificial Intelligence, J.L. Roos, ed. Oxford, United Kingdom: Pergamon.
1990 Devising expert systems in organization theory: The organizational consultant. In Organization, Management, and Expert Systems, M. Masuch, ed. Berlin, Germany: Walter De Gruyter.
1994 Validating the organizational consultant on the fly. In Computational Organization Theory, K.M. Carley and M.J. Prietula, eds. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Banda, C., D. Bushnell, S. Chen, A. Chiu, B. Constantine, J. Murray, C. Neukom, M. Prevost, R. Shankar, and L. Staveland. 1991. Army-NASA Aircrew/Aircraft Integration Program: Phase IV A3I Man-Machine Integration Design and Analysis System (MIDAS) Software Detailed Design Document. NASA Contractor Report 177593. NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA.
Bandura, A. 1977. Social Learning Theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Banks, J.H. 1985. Lessons from the NTC: Common Battalion Task Force Training Needs (draft). U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences, Presidio of Monterey Field Unit, November.
Barnes, M.J., and B.G. Knapp. 1997. Collaborative planning aids for dispersed decision making at the brigade level. In Conference Proceedings of the First Annual Symposium of Advanced Displays and Interactive Displays Federated Laboratory, January 28-29. Adelphi, MD: Army Research Laboratory.
Baron, S., G. Zacharias, R. Muralidharan, and R. Lancraft. 1980. PROCRU: A model for analyzing flight crew procedures in approach to landing. In Proceedings of the Eighth IFAC World Congress, Tokyo, Japan.
Barrick, M.R., and M.K. Mount. 1991. The Big Five personality dimensions and job performance: A meta-analysis. Personnel Psychology 44(1):1-26.
Bass, B.M. 1964). Business gaming for organizational research. Management Science 10(8):545-555.
Bass, E.J., G.D. Baxter, and F.E. Ritter. 1995. Using cognitive models to control simulations of complex systems. AISB Quarterly 93:18-25.
Batagelj, V., P. Doreian, and A. Ferligoj. 1992. An optimizational approach to regular equivalence. Social Networks 14(1-2):121-136.
Bauer, M.I., and B.E. John. 1995. Modeling time-constrained learning in a highly-interactive task. Pp. 19-26 in Proceedings of CHI (Denver, CO, May 7-11). New York, NY: ACM.
BBN Systems and Technologies. 1997. OMAR User/Programmer Manual, Version 2.0. Cambridge, MA: BBN Systems and Technologies.
Beevis, D., R. Bost, B. Döring, E. Nordø, J.-P. Papin, I.H. Schuffel, and D. Streets. 1994. Analysis Techniques for Man-Machine System Design. AC/243 (Panel 8) TR/7. Defence Research Group, North Atlantic Treaty Organization.
Belenky, G. 1986. Sustaining and enhancing individual and unit performance in continuous operations. In Proceedings of the Soldier Performance Research and Analysis Review. Fort Belvoir, VA. April.
Belenky, G.L., G.P. Kreuger, T.J. Balking, D.B. Headley, and R.E. Solick. 1987. Effect of Continuous Operations (CONOPS) on Soldier and Unit Performance: Review of the Literature and Strategies for Sustaining the Soldier in CONOPS. WRAIR Report BB-87-1. Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington, DC.
Bell, D.E. 1982. Regret in decision making under uncertainty. Operations Research 30:961-981.
Bennett, B.W. 1995. Observations on Verification, Validation, and Accreditation (VV&A). PM-462-OSD. Acquisition and Technology Center, National Defense Research Institute, The RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, CA.
Bennett, B.W., S. Gardiner, D.B. Fox, and N.K.J. Witney. 1994. Theater Analysis and Modeling in an Era of Uncertainty: The Present and Future of Warfare. Santa Monica, CA: The RAND Corporation.
Berry, J.W., M.H. Segall, and C. Kagitcibasi, eds. 1997. Handbook of Cross-cultural Psychology. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
Berry, J.W., Y.H. Poortinga, M.H. Segall, and P.R. Dasen. 1992. Cross-Cultural Psychology: Research and Applications. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.
Binder, K.S., and R.K. Morris. 1995. Eye movements and lexical ambiguity resolution: Effects of prior encounter and discourse topic. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition 21(5): 1186-1196.
Binder, J., D. Koller, S. Russell, K. Kanazawa. 1995. Adaptive probabilistic networks with hidden variables. In Proceedings of the International Joint Council on Artificial Intelligence.
Bjork, R.A., and D. Druckman. 1991. In the Mind's Eye: Enhancing Human Performance. Committee on Techniques for the Enhancement of Human Performance. Washington, DC:National Academy Press.
Blaney, P.H. 1986. Affect and memory. Psychological Bulletin 99(2):229-246.
Blau, P.M. 1955. The Dynamics of Bureaucracy. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
1960 Structural effects. American Sociological Review 25:178-193.
Blau, P.M., and M. Meyer. 1956. Bureaucracy in Modern Society. New York, NY: Random House.
Blau, P.M., and W.R. Soctt. 1962. Formal Organizations: A Comparative Approach. San Francisco, CA: Chandler Publishing Company.
Bledstein, B.J. 1976. The Culture of Professionalism: The Middle Class and the Development of Higher Education in America. New York, NY: Norton.
Bodlaender, H.L., and K. Jansen. 1991. Restrictions of Graph Partition Problems. Part 1. RUU-CS-91-44. Department of Computer Science, Utrecht University, The Netherlands.
Bond, A., and L. Gasser. 1988. Readings in Distributed Artificial Intelligence. San Mateo, CA: Kaufmann.
Bond, B. 1996. The Pursuit of Victory. New York, NY:Oxford University Press.
Bonney, R.A. 1996. Human response to vibration: Principles and methods. In Evaluation of Human Work, J.R. Wilson and E.N. Corlett, eds. Bristol, PA: Taylor and Francis.
Boorman, S.A. and P.R. Levitt. 1980. The Genetics of Altruism. New York, NY:Academic Press.
Bovair, S., D.E. Kieras, and P.G. Polson. 1990. The acquisition and performance of text-editing skill: A cognitive complexity analysis. Human-Computer Interaction 5:1-48.
Bower, G.H. 1981. Mood and memory. American Psychologist 36:129-148.
Bradski, G., and S. Grossberg. 1995. Fast learning VIEWNET architectures for recognizing 3-D objects from multiple 2-D views. Neural Networks 8:1053-1080.
Bradski, G., G.A. Carpenter, and S. Grossberg. 1994. STORE working memory networks for storage and recall of arbitrary temporal sequences. Biological Cybernetics 71:469-480.
Branscomb, A.W. 1994. Who Owns Information? From Privacy to Public Access. New York, NY: Basic Books.
Brecke, F.H., and M.J. Young. 1990. Training Tactical Decision Making Skills: An Emerging Technology. AFHRL-TR-36. AFHRL/LRG, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH.
Brehmer, B., and D. Dorner. 1993. Experiments with computer simulated microworlds: Escaping both the narrow straits of the laboratory and the deep blue sea of the field study. Computers in Human Behavior 9(1):171-184.
Breiger, R.L., S.A. Boorman, and P. Arabie. 1975. An algorithm for clustering relational data with applications to social network analysis and comparison with multidimensional scaling. Journal of Mathematical Psychology 12:328-383.
Broadbent, D.E. 1957. A mechanical model for human attention and immediate memory. Psychological Review 64:205-215.
1958 Perception and Communication. New York, NY: Pergamon.
Broadbent, D.E., M.H.P. Broadbent, and J.L. Jones. 1986. Performance correlates of self-reported cognitive failure and obsessionality. British Journal of Clinical Psychology 25:285-299.
Brockner, J. 1992. The escalation of commitment to a failing course of action: Toward theoretical progress. Academy of Management Review 17(1):39-61.
Brown, J. 1989. Environmental Threats: Social Science Approaches to Public Risk Assessment. London, England: Bellhaven.
Bryan, W.L., and N. Harter. 1899. Studies on the telegraphic language. The acquisition of a hierarchy of habits. Psychological Review 6:345-375.
Buchanan, B.G., and E.H. Shortliffe. 1984. Rule-Based Expert Systems: The MYCIN Experiments of the Stanford Heuristic Programming Project . Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Bukszar, E., and T. Connolly. 1987. Hindsight and strategic choice: Some problems in learning from experience. Academy of Management Journal 31:628-641.
Burkett, L.N., J. Chisum, J. Pierce, and K. Pomeroy. 1990. Increased dermal activity over paralyzed muscle after peak exercise. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly 7(1):67-73.
Burnod, Y., P. Grandguillaume, I. Otto, S. Ferraina, P.B. Johnson, and R. Caminiti. 1992. Visuomotor transformations underlying arm movements towards visual targets: A neural network model of cerebral cortical operations. Journal of Neurosciences 12:1435-1453.
Burns, T., and G.M. Stalker. 1966. The Management of Innovation. London, United Kingdom: Tavistock Publications. (Originally published 1961.)
Burt, R.S. 1973. The differential impact of social integration on participation in the diffusion of innovations. Social Science Research 2:125-144.
1980 Innovation as a structural interest: Rethinking the impact of network position innovation adoption. Social Networks 4:337-355.
1982 Toward a Structural Theory of Action. New York, NY:Academic Press.
Busemeyer, J.R., and J.T. Townsend. 1993 Decision field theory: A dynamic-cognitive approach to decision making in an uncertain environment. Psychological Review 100:432-459.
Bush, R.B., and F. Mosteller. 1955. Stochastic Models for Learning. New York, NY: Wiley.
Byrn, D., and K. Kelley. 1981. An Introduction to Personality. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Byrne, M.D., and J.R. Anderson. 1998. Perception and action. In Atomic Components of Thought, J.R. Anderson and C. Lebiere, eds. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Cacioppo, J.T., and L.G. Tassinary. 1990. Principles of Psychophysiology: Physical, Social and Inferential elements. New York, NY:Cambridge University Press.
Calder, R.B., R.L. Carreiro, J.N. Panagos, G.R. Vrablik, and B.P. Wise. 1996. Architecture of a Command Forces Entity. In Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Computer Generated Forces and Behavioral Representation. Report IST-TR-96-18. Institute for Simulation and Training, Orlando, FL.
Campbell, D.T. 1996. Unresolved issues in measurement validity: An autobiographical overview. Psychological Assessment 8(4):363-368.
Campbell, J.P., and L.M. Zook, eds. 1991. Improving the Selection, Classification and Utilization of Army Enlsted personnel: Final Report on Project A. AA5-RR1597. U.S. Army Research Institute, Alexandria, VA.
Cantril, H. 1946. The intensity of an attitude. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 41:129-135.
Carbonell, J. 1986. Derivational analogy: A theory of reconstructive problem solving and expertise acquisition. Pp. 371-392 in Machine Learning: An Artificial Intelligence Approach 2, R.S. Michalski, J.G. Carbonell, and T.M. Mitchell, eds. Los Altos, CA: Morgan Kaufmann.
Carbonell, J.G., C.A. Knoblock, and S. Minton. 1991. Prodigy: An integrated architecture for planning and learning. Pp. 241-278 in Architectures for Intelligence, K. VanLehn, ed. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Carbonell, J.R. 1966. A queuing model of many-instrument visual sampling. IEEE Transactions on Human Factors in Electronics 7(4):157-164.
Carbonell, J.R., J.L. Ward, and J.W. Senders. 1968. A queuing model of visual sampling: Experimental validation. IEEE Transactions on Man-Machine System 9(3):82-87.
Card, S.K., T.P. Moran, and A. Newell. 1983. The Psychology of Human-Computer Interaction . Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Caretta, T.R., D.C. Perry, and M.J. Ree. 1994. The ubiquitous three in the prediction of situation awareness: Round up the usual suspects. Pp. 125-137 in Situational Awareness in Complex Systems, R.D. Gilson, D.J. Garland, and J.M. Koonce, eds. Daytona Beach, FL: Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University Press.
Carey, J.P. 1994. Multinational enterprises. In Cross Cultural Topics in Psychology, L.L. Adler and U.P. Gielen, eds. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Carley, K.M. 1986a. Measuring efficiency in a garbage can hierarchy. Pp. 165-194 in Ambiguity and Command, J.G. March and R. Weissinger-Baylon, eds. New York, NY: Pitman.
1986b. An approach for relating social structure to cognitive structure. Journal of Mathematical Sociology 12(2):137-189.
1990. Group stability: A socio-cognitive approach. Pp. 1-44 in Advances in Group Processes, Vol. 7, E. Lawler, B. Markovsky, C. Ridgeway, and H. Walker, eds. Greenwich, CT: JAI.
1991a. A theory of group stability. American Sociological Review 56(3):331-354.
1991b. Designing organizational structures to cope with communication breakdowns: A simulation model. Industrial Crisis Quarterly 5:19-57.
1992. Organizational learning and personnel turnover. Organization Science 3(1):20-46. [Reprinted in 1996, Organizational Learning, M.D. Cohen and L.S. Sproull, Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage]
1995a. Communication technologies and their effect on cultural homogeneity, consensus, and the diffusion of new ideas. Sociological Perspectives 38(4):547-571.
1995b. Computational and mathematical organization theory: Perspective and directions. Computational and Mathematical Organization Theory 1(1):39-56.
1996a. A comparison of artificial and human organizations. Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization 31:175-191.
1996b. Validating Computational Models. Social and Decision Sciences Working Paper. Pittsburgh, PA: Carnegie Mellon University.
forthcoming. Organizational adaptation. Annals of Operations Research.
Carley, K., and A. Newell. 1994. The nature of the social agent. Journal of Mathematical Sociology 19(4):221-262.
Carley, K.M., and Z. Lin. forthcoming. A theoretical study of organizational performance under information distortion. Management Science.
Carley, K.M., and J. Harrald. 1997. Organizational learning under fire: Theory and practice. American Behavioral Scientist 40(3):310-332.
Carley, K.M., and M.J. Prietula. 1994. ACTS theory: Extending the model of bounded rationality. Pp. 55-88 in Computational Organization Theory, K.M. Carley and M.J. Prietula, eds. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Carley, K.M., and D.M. Svoboda. 1996. Modeling organizational adaptation as a simulated annealing process. Sociological Methods and Research 25(1):138-168.
Carley, K.M., and K. Wendt. 1991. Electronic mail and scientific communication: A study of the Soar Extended Research Group. Knowledge: Creation, Diffusion, Utilization 12(4):406-440.
Carley, K., J. Kajaer-Hansen, M. Prietula, and A. Newell. 1992. Plural-Soar: A prolegomenon to artificial agents and organizational behavior. Pp. 87-118 in Artificial Intelligence in Organization and Management Theory, M. Masuch and M. Warglien, eds. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier Science Publishers.
Carneiro, R.L. 1994. War and peace: Alternating realities in human history. In Studying War: Anthropological Perspectives, S.P. Reyna and R.E. Downs, eds. Langhorne, PA: Gordon and Breach.
Carpenter, G.A., and S. Grossberg. 1987a. A massively parallel architecture for a self-organizing neural pattern recognition machine. Computer Vision, Graphics, and Image Processing 37:54-115.
1987b ART 2: Stable self-organization of pattern recognition codes for analog input patterns. Applied Optics 26:4919-4930.
1990 ART 3: Hierarchical search using chemical transmitters in self-organizing pattern recognition architectures. Neural Networks 3:129-152.
Carpenter, G.A., and S. Grossberg, eds. 1991. Pattern Recognition by Self-Organizing Neural Networks. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Carpenter, G.A., and W.D. Ross. 1995. ART-EMAP: A neural network architecture for object recognition by evidence accumulation. IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks 6:805-818.
Carpenter, G.A., S. Grossberg, N. Markuzon, J.H. Reynolds, and D.B. Rosen. 1992. Fuzzy ARTMAP: A neural network architecture for incremental supervised learning of analog multidimensional maps. IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks 3:698-713.
Castelfranchi, C., and E. Werner, eds. 1992. Artificial Social Systems: 4th European Workshop on Modeling Autonomous Agents in a MultiAgent World. MAAMAW 1992, S. Martinoal Cimino, Italy, July 29-31.
Ceranowicz, A. 1994. Modular semiAutomated Forces. http://www/mystech.com/~smithr/elecsim94/modsaf/modsaf.txt
Cesta, A., M. Miceli and P. Rizzo. 1996. Effects of different interaction attitudes on a multiagent system performance. In Agents Breaking Away, W. Van de Velde and J.W. Perram, eds. New York, NY: Springer-Verlag.
Chase, W.G., and H.A. Simon. 1973. The mind's eye in chess. Pp. 215-281 in Visual Information Processing, W.G. Chase, ed. New York, NY:Academic Press .
Cho, B., P.S. Rosenbloom, and C.P. Dolan. 1991. Neuro-Soar: A neural-network architecture for goal-oriented behavior. In Proceedings of the 13h Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, August. Chicago, IL: Cognitive Science Society.
Chong, R.S., and J.E. Laird. 1997. Towards learning dual-task executive process knowledge using EPIC-Soar. In Proceedings of the Nineteenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society.
Chou, C.D., D. Madhavan, and K. Funk. 1996. Studies of cockpit task management errors. International Journal of Aviation Psychology 6(4):307-320.
Christensen-Szalanski, J.J.J., and C.S. Fobian. 1991. The hindsight bias: A meta-analysis. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 48:147-168.
Chu, Y.-Y., and W.B. Rouse. 1979. Adaptive allocation of decision making responsibility between human and computer in multitask situations. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics 9(12):769-777.
Cleermans, A., and J.L. McClelland. 1991. Learning the structure of event sequences. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 120(3):235-253.
Clemen, R.T. 1996. Making Hard Decisions. Belmont, CA:Wadsworth Publishing Company/Duxbury Press.
Cohen, G.P. 1992. The Virtual Design Team: An Information Processing Model of the Design Team Management. Ph.D. Thesis. Department of Civil Engineering, Stanford University.
Cohen, J.D., K. Dunbar, and J.M. McClelland. 1990. On the control of automatic processes: A parallel distributed processing account of the Stroop effect. Psychological Review 97:332-361.
Cohen, M.D. 1996. Individual learning and organizational routine. In Organizational Learning, M.D. Cohen and L.S. Sproull, eds. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Cohen, M.D., and J.G. March. 1974. Leadership and Ambiguity. New York, NY: McGraw Hill.
Cohen, M.D., J.G. March, and J.P. Olsen. 1972. A garbage can model of organizational choice. Administrative Sciences Quarterly 17(1):1-25.
Cohen, M.S., and B.B. Thompson. 1995. A Hybrid Architecture for Metacognitive Learning. Presented at the ONR Hybrid Learning Kick-Off Meeting, Washington, DC, August 3-4.
Cohen, R. 1988. Blaming men, not machines. Time (August 15):19.
Coleman, J.S., E. Katz, and H. Menzel. 1966. Medical Innovation: A Diffusion Study. New York, NY: Bobbs-Merrill Company, Inc.
Collins, R.J. 1992. Studies in Artificial Evolution. CSD-920037. Computer Science Department. University of California, Los Angeles.
Coltheart, M., B. Curtis, P. Atkins, and M. Haller. 1993. Models of reading aloud: Dual-route and parallel-distributed-processing approaches. Psychological Review 100:589-608.
Connolly, T., and D. Deane. 1997. Decomposed versus holistic estimates of effort required for software writing tasks. Management Science 43:1029-1045.
Connolly, T., H. Arkes, and K.R. Hammond, eds. forthcoming. Judgment and Decision Making: An Interdisciplinary Reader (second edition). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
Connolly, T., L.D. Ordonez, and R. Coughlan. 1997. Regret and responsibility on the evaluation of decision outcomes. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 70:73-85.
Conroy, J., and S. Masterson. 1991. Development of Environmental Stressors for PER-SEVAL. U.S. Army Research Institute, Alexandria, VA.
Cooley, C. 1902. Human Nature and Social Order. New York, NY: Scribner.
Coombs, C., and G.S. Avrunin. 1977. Single-peaked functions and the theory of preference. Psychological Review 84:216-230.
Cooper, N. 1988. Seven minutes to death. Newsweek (July 18):18-23.
Cowan, N. 1993. Activation, attention and short-term memory. Memory and Cognition 21:162-167.
Crowston, K. forthcoming. An approach to evolving novel organizational forms. Computational and Mathematical Organization Theory 26(1):29-48.
Cushman, J.H. 1985. Command and Control of Theater Forces: Adequacy . Washington, DC:AFCEA International Press.
Cyert, R., and J.G. March. 1992. A Behavioral Theory of the Firm. 2nd Edition. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Publishers. 
Damos, D.L. forthcoming. Using interruptions to identify task prioritization in part 121 air carrier operations. Department of Aerospace Engineering, Applied Mechanics, and Aviation. In Proceedings of the Ninth International Symposium on Aviation Psychology. Columbus, OH: The Ohio State University.
Danes, J.E., J.E. Hunter, and J. Woelfel. 1984. Belief, change, and accumulated information. In Mathematical Models of Attitude Change: Change in Single Attitudes and Cognitive Structure, J. Hunter, J. Danes, and S. Cohen, eds. Orlando, FL: Academic Press.
Davis, P.K. 1989. Modeling of Soft Factors in the RAND Strategy Assessment Center. P-7538. Santa Monica, CA: The RAND Corporation.
Dawes, R.M. 1997. Behavioral decision making and judgment. In Handbook of Social Psychology, S. Fiske and G. Lindzey, eds. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Dawes, R.M., and M. Mulford. 1996. The false consensus effect and overconfidence: Flaws in judgment or flaws in how we study judgment? Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Making Process 65:201-211.
Decker, K.S., and V.R. Lesser. 1993. Quantitative modeling of complex computational task environments. Pp. 217-224 in Proceedings of the Eleventh National Conference on Artificial Intelligence, July, Washington, DC.
Decker, K. 1995. A framework for modeling task environment. Chapter 5 in Environment-Centered Analysis and Design of Coordination Mechanisms. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Massachusetts.
1996 TAEMS: A framework for environment centered analysis and design of coordination mechanisms. In Foundations of Distributed Artificial Intelligence, G.M.P. O'Hare and N.R. Jennings, eds. New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons.
Deckert, J.C., E.B. Entin, E.E. Entin, J. MacMillan, and D. Serfaty. 1994. Military Command Decision making Expertise. Report 631. Alphatech, Burlington, MA.
Defense Advanced Research Project Agency. 1996. DARPA Proposer's Information Package. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.
DeGroot, M.H. 1970. Optimal Statistical Decisions. New York: McGraw-Hill.
de Oliveira, P.P.B. 1992. Enact: An Artificial-life World in a Family of Cellular Automata. Cognitive Science Research Papers, CSRP 248. School of Cognitive and Computing Sciences, University of Sussex, Brighton [East Sussex], England.
de Sola Poole, I., ed. 1977. The Social Impact of the Telephone. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
De Soete, G., H. Feger, and K.C. Klauer. 1989. New Developments in Psychological Choice Modeling. New York: Elsevier-North Holland.
Detweiler, M., and W. Schneider. 1991. Modeling the acquisition of dual-task skill in a connectionist/control architecture. In Multiple Task Performance, D.L. Damos, ed. London, United Kingdom: Taylor and Francis Ltd.
Deutsch, J.A., and D. Deutsch. 1963. Attention: Some theoretical consideration. Psychological Review 70:80-90.
Deutsch, S.E., and M. Adams. 1995. The operator-model architecture and its psychological framework. In Proceedings of the Sixth IFAC Symposium on Man-Machine Systems. Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Deutsch, S.E., J. Macmillan, N.L. Cramer, and S. Chopra. 1997. Operator Model Architecture (OMAR) Final Report. BBN Report No. 8179. BBN Corporation , Cambridge, MA.
Deutsch, S.E., M.J. Adams, G.A. Abrett, N.L. Cramer, and C.E. Feehrer. 1993. Research, Development, Training, and Evaluation: Operator Model Architecture (OMAR) Software Functional Specification. AL/HR-TP-1993-0027. Air Force Material Command, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH.
Diederich, A. 1997. Dynamic stochastic models for decision making under time pressure. Journal of Mathematical Psychology 41:260-274.
Dietterich, T.G., and N.S. Flann. 1997. Explanation-based learning and reinforcement learning: A unified view. Machine Learning 28(2) :??.
Dixon, N. 1976. Military Incompetence. New York, NY: Basic Books.
Doll, T.H., S.W. McWhorter, D.E. Schmieder, M.C. Hertzler, J.M. Stewart. A.A. Wasilewski, W.R.Owens, A.D. Sheffer, G.L. Galloway, and S.D. Herbert. 1997. Biologically-based vision simulation for target-background discrimination and camouflage/lo design. Paper No. 3062-29 in Targets and Backgrounds: Proceedings of the International Society of Photo-optical Instrumentation Engineers , W.R. Watkins and D. Clemens, eds. Orlando, FL: Society of Photo-optical Instrumentation Engineers.
Dominguez, C. 1994. Can SA be defined? In Situation Awareness: Papers and Annotated Bibliography (U), M. Vidulich, C. Dominguez, E. Vogel, and G. McMillan, eds. Vol. AL/CF-TR-1994-0085. Armstrong Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH.
Downes-Martin, S. 1995. A Survey of Human Behavior Representation Activities for Distributed Interactive Simulation: Final Report. Prepared for SAIC Defense Modeling and Simulation Office Support Office, Alexandria, VA. November.
Downey, J.E., and J.E. Anderson. 1915. Automatic writing. The American Journal of Psychology 26:161-195.
Downs, A. 1967. Inside Bureaucracy. Boston, MA: Little, Brown and Company.
Drummond, M., J. Bresina, and S. Kendar. 1991. The entropy reduction engine: Integrating planning, scheduling, and control. SIGART Bulletin 2:48-52.
Duffy, B., R. Kaylor, and P. Cary. 1988. How good is this Navy, anyway? U.S. News and World Report July 18:18-19.
Dupuy, T.N. 1979. The Effects of Combat Losses and Fatigue on Combat Performance, Historical Evaluation and Research Organization. AD-B038029L, U.S. Government Limited. Training and Doctrine Command, Fort Monroe, VA. January.
Durfee, E.H. 1988. Coordination of Distributed Problem Solvers. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Durfee, E.H., and T.A. Montgomery. 1991. Coordination as distributed search in a hierarchical behavior space. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics 21(6):1363-1378.
Dyer, M.G. 1987. Emotions and their computation: Three computer models. Cognition and Emotion 3:323-347.
Eades, P., and D. Harel. 1989. Drawing Graphs Nicely Using Simulated Annealing. Technical Report CS89-13. Department of Applied Mathematics Computer Science, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel.
Eccles, R.G., and D.B. Crane. 1988. Doing Deals: Investment Banks at Work. Boston, MA:Harvard Business School Press.
Eden, C., S. Jones and D. Sims. 1979. Thinking in Organizations. London, England: MacMillan Press.Edgell, S.E.
1980 A set-theoretical random utility model of choice behavior. Journal of Mathematical Psychology 21:265-278.
Edmonds, B., M. Scott, and S. Wallis. 1996. Logic, reasoning and a programming language for simulating economic and business processes with artificially intelligent agents. Pp. 221-230 in Artificial Intelligence in Economics and Management, P. Ein-Dor, ed. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Eisenstein, E.L. 1979. The Printing Press as an Agent of Change, Communications, and Cultural Transformations in Early Modern Europe; 2 Vols. London, England:Cambridge University Press.
Elkind, J.I., S.K. Card, J. Hochberg, and B.M. Huey. 1990. Human Performance Models for Computer-Aided Engineering. San Diego, CA:Academic Press, Inc. Elliott, C.
1994 Components of two-way emotion communication between humans and computers using a broad, rudimentary, model of affect and personality. Cognitive Studies: Bulletin of the Japanese Cognitive Science Society, Volume 2. (Special Issue on Emotion, in Japanese, to appear.)
Endsley, M. 1987. SAGAT: A Methodology for the Measurement of Situation Awareness. NOR DC 87-83. Northrop Corporation, Los Angeles, CA.
1988 Design and evaluation of situation awareness enhancement. Pp. 97-101 in Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 32nd Annual Meeting. Santa Monica, CA: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.
1989 A methodology for the objective measurement of pilot situation awareness. Pp. 1-1 to 1-9 in AGARD Conference Proceedings No. 178 Situational Awareness in Aerospace Operations. Neuilly-sur-Seine, France: AGARD.
1990 Predictive utility of an objective measure of situation awareness. Pp. 41-45 in Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 34th Annual Meeting. Santa Monica, CA: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.
1993 A survey of situation awareness requirements in air-to-air combat fighters. International Journal of Aviation Psychology 3:157-168.
1995 Toward a theory of situation awareness in dynamic systems. Human Factors 37(1):32-64.
Enos, R.L., ed. 1990. Oral and Written Communication: Historical Approaches. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Epstein, J., and R. Axtell. 1997. Growing Artificial Societies. Boston, MA:MIT Press.
Ericsson, K.A., ed. 1996. The Road to Excellence. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Ericsson, R.A., and J. Smith, eds. 1991. Toward a General Theory of Expertise: Prospects and Limits. Cambridge, England:Cambridge University Press .
Ericsson, K.A., R.T. Krampe, and C. Tesch-Rome. 1993. The role of deliberate practice in the acquisition of expert performance. Psychological Review 100:363-406.
Erman, L.D., F. Hayes-Roth, V.R. Lesser, and D.R. Reddy. 1980. The Hearsay-II Speech Understanding System: Integrating knowledge to resolve uncertainty. Computing Surveys (12):213-253.
Essens, P., J. Fallesen, C. McCann, J. Cannon-Bowers, and G. Dorfel. 1995. COADE--A Framework for Cognitive Analysis, Design, and Evaluation. AC/243 (Panel 8) TR/17. Defence Research Group, North Atlantic Treaty Organization.
Estes, W.K. 1950. Toward a statistical theory of learning. Psychological Review 57:94-107.
Fallesen, J.J. 1993. Overview of Army Tactical Planning Performance Research. Technical Report 984. U.S. Army Research Institute for Behavioral and Social Sciences, Alexandria, VA.
Fallesen, J.J., and R.R. Michel. 1991. Observation on Command and Staff Performance During CGSC Warrior '91. Working Paper LVN-91-04. U.S. Army Research Institute for Behavioral and Social Sciences, Alexandria, VA.
Fallesen, J.J., C.F. Carter, M.S. Perkins, R.R. Michel, J.P. Flanagan, and P.E. McKeown. 1992. The Effects of Procedural Structure and Computer Support Upon Selecting a Tactical Course of Action. Technical Report 960 (AD-A257 254). U.S. Army Research Institute for Behavioral and Social Sciences, Alexandria, VA.
Fasciano, M. 1996. Everyday-World Plan Use. TR-96-07. Computer Science Department, The University of Chicago, IL.
Feldman, J.A., and D.H. Ballard. 1982. Connectionist models and their properties. Cognitive Science 6:205-254.
Festinger, L. 1954. A Theory of social comparison processes. Human Relations 7:114-140.
1957 A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance. Evanston, IL: Row, Peterson.
Fiebig, C.B., J. Schlabach, and C.C. Hayes. 1997. A battlefield reasoning system. In Conference Proceedings of the First Annual Symposium of Advanced Displays and Interactive Displays Federated Laboratory, January 28-29. Adelphi, MD: Army Research Laboratory.
Fikes, R.E., and N.J. Nilsson. 1971. STRIPS: A new approach to the application of theorem proving to problem solving. Artificial Intelligence 2:189-208.
Fineberg, M.L., G.E. McClellan, and S. Peters. 1996. Sensitizing synthetic forces to suppression on the virtual battlefield. Pp. 470-489 in Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Computer Generated Forces and Behavioral Representation, Orlando, FL, July 23-25.
Fiol, C.M. 1994. Consensus, diversity, and learning in organizations. Organizational Science 5(3):403-420.
Fischhoff, B. 1975. Hindsight = foresight: The effect of outcome knowledge on judgment under uncertainty. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 1:288-299.
Fischhoff, B. 1982. Debiasing. In Judgment Under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases, D. Kahneman, P. Slovic, and A. Tversky, eds. Cambridge, England:Cambridge University Press.
Fischhoff, B., and R. Beyth. 1975. ''I knew it would happen": Remembered probabilities of once-future things. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance 13:1-6.
Fishbein, M. 1965. A consideration of beliefs, attitudes, and their relationships . In Current Studies in Social Psychology: Current Studies in Social Psychology, I. Steiner and M. Fishbein, eds. New York, NY: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.
Fishbein, M., and I. Ajzen. 1974. Attitudes towards objects as predictors of single and multiple behavioral criteria. Psychological Review 1981:50-74.
1975 Belief, Attitude, Intention and Behavior. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Fisk, M.D. 1997. Marine Corps Modeling and Simulation Management Office. In Conference Proceedings of the Sixth Annual Modeling and Simulation Briefing to Government and Industry, May 22-23. Alexandria, VA: Defense Modeling and Simulation Office.
Fitts, P.M., and M.I. Posner. 1967. Human Performance. Westport, CT:Greenwood Press.
Flach, J.M. 1995. Situation awareness: Proceed with caution. Human Factors 37(1):149-157.
Fleishman, E.A., and M.K. Quaintance. 1984. Taxonomies of Human Performance: The Description of Human Tasks. Orlando, FL:Academic Press.
Forgas, J.P. 1995. Mood and judgment: The affect infusion model (AIM). Psychological Bulletin 117(1):39-66.
Forgas, J.P., and M.H. Bond. 1985. Cultural influences on the perception of interaction episodes. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 11(1):75-88.
Fossett, C.A., D. Harrison, H. Weintrob, and S.I. Gass. 1991. An assessment procedure for simulation models: A case study. Operations Research 39(5):710-723.
Fox, J.M. 1982. Software and its Development. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Fracker, M.L. 1988. A theory of situation assessment: Implications for measuring situation awareness. In Proceedings of the Human Factors Society, 32nd Annual Meeting. Santa Monica, CA: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.
1990 Attention gradients in situation awareness. Pp. 6/1 - 6/10 in Situational Awareness in Aerospace Operations AGARD-CP-478. Neuilly-sur-Seine, France: Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development.
1991a Measures of Situation Awareness: An Experimental Evaluation. Technical Report AL-TR-1991-0127. Armstrong Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH.
1991b Measures of Situation Awareness: Review and Future Directions. Technical Report AL-TR-1991-0128. Armstrong Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH.
Freeman, L.C. 1984. Impact of computer-based communication on the social structure of an emerging scientific specialty. Social Networks 6:201-221.
1993 Finding groups with a simple genetic algorithm. Journal of Mathematical Sociology 17:227-241.
Freidkin, N.E., and E.C. Johnson. 1990. Social influence and opinions. Journal of Mathematical Sociology 15:193-205.
Frijda, N.H., and J. Swagerman. 1987. Can computers feel? Theory and design of an emotional system. Cognition and Emotion 3:235-247.
Fulco, C.S., and A. Cymerman. 1988. Human performance and acute hypoxia. In Human Performance Physiology and Environmental Medicine at Terrestrial Extremes, K.B. Pandolf, M.N. Sawka, and R.S. Gonzalez, eds. Indianapolis, IN: Benchmark Press, Inc.
Fulk, J. 1993. Social construction of communication technology. Academy of Management Journal 36(5):921-950.
Funk, K.H. 1991. Cockpit task management: Preliminary definitions, normative theory, error taxonomy, and design recommendations. International Journal of Aviation Psychology I(4):271-285.
Funk, K., and B. McCoy. 1996. A functional model of flightdeck agenda management. Pp. 254-258 in Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 40th Annual Meeting. Santa Monica, CA: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.
Gaba, D.M., S.K. Howard, and S.D. Small. 1995. Situation awareness in anesthesiology. Human Factors 37(1).
Galbraith, J.R. 1973. Designing Complex Organizations. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.
Garland, H. 1990. Throwing good money after bad: The effect of sunk costs on the decision to escalate commitment to an ongoing project. Journal of Applied Psychology 75(6):728-731.
Gasser, L., C. Braganza, and N. Herman. 1987a. MACE: A flexible testbed for distributed AI research. Pp. 119-152 in Distributed Artificial Intelligence, M.N. Huhns, ed. Lanham, MD: Pitman Publishers.
1987b Implementing distributed AI systems using MACE. Pp. 315-320 in Proceedings of the 3rd IEEE Conference on Artificial Intelligence Applications, Orlando, FL, February.
Gasser, L., and A. Majchrzak. 1992. HITOP-A: Coordination, infrastructure, and enterprise integration. Pp. 373-378 in Proceedings of the First International Conference on Enterprise Integration. Hilton Head, SC: MIT Press.
Gasser, L., I. Hulthage, B. Leverich, J. Lieb, and A. Majchrzak. 1993. Organizations as complex, dynamic design problems. P. 727 in Progress in Artificial Intelligence, M. Filgueiras and L. Damas, eds. New York, NY: Springer-Verlag.
Gat, E. 1991. Integrating planning and reacting in a heterogeneous asynchronous architecture for mobile robots. SIGART Bulletin 2:70-74.
Gentner, D., and A.L. Stevens. 1983. Mental Models. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Georgeff, M.P. 1987. Planning. Annual Review of Computer Science 2:359-400.
Georgeff, M.P., and A.L. Lansky. 1990. Reactive reasoning and planning. Pp. 729-734 in Readings in Planning, J. Allen, J. Hendler, and A. Tate, eds. San Mateo, CA: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, Inc.
Gerhart, G., T. Meitzler, E. Sohn, G. Witus, G. Lindquist, and J.R. Freeling. 1995 Early vision model for target detection. In Proceedings of the 9th SPIE AeroSense, Orlando, FL.
Geva, N. 1988. Executive Decision Making Processes During Combat: A Pretest of the Content Analysis Schema. 030/1-02-88. Israeli Institute for Military Studies, Zikhron Ya'akovi.
Gibson, F., M. Fichman, and D.C. Plaut. 1997. Learning in dynamic decision tasks: Computational model and empirical evidence. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 71:1-36.
Gigerenzer, G. 1994. Why the distinction between single-event probabilities and frequencies is relevant for psychology (and vice versa). In Subjective Probability, G. Wright and P. Ayton, eds. New York, NY: Wiley.
Gillund, G., and R.M. Shiffrin. 1984. A retrieval model for both recognition and recall. Psychological Review 91:1-67.
Gilovich, T., and V.H. Medvec. 1995. The experience of regret: What, when and why. Psychological Review 102(2):379-395.
Giunchiglia, F., and E. Guinchiglia. 1996. Ideal and real belief about belief: Some intuitions. In Agents Breaking Away, W. Van de Velde and J.W. Perram, eds. New York, NY: Springer-Verlag.
Glance, N.S., and B. Huberman. 1993. The outbreak of cooperation. Journal of Mathematical Sociology 17(4):281-302.
1994 Social dilemmas and fluid organizations. In Computational Organization Theory, K.M. Carley and M.J. Prietula, eds. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Glenn, F.A., S.M. Schwartz, and L.V. Ross. 1992. Development of a Human Operator Simulator Version V (HOS-V): Design and Implementation. U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences, PERI-POX, Alexandria, VA.
Gluck, M.A., and G.H. Bower. 1988. Evaluating an adaptive network model of human learning. Journal of Memory and Language 27(2):166-195.
Golden, R.M. 1996 Mathematical methods for neural network analysis and design. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Goldstein, W.M., and R.M. Hogarth, eds. 1997 Research in Judgment and Decision Making. Cambridge, England:Cambridge University Press.
Gonsalves, P., C. Illgen, G. Rinkus, C. Brunetti, and G. Zacharias. 1997. A Hybrid System for AI Enhanced Information Processing and Situation Assessment. Report No. R95381. Charles River Analytics, Cambridge, MA.
Goody, J. 1986. The Logic of Writing and the Organization of Society . Cambridge, United Kingdom:Cambridge University Press.
Granovetter, M.S. 1973. The strength of weak ties. American Journal of Sociology 68:1360-1380.
1974 Getting a Job: A Study of Contacts and Careers. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Gratch, J. 1996. Task decomposition planning for command decision making. In Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Computer Generated Forces and Behavioral Representations, July 23-25. Report IST-TR-96-18. Orlando, FL: Institute for Simulation and Training.
Gratch, J., R. Hill, P. Rosenbloom, M. Tambe, and J. Laird. 1996. Command and control for simulated air agents. In Conference Proceedings of the Defense Modeling and Simulation Office Workshop on C2 Human Behavior Representation Modeling, February. Alexandria, VA: Defense Modeling and Simulation Office.
Gray, W.D., S.S. Kirschenbaum, and B.D. Ehret. 1997. The précis of Project Nemo, phase 1: Subgoaling and subschemas for submariners. In Proceedings of the Nineteenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Greenstein, J.S., and W.B. Rouse. 1982. A model of human decision making in multiple process monitoring situations. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics 12(2):182-193.
Griffin, D., and A. Tversky. 1992. The weighing of evidence and the determinants of confidence. Cognitive Psychology 24(3):411-435.
Grossberg, S. 1980. How does the brain build a cognitive code? Psychological Review 87:1-51.
1988 Neural Networks and Natural Intelligence. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Grossberg, I.N., and D.G. Cornell. 1988. Relationship between personality adjustment and high intelligence: Terman versus Hollingworth. Exceptional Children 55(3):266-272.
Grossberg, S. 1972. Neural expectation: Cerebellar and retinal analogs of cells fired by learnable or unlearned pattern classes. Kybernetik 10:49-57.
1976 Adaptive pattern classification and universal recoding, I: Parallel development and coding of neural feature detectors and II: Feedback, expectation, olfaction, and illusions. Biological Cybernetics 23:121-134 and 187-202.
1995 The attentive brain. American Scientist 83:438-449.
Grossberg, S., and J.W.L. Merrill. 1996. The hippocampus and cerebellum in adaptively timed learning, recognition, and movement. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 8:257-277.
Grossberg, S., I. Boardman, and M. Cohen. 1997. Human perception and performance. Journal of Experimental Psychology 23:481-503.
Guralnik, D.B., ed. 1986. Webster's New World Dictionary, 2nd College Edition. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster.
Hamilton, B.E., D. Folds, and R.R. Simmons. 1982. Performance Impact of Current United States and United Kingdom Aircrew Chemical Defense Ensembles . Report No. 82-9. U.S. Army Aero Medical Research, Ft. Rucker, AL.
Hammond, K.J. 1986. CHEF: A model of case-based planning. American Association for Artificial Intelligence 86:261-271.
Hammond, K.R., R.M. Hamm, J. Grassia, and T. Pearson. 1987. Direct comparison of the efficacy of intuitive and analytical cognition in expert judgment. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics 17(5):753-770.
Hancock, P.A., and M.H. Chignell. 1987. Adaptive control in human-machine systems. In Human Factors Psychology, P.A. Hancock, ed. Amsterdam, NL:North-Holland Press.
1988 Mental workload dynamics in adaptive interface design. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics 18(4):647-656.
Hancock, P.A., and M. Vercruyssen. 1988. Limits of behavioral efficiency for workers in best stress. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics 3:149-158.
Hancock, P.A., and J.S. Warm. 1989. A dynamic model of stress and sustained attention . Human Factors 31:519-537.
Hancock, P.A., J.A. Duley, and S.F. Scallen. 1994. The Control of Adaptive Function Allocation. Report HFRL, Nav-6, September.
Hannan, M.T., and J. Freeman. 1989. Organizational Ecology. Cambridge, MA:Harvard University Press.
Harris, D. 1985. A Degradation Methodology for Maintenance Tasks. Alexandria, VA: U.S. Army Research Institute.
Harrison, J.R., and G.R. Carrol. 1991. Keeping the faith: A model of cultural transmission in formal organizations. Administrative Science Quarterly 36:552-582.
Hart, S.G. 1986. Theory and measurement of human workload. In Human Productivity Enhancement (Volume 1), J. Zeidner, ed. New York, Praeger.
1989 Crew workload management strategies: A critical factor in system performance. Pp. 22-27 in Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium on Aviation Psychology, R.S. Jensen, ed. Department of Aviation. Columbus, OH: The Ohio State University.
Hart, S.G., and C.D. Wickens. 1990. Workload assessment and prediction. In MANPRINT, H.R. Booher, ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
Hartman, B., and G. Secrist. 1991. Situation awareness is more than exceptional vision. Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine 62:1084-1091.
Hartzog, S.M., and M.R. Salisbury. 1996. Command forces (CFOR) program status report. In Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Computer Generated Forces and Behavioral Representation, July 23-25. Report IST-TR-96-18. Orlando, FL: Institute for Simulation and Training.
Harwood, K., B. Barnett, and C.D. Wickens. 1988 Situational awareness: A conceptual and methodological framework. Pp. 316-320 in Proceedings of the 11th Symposium of Psychology in the Department of Defense. Colorado Springs, CO: U.S. Air Force Academy.
Haslegrave, C.M. 1996. Auditory environment and noise assessment. In Evaluation of Human Work, J.R. Wilson and E.N. Corlett, eds. Bristol, PA: Taylor and Francis.
Hayes, P. 1975. A representation for robot plans. Pp. 181-188 in Proceedings of the Fourth International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Menlo Park, CA.
Hayes, T.L.. 1996. How do athletic status and disability status affect the five-factor personality model? Human Performance 9(2):121-140.
Hayes-Roth, B. 1985. A blackboard architecture for control. Artificial Intelligence 26:251-321.
1991 Making intelligent systems adaptive. Pp. 301-321 in Architectures for Intelligence, K. VanLehn, ed. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Hayes-Roth, B., and F. Hayes-Roth. 1979. A cognitive model of planning. Cognitive Science 3(4):275-310. Haykin, S.
1994 Neural Networks: A Comprehensive Foundation. New York, NY: MacMillan.
Haythornthwaite, C., B. Wellman, and M. Mantei. 1995. Work Relationships and Media Use: A Social Network Analysis. Group Decision and Negotiation (special issue on Distributed Groupware) 4(3):193-211.
Heath, C. 1995. Escalation and de-escalation of commitment in response to sunk costs: The role of budgeting in mental accounts. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 62(1):38-54.
Heider F. 1946. Attitudes and cognitive organization. Journal of Psychology 21:107-112.
1958 The Psychology of Interpersonal Relations. New York, NY: Wiley.
Heine, S.J., and D.R. Lehman. 1997. Culture, dissonance and self-affirmation. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 23:389-400.
Heise, D.R. 1977. Social action as the control of affect. Behavioral Science 22:161-177.
1979 Understanding Events: Affect and the Construction of Social Action. New York, NY:Cambridge University Press.
1987 Affect control theory: Concepts and model. Journal of Mathematical Sociology 13:1-34.
1992 Affect control theory and impression formation. In Encyclopedia of Sociology (Volume 1), E. Borgotta and M. Borgotta, eds. New York, NY: MacMillan.
Helmreich, R.L., A.C. Merritt, and P.J. Sherman. 1996. Human factors and national culture. ICAO Journal 51(8):14-16.
Herek, G. 1987. Can functions be measured? A new perspective on the functional approach to attitudes. Social Psychology Quarterly 50:285-303.
Hiltz, S.R., and M. Turoff. 1978. The Network Nation: Human Communication via Computer. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Hinrichs, T.R. 1988. Towards an architecture for open world problem solving. Pp. 182-189 in Proceedings of the Fourth International Workshop on Machine Learning. San Mateo, CA: Morgan Kaufmann.
Hinton, G.E., and T.J. Sejnowski. 1986. Learning and relearning in Boltzmann machines. In Parallel Distributed Processing: Explorations in the Microstructure of Cognition, Volume 1: Foundations, D.E. Rumelhart and J.L. McClelland, eds. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Hinton, G.E., and T. Shallice. 1991. Lesioning an attractor network: Investigations of acquired dyslexia. Psychological Review 98:74-95.
Hintzman, D.L. 1986. "Schema abstraction" in a multiple-trace memory model. Psychological Review 93:411-428.
1988 Judgments of frequency and recognition memory in a multiple-trace memory model. Psychological Review 95(4):528-551.
Hoff, B.R. 1996. USMC individual combatants. In Proceedings of the Defense Modeling and Simulation Office Individual Combatant Workshop, July 1-2. Alexandria, VA: Defense Modeling and Simulation Office.
Hofstede, G. 1980. Cultures Consequences: International Differences in Work Related Values. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications.
Hogan, R., and J. Hogan. 1992. Hogan Personality Inventory Manual. Tulsa, OK: Hogan Assessment Systems, Inc.
Holland, J.H. 1975. Adaptation in Natural and Artificial Systems. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.
1992 Genetic algorithms. Scientific American 267(July):66-72.
Holland, J.K., K. Holyoak, R. Nisbett, and P. Thagard. 1986. Induction: Processes of Inference, Learning, and Discovery. Cambridge, MA:MIT Press.
Hollenbeck, J.R., D.R. Ilgen, D.J. Sego, J. Hedlund, D.A. Major, and J. Phillips. 1995a. The multi-level theory of team decision making: Decision performance in teams incorporating distributed expertise. Journal of Applied Psychology 80:292-316.
Hollenbeck, J.R., D.R. Ilgen, D. Tuttle, and D.J. Sego. 1995b. Team performance on monitoring tasks: An examination of decision errors in contexts requiring sustained attention. Journal of Applied Psychology 80:685-696.
Hopfield, J. 1982. Neural networks and physical systems with emergent collective computational properties. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 79:2554-2558.
Horgan, J. 1994. Sex, death and sugar. Scientific American 271(5):20-24.
Hornoff, A.J., and D.E. Kieras. 1997. Cognitive modeling reveals menu search is both random and systematic. Pp. 107-114 in Proceedings of CHI, 1997 (March 22-27, Atlanta, GA). New York, NY: ACM.
Hovland, C., and H. Pritzker. 1957. Extent of opinion change as a function of amount of change advocated. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 54:257-261.
Howes, A., and R.M. Young. 1996. Learning consistent, interactive, and meaningful task-action mappings: A computational model. Cognitive Science 20:301-356.
1997 The role of cognitive architecture in modeling the user: Soar's learning mechanism. Human-Computer Interaction 12(4):311-344.
Huber, G.P. 1996. Organizational learning: The contributing processes and the literatures. In Organizational Learning, M.D. Cohen and L.S. Sproull, eds. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Hudlicka, E. 1997. Modeling Behavior Moderators in Military Performance Models. Technical Report 9716. Psychometrix Associates, Inc., Lincoln, MA.
Hudlicka, E., and G. Zacharias. 1997. Individual Difference Evaluation Architecture for Free Flight System Analysis. Technical Report R98141, October. Charles River Analytics, Cambridge, MA.
Huey, B.M., and C.D. Wickens, eds. 1993. Workload Transition: Implications for Individual and Team Performance. Panel on Workload Transition. Washington, DC:National Academy Press.
Huguet, P. and B. Latane. 1996. Social representations as dynamic social impact. Journal of Communication 46(4): 57-63.
Hull, C.L. 1943. Principles of Behavior. New York, NY: Appleton-Century-Crofts.
Humphrey, R.H., P.M. O'Malley, L.D. Johnston, and J.G. Bachman. 1988. Bases of power, facilitation effects, and attitudes and behavior: Direct, indirect, and interactive determinants of drug use. Social Psychology Quarterly 51:329-345.
Humphreys, M.S., J.D. Bain, and R. Pike. 1989. Different ways to cue a coherent memory system: A theory for episodic, semantic and procedural tasks. Psychological Review 96(2):208-233.
Hunter, J.E., J.E. Danes, and S.H. Cohen. 1984. Mathematical Models of Attitude Change. New York, NY:Academic Press.
Hutchins, E. 1990. The technology of team navigation. In Intellectual Teamwork, J. Galegher, R. Kraut, and C. Egido, eds. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
1991a Organizing work by adaptation. Organizational Science 2:14-39.
1991b The social organization of distributed cognition. Pp. 238-307 in Perspectives on Socially Shared Cognition, L.B. Resnick, J.M. Levine, and S.D. Teasley, eds. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
IBM. 1993. Close Combat Tactical Trainer (CCTT): SemiAutomated Forces (SAF) Combat Instruction Set (CIS) Development. Orlando, FL: IBM Integrated Development Team.
Illgen, C., G.L., Zacharias, G. Rinkus, E. Hudlicka, V. O'Neil, and K. Carley. 1997. A Decision Aid for Command and Control Warfare. Report No. R96421. Charles River Analytics, Inc., Cambridge, MA.
Innis, H. 1951. The Bias of Communication. Toronto, Canada:University of Toronto Press.
Insko, C. 1967. Theories of Attitude Change. New York, NY: Appleton-Century-Crofts.
Isen, A.M. 1993. Positive affect and decision making. In Handbook of Emotions, J.M. Haviland and M. Lewis, eds. New York, NY:The Guilford Press.
Jacobs, R.A., M.I. Jordon, S.J. Nowland, and G.E. Hinton. 1991. Adaptive mixtures of local experts. Neural Computation 3:79-87.
James, W. 1890. Principles of Psychology. New York, NY: Holt.
Janis, I.L. 1989. Crucial Decisions: Leadership in Policymaking and Crisis Management. New York, NY:The Free Press.
Janis, I.L., and L. Mann. 1977. Decision Making: A Psychological Analysis of Conflict, Choice and Commitment. New York, NY:The Free Press.
Jin, Y., and R.E. Levitt. 1993. I-AGENTS: Modeling organizational problem solving in multiagent. International Journal of Intelligent Systems in Accounting, Finance and Management 2(4):247-270.
1996 The virtual design team: A computational model of project organizations. Computational and Mathematical Organization Theory 2(3):171-196.
Jochem, T.M., D.A. Pomerleau, and C.E. Thorpe. 1995. Vision-Based Neural Network Road and Intersection Detection and Traversal. IEEE Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, Pittsburgh, PA, August 5-9.
John, B.E., and D.E. Kieras. 1996. The GOMS family of user interface analysis techniques: Comparison and contrast . ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction 3:320-351.
Johnson, E.J., J. Hershey, J. Meszaros, and H. Kunreuther. 1993. Framing, probability distortions and insurance decisions. Journal of Risk and Uncertainty 7:35-51.
Johnson, T.R., J. Krems, and N.K. Amra. 1994. A computational model of human abductive skill and its acquisition. Pp. 463-468 in Proceedings of the Sixteenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society , A. Ram and K. Eiselt, eds. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Johnson, W.L. 1994. Agents that learn to explain themselves. In Proceedings of the Twelfth National Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AAAI-94). August. Seattle, WA.
Johnson-Laird, P.N. 1983. Mental Models: Toward a Cognitive Science of Language, Inference, and Consciousness. Cambridge, MA:Harvard University Press.
Jordan, M.I. 1990. Motor learning and the degrees of freedom problem. In Attention and Performance, XIII, M. Jeannerod, ed. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Josephson, J.R., and S.G. Josephson. 1994. Abductive Inference: Computation, Philosophy, Technology. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Juslin, P. 1994. Well calibrated confidence judgments for general knowledge items, inferential recognition decisions and social predictions. In Contributions to Decision Making, J-P. Caverni, M. Bar-Hillel, F.H. Barron, and H. Jungerman, eds. Amsterdam, NL: North-Holland/Elsevier.
Kaempf, G.L., G. Klein, M.L. Thordsen, and S. Wolf. 1996. Decision making in complex naval command-and-control environments. Human Factors 38(2):220-231.
Kahneman, D. 1973. Attention and Effort. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Kahneman, D., and A. Tversky. 1979. Prospect theory: Analysis of decision making under risk. Econometrica 47:263-291.
1982 The psychology of preferences. Scientific American 246(1):160-173.
Kambhampati, S. 1995. AI planning: A prospectus on theory and applications. ACM Computing Surveys 27(3) September.
1997 Refinement planning as a unifying framework for plan synthesis. AI Magazine (Summer).
Karayiannis, N.B., and A.N. Venetsanopoulos. 1993. Artificial Neural Networks: Learning Algorithms, Performance Evaluation, and Applications . Boston. MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Karr, C.R. 1996. Unit level representation. In Proceedings of the Defense Modeling and Simulation Office Workshop on Unit Level Behavior, August 7-8. Alexandria, VA: Defense Modeling and Simulation Office.
Katz, D. 1960. The functional approach to the study of attitudes. Public Opinion Quarterly 24:163-204.
Katz, E. 1961. The social itinerary of technical change: Two studies on the diffusion of innovation. In Studies of Innovation and Communication to the Public, E. Katz, ed. Stanford, CA: Institute for Communication Research.
Kaufer, D., and K.M. Carley. 1993. Communication at a Distance: The Effects of Print on Socio-cultural Organization and Change. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Kawato, M., Y. Maeda, Y. Uno, and R. Suzuki. 1990. Trajectory formation of arm movement by cascade neural network model based on minimum torque-change criterion. Biological Cybernetics 62:275-288.
Keeney, R., and H. Raiffa. 1976. Decisions with Multiple Objectives . New York, NY: Wiley.
Kephart, J.O., B.A. Huberman, and T. Hogg. 1992. Can predictive agents prevent chaos? Pp. 41-55 in Economics and Cognitive Science, P. Bourgine and B. Walliser, eds. Oxford, United Kingdom:Pergamon Press.
Kern, R.P. 1966. A Conceptual Model of Behavior Under Stress, With Implications for Combat Training. Human Resources Research Office. Washington, DC: George Washington University.
Kerstholt, J.H., and J.G.W. Raaijmakers. forthcoming. Decision making in dynamic task environments. In Decision Making: Cognitive Models and Explanations, R. Crozier and O. Svenson, eds. London, England: Routledge.
Kieras, D.E., and D.E. Meyer. 1996. The Epic architecture: Principles of operation. Published electronically at ftp.eecs.umich.edu:/people/kieras/EPICarch.ps.
1997 An overview of the EPIC architecture for cognition and performance with application to human-computer interaction. Human-Computer Interaction 12(4):391-438.
Kieras, D.E., S.D. Wood, and D.E. Meyer. 1997. Predictive engineering models based on the EPIC architecture for a multimodal high-performance human-computer interaction task. ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction 4(3):230-275.
Kieras, D.E., D.E. Meyer, S. Mueller, and T. Seymour. 1998. Insights into Working Memory from the Perspective of the EPIC Architecture for Modeling Skilled Perceptual-Motor and Cognitive Human Performance. Technical Report No. 10 (TR-98/ONR-EPIC-10). Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Department, University of Michigan.
Kiesler, C., B. Collins, and N. Miller. 1969. Attitude Change. New York, NY: Wiley.
Kiesler, S., J. Siegel, and T. McGuire. 1984. Social psychological aspects of computer-mediated communication. American Psychologist 39:1123-1134.
Kilduff, M., and D. Krackhardt. 1994. Bringing the individual back in: A structural analysis of the internal market for reputation in organizations. Academy of Management Journal 37:87-107.
Kinnear, K.E., ed. 1994. Advances in Genetic Programming. Cambridge, MA:MIT Press
Kirkpatrick, S., C.D. Gelatt, and M.P. Vecchi. 1983. Optimization by simulated annealing. Science 220(4598):671-680.
Kirwan, B., and L.K. Ainsworth, eds. 1992. A Guide to Task Analysis . Bristol, PA: Taylor and Francis.
Kitayama, S., and H.R. Markus, eds. 1994. Emotion and Culture. Washington, DC: The American Psychological Association.
Klayman, J., and Y-W. Ha. 1987. Confirmation, disconfirmation, and information in hypothesis testing. Psychological Review 94:211-228.
Kleijnen, J., and W. van Groenendaal. 1992. Simulation: A Statistical Perspective. New York, NY: Wiley.
Klein, G.A. 1989. Recognition-primed decisions. Pp. 47-92 in Advances in Man-Machine Systems Research, W. Rouse, ed. Greenwich, CT: JAI.
1994. A recognition-primed decision (RPD) model of rapid decision making. In Decision Making in Action: Models and Methods, G.A. Klein, J. Orasanu, R. Calderwood, and C.E. Zsambok, eds. Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing Company.
1997. Recognition-Primed Decision Making: Looking Back, Looking Forward. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Klein, G.A., R. Calderwood, and A. Clinton-Cirocco. 1986. Rapid decision making on the fire ground. In Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 30th Annual Meeting. Santa Monica, CA: Human Factors Society.
Kleinman, D.L. 1976. Solving the optimal attention allocation problem in manual control. IEEE Transactions in Automatic Control 21(6):815-821.
Kleinman, D.L., S. Baron, and W.H. Levison. 1970. Optimal control model of human response, Part I: Theory and validation. Automatica 6:357-369.
1971 A control theoretic approach to manned-vehicle systems analysis. IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control 16:824-832.
Klimoski, R., and S. Mohammed. 1994. Team mental model: Construct or metaphor? Journal of Management 20(2):403-437.
Koehler, J.J. 1996. The base rate fallacy reconsidered: Descriptive, normative and methodological challenges. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19:1-54.
Koller, D., and J. Breese. 1997. Belief Network and Decision-Theoretic Reasoning for Artificial Intelligence. AAAI Fourteenth National Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Providence, RI.
Kolodner, J.L. 1987. Extending problem solver capabilities through case-based inference. Pp. 167-178 in Proceedings of the Fourth International Workshop on Machine Learning. San Mateo, CA: Morgan Kaufmann.
Kontopoulos, K.M. 1993. Neural networks as a model of structure. Pp. 243-267 in The Logics of Social Structure. New York, NY:Cambridge University Press.
Konz, S. 1995. Predetermined time systems. Pp. 464-475 in Work Design: Industrial Ergonomics, Fourth Edition. Columbus, OH: Publishing Horizons, Inc.
Kornbrot, D. 1988. Random walk models of binary choice: The effect of deadlines in the presence of asymmetric payoffs. Acta Psychologica 69:109-127.
Koza, J.R. 1990. Genetic Programming: A Paradigm for Genetically Breeding Populations of Computer Programs to Solve Problems. TR STAN-CS-90-1314 (June). Department of Computer Science, Stanford University.
Knapp, A., and J.A. Anderson. 1984. A signal averaging model for concept formation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 10:617-637.
Krackhardt, D. 1994. Graph theoretical dimensions of informal organizations. In Computational Organization Theory, K.M. Carley and M.J. Prietula, eds. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
forthcoming Organizational Viscosity and the Diffusion of Controversial Innovations. Journal of Mathematical Sociology.
Krackhardt, D., and D.J. Brass. 1994. Intraorganizational networks: The micro side. Pp. 207-229 in Advances in Social Networks Analysis , S. Wasserman and J. Galaskiewiscz, eds. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Krackhardt, D., J. Blythe, and C. McGrath. 1994. KrackPlot 3.0: An improved network drawing program. Connections 17(2):53-55.
Kraus, M.K., D.J. Franceschini, T.R. Tolley, L.J. Napravnik, D.E. Mullally, and R.W. Franceschini. 1996. CCTT SAF and ModSAF behavior integration techniques. Pp. 159-170 in Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Computer Generated Forces and Behavioral Representation. Orlando, FL: Institute for Simulation and Training.
Krems, J., and T. Johnson. 1995. Integration of anomalous data in multicausal explanations. Pp. 277-282 in Proceedings of the Seventeenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, J.D. Moore and J.F. Lehman, eds. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Kristofferson, A.B. 1967. Attention and psychophysical time. Pp. 93-100 in Attention and Performance, A.F. Sanders, ed. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: North-Holland Publishing Co.
Kruschke, J.K. 1992. ALCOVE: An exemplar-based connectionist model of category learning. Psychological Review 99:22-24.
Kuhn, G.W.S. 1989. Ground Forces Battle Casualty Rate Patterns: The Empirical Evidence. Logistics Management Institute, McLean, VA.
Kuipers, B., A. Moskowitz, and J. Kassirer. 1988. Critical decisions under uncertainty: Representation and structure. Cognitive Science 12(2):177-210.
Kuokka, D.R. 1991. MAX: A meta-reasoning architecture for ''X." SIGART Bulletin 2:93-97.
Laird, J. 1996. Soar/IFOR: Intelligent Synthetic Agents. Presentation to National Research Council Panel on Modeling Human Behavior and Command Decision Making, October 17.
Laird, J.E., and P.S. Rosenbloom. 1990. Integrating, execution, planning, and learning in Soar for external environments. Pp. 1022-1029 in Proceedings of the Eighth National Conference on Artificial Intelligence . Menlo Park, CA: American Association for Artificial Intelligence.
Laird, J.E., A. Newell, and P.S. Rosenbloom. 1987. SOAR: An architecture for general intelligence. Artificial Intelligence 33:1-64.
Laird, J.E., K. Coulter, R. Jones, P. Kenny, F. Koss, and P. Nielsen. 1997. Review of Soar/FWA Participation in STOW-97. Published electronically at http://ai.eecs.umich.edu/ifor/stow-review.html. November 7.
Lallement, Y., and B.E. John. 1998. Cognitive architecture and modeling idiom: An examination of three models of Wicken's Task. Proceedings of the Twentieth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (August).
Laming, D.R. 1968. Information Theory of Choice Reaction Time. San Diego, CA:Academic Press.
Landauer, T.K., and S.T. Dumais. 1997. A solution to Plates problem--The latent semantic analysis theory of acquisition, induction and representation of knowledge. Psychological Review 104(2):211-240.
Langley, P. 1996. Elements of Machine Learning. San Francisco, CA: Kaufman.
Langley, P., K.B. McKusick, J.A. Allen, W.F. Iba, and K. Thompson. 1991. A design for the ICARUS architecture. SIGART Bulletin 2:104-109.
Lant, T.K. 1994. Computer simulations of organizations as experiential learning systems: Implications for organization theory. In Computational Organization Theory, K.M. Carley and M.J. Prietula, eds. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Lant, T.L., and S.J. Mezias. 1990. Managing discontinuous change: A simulation study of organizational learning and entrepreneurship. Strategic Management Journal 11:147-179.
Lant, T.L., and S.J. Mezias. 1992. An organizational learning model of convergence and reorientation. Organization Science 3(1):47-71.
Latane, B. 1996. Dynamic social impact: The creation of culture by communication. Journal of Communication 46(4):13-25.
Latane, B., and M.J. Bourgeois. 1996. Experimental evidence for dynamic social impact: The emergence of subcultures in electronic groups. Journal of Communication 46(4):35-47.
Latane, B., J.H. Liu, A. Nowak, M. Bonevento, and Z. Long. 1995. Distance matters: Physical space and social impact. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 21(8):795-805.
Latorella, K.A. 1996a. Investigating Interruptions: Implications for Flightdeck Performance. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. State University of New York at Buffalo, New York.
1996b Investigating interruptions: An example from the flightdeck. Pp. 249-253 in Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 40th Annual Meeting. Santa Monica, CA: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.
Laughery, K.R., and K.M. Corker. 1997. Computer modeling and simulation of human/system performance. In Handbook of Human Factors, second edition, G. Salvendy, ed. New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons.
Lauritzen, S.L., and D.J. Spiegelhalter. 1988. Local computation with probabilities in graphical structures and their applications to expert systems. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society B:50(2).
LaVine, N.D., S.D. Peters, and K.R. Laughery. 1996. Methodology for Predicting and Applying Human Response to Environmental Stressors. Report DNA-TR-95-116. Defense Special Weapons Agency, Alexandria, VA.
LaVine, N.D., R.K. Laughery, B. Young, R. Kehlet. 1993. Semiautomated forces (SAFOR) crew performance degradation. Pp. 405-415 in Proceedings of the Third Conference on Computer Generated Forces and Behavioral Representation, Orlando, FL, March 17-19.
Lawrence, P.R., and J. Lorsch. 1967. Organization and Environment: Managing Differentiation and Integration. Cambridge, MA:Harvard University Press.
Lawson, K.E., and C.T. Butler. 1995. Overview of Man-in-the-Loop Air-to-Air System Performance Evaluation Model (MIL-AASPEM II). D658-10485-1. The Boeing Company (September).
Lazarus, R.S. 1991. Emotion and Adaptation. New York, NY:Oxford University Press.
Leake, D. 1996. CBR in context: The present and future. In Case-Based Reasoning: Experiences, Lessons, and Future Directions. Menlo Park: AAAI Press.
Leary, M.R. 1982. Hindsight distortion and the 1980 presidential election. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 8:257-263.
LeDoux, J.E. 1987. Emotion. Pp. 419-460 in The Nervous System V. Bethesda, MD: American Physiological Society.
1989 Cognitive-emotional interactions in the brain. Cognition and Emotion 3(4):267-289.
1992 Brain mechanisms of emotion and emotional learning. Current Opinion in Neurobiology 2(2):191-197.
Lee, J.J., and P.A. Fishwick. 1994. Real-time simulation-based planning for computer generated forces. Simulation 63(5):299-315.
Levin, D.S. 1991. Introduction to Neural and Cognitive Modeling. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Levin, I.P., and G. J.Gaeth. 1988. How consumers are affected by the framing of attribute information before and after consuming a product. Journal of Consumer Research 15:374-378.
Levitt, B., and J. March. 1988. Organizational learning. Annual Review of Sociology 14:319-340.
Levitt, R.E., G.P. Cohen, J.C. Kunz, C.I. Nass, T. Christiansen, and Y. Jin. 1994. The 'virtual design' team: Simulating how organization structure and information processing tools affect team performance. Pp. 1-18 in Computational Organization Theory, K.M. Carley and M.J. Prietula, eds. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Lewin, K. 1935. A Dynamic Theory of Personality. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Lewis, R.L. 1996. Interference in short-term memory: The magical number two (or three) in sentence processing. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research 25:93-115.
1997a Leaping off the garden path: Reanalysis and limited repair parsing. In Reanalysis in Sentence Processing, J. Fodor and F. Ferreira, eds. Boston: Kluwer.
1997b Specifying architectures for language processing: Process, control, and memory in parsing and interpretation. In Architectures and Mechanisms for Language Processing, M. Crocker, M. Pickering, and C. Clifton, eds.Cambridge University Press.
Libicki, M.C. 1995. What is Information Warfare? Washington, DC: U.S. Government. Printing Office.
Lichtenstein, S., and B. Fischhoff. 1977. Do those who know more also know more about how much they know? The calibration of probability judgments. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance 20:159-183.
Lin, N., and R.S. Burt. 1975. Differential effects of information channels in the process of innovation diffusion. Social Forces 54:256-274.
Lin, Z., and K.M. Carley. 1993. Proactive and reactive: An analysis of the effect of agent style on organizational decision making performance. International Journal of Intelligent Systems in Accounting, Finance and Management 2(4):271-288.
1997a Organizational response: The cost performance tradeoff. Management Science 43(2):217-234.
1997b Organizational decision making and error in a dynamic task environment. Journal of Mathematical Sociology 22(2):125-150.
Lindsey, P.H., and D.A. Norman. 1977. Human Information Processing: An Introduction to Psychology. San Diego, CA:Academic Press.
Link, S.W. 1992. Wave Theory of Difference and Similarity. Hilldale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Liu, Y. 1996. Queuing network modeling of elementary mental processes. Psychological Review 103(1):116-136.
Liu, Y. 1997. Queuing network modeling of human performance of concurrent spatial and verbal tasks. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics 27(2):195-207.
Lockett, J., and S. Archer. 1997. Human Behavior Modeling and Decision Making for Military Simulation. Boulder, CO: Micro Analysis and Design, Inc.
Logan, G.D. 1988. Toward an instance theory of automatization. Psychological Review 95:492-527.
1991 Automatizing alphabet arithmetic: I. Is extended practice necessary? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 17:179-195.
1992 Shapes of reaction time distributions and shapes of learning curves: A test of instance theory of automaticity. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 18:883-914.
Logan, G.D., and C. Bundesen. 1997. Spatial effects in the partial report paradigm—A challenge for theories of visual-spatial attention. Psychology of Learning 35:243-282.
Logan, G.D., and S.T. Klapp. 1991. Automatizing alphabet arithmetic: I. Is extended practice necessary to produce automaticity? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition 17(3):478-496.
Logicon, Inc. 1989. A Model for the Acquisition of Complex Cognitive Skills. Technical Report, Logicon Project 1150. Logicon, Inc., San Diego, CA.
Loomes, G., and R. Sugden. 1982. Regret theory: An alternative theory of rational choice under uncertainty. Economic Journal 92:805-824.
Lopes, L.L. 1987. Between hope and fear: The psychology of risk. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology 20:255-295.
Lu, Z., and A.H. Levis. 1992. Coordination in distributed decision making. Pp. 891-897 in IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, Volume I. New York: Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers.
Luce, R.D. 1959. Individual Choice Behavior. New York, NY: Wiley.
Luce, R.D., and P.C. Fishburn. 1991. Rank and sign dependent linear utility for finite first order gambles. Journal of Risk and Uncertainty 4:29-60.
Lussier, J.W., and D.J. Litavec. 1992. Battalion Commanders' Survey: Tactical Commanders Development Course Feedback . Research Report 1628 (AD-A258 501). U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences, Alexandria, VA.
Lussier, J.W., R.E. Solick, and S.D. Keene. 1992. Experimental Assessment of Problem Solving at the Combined Arms Services Staff School. Research Note 92-52. U.S. Army Research Institute for Behavioral and Social Sciences, Alexandria, VA.
MacCrimmon, K.R., and S. Larsson. 1979. Utility theories: Axioms versus paradoxes. Pp. 333-409 in Expected Utility Hypothesis and the Allais Paradox, M. Allais and O. Hagen, eds. Dordrecht, Netherlands; Boston, MA: D. Reidel Publishing Co.
MacKay, D.J.C. 1997. Information Theory, Probability, and Neural Networks. Cambridge, England:Cambridge University Press.
MacLeod, C.M., and K. Dunbar. 1988. Training and Stroop like interference: Evidence for a continuum of automaticity. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 14:126-135.
MacMillan, J., S.E. Deutsch, and M.J. Young. 1997. A Comparison of Alternatives for Automated Decision Support in a Multi-Tasking Environment. Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 41st Annual Meeting, Albuquerque, NM.
MacWhinney, B., and J. Leinbach. 1991. Implementations are not conceptualizations: Revising the verb learning model. Cognition 40:121-153.
Macy, M.W. 1990. Learning theory and the logic of critical mass. American Sociological Review 55:809-826.
1991a Learning to cooperate: Stochastic and tacit collusion in social exchange. American Journal of Sociology 97(3):808-843.
1991b Chains of cooperation: Threshold effects in collective action. American Sociological Review 56:730-747.
Majchrzak, A., and L. Gasser. 1992. HITOP-A: A tool to facilitate interdisciplinary manufacturing systems design. International Journal of Human Factors in Manufacturing 2(3):255-276.
Malone, T.W. 1987. Modeling coordination in organizations and markets. Management Science 33:1317-1332.
Mann, M. 1988. States, war and capitalism. In The MacMillan Student Encyclopedia of Sociology, B. Blackwell, ed. London: MacMillan.
Manthey, M. 1990. Hierarchy and Emergence: A Computational View. 0106-0791, R90-25. Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Institute for Electronic Systems, University of Aalborg, Denmark.
March, J., and R. Weissinger-Baylon, eds. 1986. Ambiguity and Command: Organizational Perspectives on Military Decision Making. Boston, MA: Pitman.
March, J.G. 1994. A Primer on Decision Making: How Decisions Happen . New York, NY: Free Press; Toronto; Maxwell MacMillan Canada.
1996 Exploration and exploitation in organizational learning. In Organizational Learning, M.D. Cohen and L.S. Sproull, eds. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
March, J.G., and H.A. Simon. 1958. Organizations. New York, NY: Wiley.
Marshall, S.P. 1995. Learning in Tactical Decision Making Situations: A Hybrid Model of Schema Development. Presented at the ONR Hybrid Learning Kick-Off Meeting, Washington, DC, August 3-4.
Masuch, M., and P. LaPotin. 1989. Beyond garbage cans: An AI model of organizational choice. Administrative Science Quarterly 34:38-67.
Maurer, M. 1996. Coalition Command and Control: Key Considerations . Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
McClelland, J.L., and D.E. Rumelhart. 1981. An interactive activation model of context effects in letter perception: Art 1. An account of basic findings. Psychological Review 88:375-407.
1985 Distributed memory and the representation of general and specific information. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 114:159-188.
1986 Parallel Distributed Processing: Explorations in the Microstructure of Cognition: Volume 2. Cambridge, MA:MIT Press.
1988 Explorations in Parallel Distributed Processing. Cambridge, MA:MIT Press.
McDermott, D. 1978. Planning and acting. Cognitive Science 2(2):71-109.
McLeod, R.W., and M.J. Griffin. 1989. A review of the effects of translational whole-body vibration on continuous manual control operations. Journal of Sound and Vibration 133:55-114.
McNeil, B.J., S.G. Pauker, H.C. Sox, and A. Tversky. 1982. On the elicitation of preferences for alternative therapies. New England Journal of Medicine 306:1259-1262.
Mead, G.H. 1934. Mind, Self, and Society. Chicago, IL:University of Chicago Press.
Medin, D.L., and M.M. Shaffer. 1978. Context theory of classification learning. Psychological Review 85:207-238.
Mellers, B., and K. Biagini. 1994. Similarity and choice. Psychological Review 101:505-518.
Mellers, B.A., A. Schwartz, and A.D.J. Cooke. forthcoming. Judgment and decision making. Annual Review of Psychology.
Mengshoel, O., and D. Wilkins. 1997. Visualizing uncertainty in battlefield reasoning using belief networks. In Proceedings of First Annual Symposium of Army Research Laboratory for Advanced and Interactive Displays . Adelphi, MD: ARL Adelphi Laboratory.
Merritt, A.C., and R.L. Helmreich. 1996. Culture in the cockpit: A multi-airline study of pilot attitudes and values. In Proceedings of the Eighth International Symposium on Aviation Psychology. Columbus OH: Ohio State University.
Mesterson-Gibbons, M. 1992. Introduction to Game-Theoretic Modeling . Redwood City, CA: Addison-Wesley.
Metcalf, J. 1986. Decision making and the Grenada rescue operation. Pp. 277-297 in Ambiguity and Command: Organizational Perspectives on Military Decision Making, J.G. March and R. Weissinger-Baylon, eds. Marshfield, MA: Pitman Publishing Inc.
Metlay, W.D., D. Liebling, N. Silverstein, A. Halatyn, A. Zimberg, and E. Richter. 1985. Methodology for the Assessment of the Command Group Planning Process. Department of Psychology, Applied Research and Evaluation, Hofstra University, Hamstead, NY.
Meyer, D.E., and D.E. Kieras. 1997a. A computational theory of executive cognitive processes and multiple-task performance. Part 1. Basic mechanisms. Psychological Review 104(1):2-65.
1997b A computational theory of executive cognitive processes and multiple-task performance. Part 2. Accounts of psychological refractory-period phenomena. Psychological Review 104:749-791.
Miao, A.X., G. Zacharias, and S. Kao. 1997. A computational situation assessment model for nuclear power plant operations. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics. Part A: Systems and Humans 27(6):728-742.
Milgram, P., R. van der Winngaart, H. Veerbeek, O.F. Bleeker, and B.V. Fokker. 1984. Multi-crew model anlaytic assessment of landing performance and decision making demands. Pp. 373-399 in Proceedings of 20th Annual Conference on Manual Control, Vol. II. Moffett Field, CA: NASA Ames Research Center.
Mil-HDBK-759-A. 1981. Chapter 9: Moderator Variables
Miller, C.R. 1985. Modeling Soldier Dimension Variables in the Air Defense Artillery Mission Area. Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD: TRASANA.
Miller, C.S., and J.E. Laird. 1996. Accounting for graded performance within a discrete search framework. Cognitive Science 20:499-537.
Miller, G.A. 1956. The magical number seven, plus or minus two: Some limits in our capacity for processing information. Psychological Review 63:81-97.
Miller, N.E. 1994. Experimental studies of conflict. Pp. 431-465 in Personality and the Behavior Disorders, Volume 1, J. Mcv. Hunt, ed. New York, NY:The Ronald Press.
Miller, R.A., H.E. Pople, Jr., and J.D. Myers. 1982. Internist-1: An experimental computer-based diagnostic consultant for general internal medicine. New England Journal of Medicine 307(8):468-476.
Minar, N., R. Burkhart, C. Langton, and M. Askenazi. 1996. The Swarm Simulation System: A Toolkit for Building MultiAgent Simulations. Working Paper 96-06-0 42. Santa Fe Institute.
Mineka, S., and S.K. Sutton. 1992. Cognitive biases and the emotional disorders. Psychological Science 3(1):65-69.
Mischel, W. 1968. Personality and Assessment. New York, NY: Wiley.
Mitchell, T.M., J. Allen, P. Chalasani, J. Cheng, O. Etzioni, M. Ringuette, and J.C. Schlimmer. 1991. Theo: A framework for self-improving systems. Pp. 325-355 in Architectures for Intelligence, K. VanLehn, ed. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Modi, A.K., D.M. Steier, and A.W. Westerberg. 1990. Learning to use approximations and abstractions in the design of chemical processes. In Proceedings of the AAAI Workshop on Automatic Generation of Approximation and Abstractions, July 30, 1990. Boston, MA.
Moffat, D. 1997. Personality parameters and programs. Pp. 120-165 in Creating Personalities for Synthetic Actors: Towards Autonomous Personality Agents, R. Trappl and P. Petta, eds. Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence 1195, Subseries of Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag.
Molm, L.D. 1978. Sex-role attitudes and the employment of married women: The direction of causality. Sociological Quarterly 19:522-533.
Moray, N., M. Dessouky, B. Kijowski, and R. Adapathya. 1991. Strategic behavior, workload, and performance in task scheduling. Human Factors 33(6):607-629.
Moreland, R.L. forthcoming. Transactive memory in work groups and organizations. In Shared Knowledge in Organizations, L. Thompson, D. Messick, and J. Levine, eds. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Moreland, R.L., L. Argote, and R. Krishnan. 1996. Social shared cognition at work: Transactive memory and group performance. Pp. 57-84 in What's Social About Social Cognition? Research on Socially Shared Cognition in Small Groups. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Morris, M. 1994. Epidemiology and Social Networks: Modeling Structured Diffusion. Pp. 26-52 in Advances in Social Network Analysis, S. Wasserman and J. Galskiewicz, eds. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Moses, Y.O., and M. Tennenholtz. 1990. Artificial Social Systems. Part I, Basic Principles. Technical Report CS90-12. Department of Computer Science, Makhon Vaitsmann le-mada, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel.
Moss, S., and B. Edmonds. 1997. A formal preference-state model with qualitative market judgments. Omega—The International Journal of Management Science 25(2):155-169.
Moss, S., and O. Kuznetsova. 1996. Modeling the process of market emergence. Pp. 125-138 in Modeling and Analysing Economies in Transition , J.W. Owsinski and Z. Nahorski, eds. Warsaw: MODEST.
Muller, J. 1997. Control architectures for autonomous and interacting agents: A survey. Pp. 1-21 in Intelligent Agent Systems, L. Cavedon, A. Rao, and W. Wobcke, eds. New York: Springer Verlag.
Mulgund, S., G. Rinkus, C. Illgen, and J. Friskie. 1997. OLIPSA: On-Line Intelligent Processor for Situation Assessment. Second Annual Symposium and Exhibition on Situational Awareness in the Tactical Air Environment, Patuxent River, MD.
Mulgund, S.S., G.J. Rinkus, et al. 1996. A Situation Driven Workload Adaptive Pilot/Vehicle Interface. Charles River Analytics, Cambridge, MA.
Myerson, R. 1991. Analysis and Conflict. Cambridge, MA:Harvard University Press.
NASA Ames Research Center. 1996. MIDAS Core Redesign: Release 1.0 Documentation. Unpublished report. NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA.
Nass, C., Y. Moon, B.J. Fogg, B. Reeves, and C. Dryer. 1997. Can Computer Personalities Be Human Personalities? Department of Communications. Stanford, CA: Stanford University.
Navon, D., and D. Gopher. 1979. On the economy of the human processing system. Psychological Review 86(3):214-255.
Nelson, G.H., J.F. Lehman, and B.E. John. 1994a. Integrating cognitive capabilities in a real-time task. Pp. 353-358 in Proceedings of the Sixteenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, August.
1994b Experiences in interruptible language processing. In Proceedings of the 1994 AAAI Spring Symposium on Active Natural Language Processing.
Nerb, J., J. Krems, and F.E. Ritter. 1993. Rule learning and the power law: A computational model and empirical results. Pp. 765-770 in Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Boulder, CO. Hillsdale, New Jersey: LEA.
Newcomb, T. 1953. An approach to the study of communicative acts. Psychological Review 60:393-404.
Newell, A. 1990. Unified Theories of Cognition. Cambridge, MA:Harvard University Press.
Newell, A., and P.S. Rosenbloom. 1981. Mechanisms of skill acquisition and the law of practice. In Cognitive Skills and Their Acquisition , J.R. Anderson, ed. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Newell, A., and H.A. Simon. 1963. GPS, A program that simulates human thought. Pp. 279-293 in Computers and Thought, E.A. Feigenbaum and J. Feldman, eds. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Ng, K-C., and B. Abramson. 1990. Uncertainty management in expert systems. IEEE Expert 1990:29-48.
Nicoll, J.R., and D.M. Hsu. 1995. A Search for Understanding: Analysis of Human Performance on Target Acquisition and Search Tasks Using Eyetracker Data. Institute of Defense Analysis Paper P-3036.
Nii, P.H. 1986a. Blackboard systems: The blackboard model of problem solving and the evolution of blackboard architectures. Part One. AI Magazine 38-53.
1986b Blackboard systems: The blackboard model of problem solving and the evolution of blackboard architectures. Part Two. AI Magazine 82-106.
Nobel, P.A. 1996. Response Times in Recognition and Recall. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Indiana University.
Noble, D. 1989. Schema-based knowledge elicitation for planning and situation assessment aids. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics 19(3)May/June:473-482.
North, R.A., and V.A. Riley. 1989. A predictive model of operator workload. Pp. 81-90 in Application of Human Performance Models to System Design, G.R. McMillan, D. Beevis, E. Salas, M. Strub, R. Sutton, and L. Van Breda, eds. New York, NY:Plenum Press.
Nosofsky, R.M., and T.J. Palmeri. 1997. An exemplar-based random walk model of speeded classification. Psychological Review 104:266-308.
Ntuen, C.A., D.N. Mountjoy, M.J. Barnes, and L.P. Yarborough. 1997. A battlefield reasoning system. In Conference Proceedings of the First Annual Symposium of Advanced Displays and Interactive Displays Federated Laboratory, January 28-29. Adelphi, MD: Army Research Laboratory.
Oatley, K., and P.N. Johnson-Laird. 1987. Towards a cognitive theory of emotions. Cognition and Emotion 1:29-50.
Ogasawara, G.H., and S.J. Russell. 1994. Real-time, decision-theoretic control of an autonomous underwater vehicle. Special issue of CACM on Real-World Applications of Uncertain Reasoning.
Ortony, A., J. Slack, and O. Stock. 1992. Communications from an Artificial Intelligence Perspective: Theoretical and Applied Issues . New York, NY: Springer-Verlag.
Ortony, A., J. Black, and O. Stock, eds. 1992. Communication from an Artificial Intelligence Perspective. New York, NY: Springer-Verlag.
Ortony, A., G.L. Clore, and A. Collins. 1988. The Cognitive Structure of Emotions. New York, NY:Cambridge University Press.
Osgood, C., and P. Tannenbaum. 1955. The principle of congruity in the prediction of attitude change. Psychological Review 62:42-55.
Osgood, C.E. 1967. The Measurement of Meaning. Champaign, IL:The University of Illinois Press.
Osgood, C., G. Succi, and P. Tannenbaum. 1957. The Measurement of Meaning. Urbana, IL:The University of Illinois Press.
Padgham, L., and G. Taylor. 1997. A system for modeling agents having emotion and personality. In Intelligent Agent Systems, L. Cavedon, A. Rao, and W. Wobcke, eds. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag.
Palmer, J. 1994. Set-size effects in visual search: The effect of attention is independent of the stimulus for simple tasks. Vision Research 34:1703-1721.
Parasuraman, R., and D.F. Davies, eds. 1984. Varieties of Attention . Orlando, FL:Academic Press.
Parker, J.D., R.M. Bagby, and R.T. Joffe. 1996. Validation of the biosocial model of personality: Confirmatory factor analysis of the tridimensional personality questionnaire. Psychological Assessment 8(2):139-144.
Parsons, K.C. 1996. Ergonomics assessment of thermal environments. In Evaluation of Human Work, J.R. Wilson and E.N. Corlett, eds. Bristol, PA: Taylor and Francis.
Pattipati, K.R., and D.L. Kleinman. 1991. A review of the engineering models of information-processing and decision making in multi-task supervisory control. Pp. 35-68 in Multiple Task Performance, D.L. Damos, ed. London: Taylor and Francis Ltd.
Payne, J.W., J.R. Bettman, and E.J. Johnson. 1993. The Adaptive Decision Maker. Cambridge, England:Cambridge University Press.
Pearl, J. 1986. Fusion, progagation, and structuring in belief networks. Artificial Intelligence 29(3):241-288.
1988 Probabilistic Reasoning in Intelligent Systems: Networks of Plausible Inference, San Mateo, CA: Morgan Kaufmann.
Peck, V.A., and B.E. John. 1992. Browser-Soar: A cognitive model of a highly interactive task. Pp. 165-172 in Proceedings of CHI. Monterey, CA, May 3-7. New York, NY: ACM.
Pennings, J. 1975. The relevance of the structural-contingency model for organizational effectiveness. Administrative Science Quarterly 20:393-410.
Pennington, D.C., D.R. Rutter, K. McKenna, and I.E. Morley. 1980. Estimating the outcome of a pregnancy test: Women's judgment in foresight and hindsight. British Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology 79:317-323.
Persons, J.B., and E.B. Foa. 1984. Processing of fearful and neutral information by obsessive-compulsives. Behavior Research Therapy 22:260-265.
Pete, A., K.R. Pattipati, and D.L. Kleinman. 1993. Distributed detection in teams with partial information: A normative descriptive model. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics 23:1626-1648.
1994 Optimization of detection networks with multiple event structures. IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control 39:1702-1707.
Pew, R.W. 1995. The state of situation awareness measurement: Circa 1995. Pp. 7-15 in Experimental Analysis and Measurement of Situation Awareness, D.J. Garland and M.R. Endsley, eds. Daytona Beach, FL: Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University.
Pew, R.W., and A.S. Mavor, eds. 1997. Representing Human Behavior in Military Simulations: Interim Report. Panel on Modeling Human Behavior and Command Decision Making: Representations for Military Simulations. Washington, DC:National Academy Press.
Pfeffer, J., and G.R. Salancik. 1978. The External Control of Organizations: A Resource Dependency Perspective. New York, NY: Harper and Row.
Pfeiffer, M.G., A.I. Siegel, S.E. Taylor, and L. Shuler, Jr. 1979. Background Data for the Human Performance in Continuous Operations. ARI Technical Report 386. U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences, Alexandria, VA. July.
Pinker, S., and A. Prince. 1988. On language and connectionism: Analysis of a parallel distributed processing model of language acquisition. Cognition 28:73-193.
Plaut, D.C., J.L. McClelland, and M.S. Seidenberg. 1996. Understanding word reading: Computational principles in quasi-regular domain. Psychological Review 103:56-115.
Plutchik, R., and H.R. Conte. 1997. Circumplex models of personality and emotions. In Circumplex Models of Personality and Emotions, R. Plutchik and H.R. Conte, eds. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Polk, T.A., and A. Newell. 1995. Deduction as verbal reasoning. Psychological Review 102:533-566.
Polk, T.A., and P.S. Rosenbloom. 1994. Task-independent constraints on a unified theory of cognition. In Handbook of Neuropsychology, Volume 9, F. Boller and J. Grafman, eds. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier.
Pomerleau, D.A., J. Gowdy, and C.E. Thorpe. 1991. Combining artificial neural networks and symbolic processing for autonomous robot guidance. Journal of Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence 4(4):279-285.
Posner, M.I. 1980. Orienting of attention. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 32:3-25.
Pospisil, L. 1994. War and peace among the Kapaupu. In Studying War: Anthropological Perspectives, S.P. Reyna and R.E. Downs, eds. Langhorne, PA: Gordon and Breach.
Powell, W.W., and P.J. DiMaggio. 1994. The New Institutionalism in Organizational Analysis. Chicago, IL:The University of Chicago Press.
Price, D.J. de S. 1965. Networks of scientific papers. Science 149:510-515.
Prosser, T.W. 1996a. JWARS. In Proceedings of the Defense Modeling and Simulation Office Workshop on Unit Level Behavior, August 7-8 . Arlington, VA: Defense Modeling and Simulation Office.
1996b JWARS Testbed White Paper: Intelligence Fusion. Joint Warfare System Office, Arlington, VA.
Quiggen, J. 1982. A theory of anticipated utility. Journal of Economic Behavior and Organizations 3:323-343.
Quillen, J.R. 1986. Induction of decision trees. Machine Learning 1:81-106.
Raaijmakers, J.G.W., and R.M. Shiffrin. 1981. Search of associative memory. Psychological Review 88:93-134.
Raby, M., and C.D. Wickens. 1994. Strategic workload management and decision biases in aviation . The International Journal of Aviation Psychology 4(3):211-240.
Ramsey, J.D., and S.J. Morrissey. 1978. Isodecrement curves for task performance in hot environments. Applied Ergonomics 9:66-72.
Rao, A.S. 1996. Agent Speak(L): Agents speak out in a logical computable language. In Agents Breaking Away, W. Van de Velde and J.W. Perram, eds. New York, NY: Springer-Verlag.
Rapoport, A. 1953. Spread of information through a population with socio-structural bias: I. Assumption of transitivity. II. Various models with partial transitivity. Bulletin of Mathematical Biophysics 15:523-546.
Ratches, J.A. 1976. Statistic performance model for thermal imaging systems. Optical Engineering 15(6):525-530.
Ratcliff, R. 1978. A theory of memory retrieval. Psychological Review 85:59-108.
Ratcliff, R., T. van Zandt, and G. McKoon. 1998. Connectionistic and Diffusion Models of Reaction Time. Unpublished manuscript.
Reece, D. 1996. Computer controlled hostiles for TTES. In Proceedings of the Defense Modeling and Simulation Office Individual Combatant Workshop, July 1-2. Alexandria, VA: Defense Modeling and Simulation Office.
Reece, D.A., and P. Kelley. 1996. An architecture for computer generated individual combatants. In Sixth Conference on Computer Generated Forces and Behavioral Representations: Project Status Reports, J.Clarkson, W.T. Noff, J.C. Peacock, and J.D. Norwood. Orlando, FL: University of Central Florida.
Reece, D.A., and R. Wirthlin. 1996. Detection models for computer generated individual combatants. In Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Computer Generated Forces and Behavioral Representation, July 23-25. Report IST-TR-96-18. Orlando, FL: Institute for Simulation and Training.
Reed, G.F. 1969. Under-inclusion--A characteristic of obsessional personality. British Journal of Psychiatry 115:781-785.
Reger, R.K., and A.S. Huff. 1993. Strategic groups: A cognitive perspective. Strategic Management Journal 14:103-124.
Remy, P.A., and A.H. Levis. 1988. On the generation of organizational architectures using Petri nets. Pp. 371-385 in Advances in Petri Nets . G. Rozenberg, ed. Berlin, West Germany: Springer-Verlag.
Restle, F. 1961. Psychology of Judgment and Choice. New York, NY: Wiley.
Reynolds, L.D., and N.G. Wilson. 1968. Scribes and Scholars: A Guide to the Transmission of Greek and Latin Literature. Oxford:Clarendon Press.
Rice, R.E. 1984. The New Media: Communication, Research, and Technology . Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
1994 Network Analysis and Computer Mediated Communication Systems. Pp. 167-206 in Advances in Social Network Analysis, S. Wasserman and J. Galskiewicz, eds. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Rice, R.E., and C. Aydin. 1991. Attitudes toward new organizational technology: Network proximity as a mechanism for social information processing. Administrative Science Quarterly 39:219-244.
Rice, R.E., and D. Case. 1983. Electronic message systems in the university: A description of use and utility. Journal of Communication 33:131-152.
Richards, T., and F. Giminez. 1994. Cognitive Style and Strategic Choice . Working Paper #282. Center for Business Research, University of Manchester, United Kingdom.
Rieman, J., R.M. Young, and A. Howes. 1996. A dual-space model of iteratively deepening exploratory learning. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies 44:743-775.
Ritter, F.E., and J.H. Larkin. 1994. Developing process models as summaries of HCI action sequences. Human Computer Interaction 9(3-4):345-383.
Roberts, C.W. 1989. Other than counting words: A linguistic approach to content analysis. Social Forces 68:147-177.
Roberts, K. 1990. Some characteristics of one type of high reliability organizations. Organization Science 1(2):160-176.
Roberts, N.C., and K.A. Dotterway. 1995. The Vincennes incident: Another player on the stage. Defense Analysis 11(1):31-45.
Robinson, J.A. 1965. A machine-oriented logic based on the resolution principle. Journal of the Association for Computing Machinery 12:23-41.
Rochlin, G.I. 1991. Iran Air Flight 655 and the USS Vincennes: Complex, large-scale military systems and the failure of control . In Social Responses to Large Technical Systems: Control or Anticipation, T.R. LaPorte, ed. Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Roethlisberger, F.J., and W.J. Dickson. 1939. Management and the Worker. Cambridge, MA:Harvard University Press.
Rogers, E.M. 1983. Diffusion of Innovations. New York, NY:Free Press.
Rogers, W.H. 1996. Flight deck task management: A cognitive engineering analysis. Pp. 239-243 in Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 40th Annual Meeting. Santa Monica, CA: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.
Rosen, L.D., and M.M. Weil. 1995. Computer anxiety: A cross-cultural comparison of students in ten countries. Computers in Human Behavior 11(4):45-64.
Rosenberg, M. 1956. Cognitive structure and attitudinal affect. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 53:3667-3672.
Rosenbloom, P.S., A. Newell, and J.E. Laird. 1991. Toward the knowledge level in Soar: The role of architecture in the use of knowledge. In The Twenty-second Carnegie Mellon Symposium on Cognition, K. Van Lehn, ed. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
Ross, B.H. 1989. Some psychological results on case-based reasoning. In Proceedings Case-Based Reasoning Workshop (DARPA II). San Mateo, CA: Morgan Kaufman.
Rumelhart, D.E. 1989. Toward a microstructural account of human reasoning. Pp. 298-312 in Similarity and Analogical Reasoning, S. Vosniadou and A. Ortony, eds. New York:Cambridge University Press.
Rumelhart, D.E., and J. McClelland. 1986. Parallel Distributed Processing: Explorations in the Microstructure of Cognition, Volume I. Cambridge, MA:MIT Press.
Rumelhart, D.E., G.E. Hinton, and R.J. Williams. 1986a. Learning internal representations by error propagation. In Parallel Distributed Processing: Explorations in the Microstructure of Cognition, Volume 1: Foundations, D.E. Rumelhart and J.L. McClelland, eds. Cambridge, MA:MIT Press.
Rumelhart, D.E., J.L. McClelland, and the PDP Research Group, eds. 1986b. Parallel Distributed Processing: Fundamentals, Volume 1. Cambridge, MA:MIT Press.
Rumelhart, D.E., P. Smolensky, J.L. McClelland, and G.E. Hinton. 1986c. Schemata and sequential thought processes in PDP models. Pp. 7-57 in Parallel Distributed Processing: Explorations in the Microstructure of Cognition, Volume 2, J.L. McClelland, D.E. Rumelhart, and the PDP Research Group, eds. Cambridge, MA:MIT Press.
Russell, P., and P. Norvig. 1995. Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Rutenbar, R.A. 1989. Simulated annealing algorithms: An overview. IEEE Circuits and Devices Magazine 5:12-26.
Ryan, M. 1997. Overview of International Simulation Advisory Group. In Conference Proceedings of Sixth Annual Modeling and Simulation Briefing to Government and Industry, May 22-23. Alexandria, VA: Defense Modeling and Simulation Office.
Sacerdoti, E.D. 1974. Planning in a hierarchy of abstraction spaces. Artificial Intelligence 5:115-135.
1975 The nonlinear nature of plans. Pp. 206-214 in Proceedings of the Fourth International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Menlo Park, CA.
1977 A Structure for Plans and Behavior. New York, NY: Elsevier-North Holland.
Salancik, G.R., and J. Pfeffer. 1978. A social information professing approach to job attitudes and task design. Administrative Science Quarterly 23:224-253.
Sampson, S.F. 1968. A novitiate in a period of change: An experimental and case study of relationships. Ph.D. Dissertation. Cornell University.
Sarter, N.B., and D.D. Woods. 1991. Situation awareness: a critical but ill-defined phenomenon. International Journal of Aviation Psychology 1:45-57.
1995 How in the world did we ever get into that mode? Mode error and awareness in supervisory control. Human Factors 37(1):5-19.
Schachter, D.L. 1987. Implicit memory: History and current status. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 13:501-513.
Schlabach, J. 1997. RAVEN requirements development perspective. Personal communication, September.
Schlabach, J.L., C.C. Hayes, and D.E. Goldberg. 1997. SHAKA-GA: A Genetic Algorithm for Generating and Analyzing Battlefield Courses of Action. White paper. University of Illinois, Champaign.
Schlegel, R.P., and D. DiTecco. 1982. Attitudinal structures and the attitude-behavior relation . In Consistency in Social Behavior, M. Zanna, E. Higgins, and C. Herman, eds. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Schneider, W., and R.M. Shiffrin. 1977. Controlled and automatic human information processing: I. Detection, search, and attention. Psychological Review 84:1-66.
Schneider, W., S.T. Dumais, and R.M. Shiffrin. 1984. Automatic and control processing and attention. Pp. 1-27 in Varieties of Attention , R. Parasuraman and D.F. Davies, eds. Orlando, FL:Academic Press.
Schutte, P.C., and A.C. Trujillo. 1996. Flight crew task management in non-normal situations. Pp. 244-248 in Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 40th Annual Meeting. Santa Monica, CA: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.
Schweikert, R., and B. Boruff. 1986. Short-term memory capacity: Magic number seven or magic spell? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 16:419-425.
Scott, W.R. 1981. Organizations: Rational, Natural, and Open Systems . Prentice Hall Inc.
Scribner, B.L, A.D. Smith, R.H. Baldwin, and R.L. Phillips. 1986. Are smart tankers better? AFQT and military productivity. Armed Forces and Society 12(2)(Winter).
Seidenberg, M.S., and J.L. McClelland. 1989. A distributed developmental model of word recognition and naming. Psychological Review 96:523-568.
Selfridge, O.G. 1959. Pandemonium: A paradigm for learning. Pp. 511-529 in Symposium on the Mechanization of Thought Processes. London, England: HM Stationery Office.
Serfaty, D., J. MacMillan, and J. Deckert. 1991. Towards a Theory of Tactical Decision Making Expertise. TR-496-1. Alphatech, Burlington, MA.
Serpe, R. 1987. Stability and change in self: A structural symbolic interactionist explanation. Social Psychology Quarterly 50:44-55.
1988 The cerebral self: Thinking, planning and worrying about identity relevant activity. In Self and Society: A Social-Cognitive Approach, J. Howard and P. Callero, eds. Cambridge, England:Cambridge University Press.
Servan-Schreiber, E. 1991. The Competitive Chunking Theory: Models of Perception, Learning, and Memory. Ph.D. dissertation. Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA.
Shah, P.P. 1995. Who are Our Social Referents? A Network Perspective to Determine the Referent Other. Paper presented at the Academy of Management. Strategic Management Faculty, University of Minnesota.
Shankar, R. 1991. Z-Scheduler: Integrating theories on scheduling behavior into a computational model. Pp. 1219-1223 in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics , Charlottesville, VA.
Shapiro, K.L., and J.E. Raymond. 1994. Temporal allocation of visual attention: Inhibition or interference. In Inhibitory Process in Attention, Memory and Language, D. Dagenbach and T. Carr, eds. New York, NY: Academic Press.
Sharkey, A.J.C., and N.E. Sharkey. 1995. Cognitive modeling: Psychology and connectionism. In The Handbook of Brain Theory and Neural Networks , M.A. Arbib, ed. Cambridge, MA:MIT Press.
Sher, K.J., R.O. Frost, M. Kushner, and T.M. Crews. 1989. Memory deficits in compulsive checkers: Replication and extension in a clinical sample. Behavior Research and Therapy 27(1):65-69.
Sherif, M., and C. Hovland. 1961. Social Judgment. New Haven, CT: Yale Press.
Sherif, M., C. Sherif, and R. Nebergall. 1965. Attitude and Attitude Change. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders.
Sherman, P.J., and R.L. Helmreich. 1996. Attitudes toward automation: The effect of national culture. In Proceedings of the 8th Ohio State Symposium on Aviation Psychology. Columbus, OH: The Ohio State University.
Shiffrin, R.M. 1988. Attention. Pp. 739-811 in Stevens' Handbook of Experimental Psychology, Volume 2: Learning and Cognition, R.A. Atkinson, R.J. Herrnstein, G. Lindsay, and R.D. Luce, eds. New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons.
Shiffrin, R.M., and G.T. Gardner. 1972. Visual processing capacity and attentional control. Journal of Experimental Psychology 93:72-83.
Shiffrin, R.M., and N. Lightfoot. 1997. Perceptual learning of alphanumeric-like characters. The Psychology of Learning and Motivation 36:45-80.
Shiffrin, R.M., and W. Schneider. 1977. Controlled and automatic human information processing: II. Perceptual learning, automatic attending, and a general theory . Psychological Review 84:127-190.
Shiffrin, R.M., and M. Steyvers. 1997. A model for recognition memory: REM--retrieving effectively from memory. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review 4:145-166.
Shively, J. 1997. Overview of MIDAS situation awareness modeling effort. Presentation at NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA, November.
Shoham, Y., and M. Tennenholtz. 1994. Co-Learning and the Evolution of Social Activity. STAN-CS-TR-94-1511 Report. Department of Computer Science, Stanford University, CA.
Siegel, A.I., and J.J. Wolf. 1969. Man-Machine Simulation Models. New York, NY: Wiley-Interscience.
Siegel, A.I., M.G. Pfeiffer, F. Kopstein, and J.J. Wolf. 1980. Human Performance in Continuous Operations: Volume III, Technical Documentation. ARI Research Product 80-4C, AD-A088319. U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences, Alexandria, VA. March.
Siegel, A.I., J.J. Wolf, and A.M. Schorn. 1981. Human Performance in Continuous Operations: Description of a Simulation Model and User's Manual for Evaluation of Performance Degradation. ARI Technical Report 505, AD-A101950 . U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences, Alexandria, VA. January.
Simon, H.A. 1947. Administrative Behavior. New York, NY:Free Press.
1967 Motivational and emotional controls of cognition. Psychological Review 74:29-39.
Sloman, A. 1997. Personalities for synthetic actors: Current issues and some perspectives. In Synthetic Actors: Towards Autonomous Personality Agents, R. Trappl and P. Petta, eds. New York, NY: Springer.
Smith, B.R., S.W. Tyler, and K.M. Corker. 1996. Man-Machine Integration Design and Analysis System. Presentation to National Research Council Panel on Modeling Human Behavior and Command Decision Making. Washington, D.C., November 18.
Smith, M. 1973. Political attitudes. In Handbook of Political Psychology , J. Knutson, ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Smith, M., J. Bruner, and R. White. 1956. Opinions and Personality. New York, NY: Wiley.
Smith, P.L. 1996. Psychophysically principled models of visual reaction time. Psychological Review 102:567-593.
Sperling, G. 1960. The information available in brief visual presentations. Psychological Monographs 74(11):Whole No. 498.
Sperling, G., and E. Weichselgartner. 1995. Episodic theory of the dynamics of spatial attention. Psychological Review 102(3):503-532.
Sperry, R.W. 1995. The riddle of consciousness and the changing scientific worldview. Journal of Humanistic Psychology 35(2):7-33.
Spick, M. 1988. The Ace Factor. Annapolis, MD:Naval Institute Press.
Spranca, M., E. Minsk, and J. Baron. 1991. Omission and commission in judgment and choice. Journal of Experimental Psychology 21:76-105.
Sproull, L., and S. Kiesler. 1986. Reducing social context cues: Electronic mail in organizational communication. Management Science 32:1492-1512.
1991 Connections: New Ways of Working in the Networked Organization. Cambridge, MA:MIT Press.
Stanfill, C., and D. Waltz. 1986. Toward memory-based reasoning. Communication of the ACM 29(12):??.
Staw, B.M. 1976. Knee-deep in the big muddy: A study of escalating commitment to a chosen course of action. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance 16:27-44.
Staw, B.M., and S.G. Barsade. 1993. Affect and managerial performance--A test of the sadder but wiser vs. happier-and-smarter hypothesis. Administrative Science Quarterly 38(2):304-331.
Staw, B.M., and H. Hoang. 1995. Sunk costs in the NBA: Why draft order affects playing time and survival in professional basketball. Administrative Science Quarterly 40:474-494.
Staw, B.M., and J. Ross. 1989. Understanding behavior in escalation situations. Science 246(4927):216-220.
Stefik, M.J. 1981a. Planning with constraints (MOLGEN: Part 1). Artificial Intelligence 16:111-140.
1981b Planning and metaplanning (MOGEN: Part 2). Artificial Intelligence 16:141-170.
Stevens, W.K., and L. Parish. 1996. Representation of unit level behavior in the naval simulation system (NSS). In Proceedings of the Defense Modeling and Simulation Workshop on Unit Level Behavior, August 7-8. Alexandria, VA: Defense Modeling and Simulation Office.
Stiffler, D.R. 1988. Graduate level situation awareness. USAF Fighter Weapons Review (Summer):115-120.
Stigler, J.W., R.A. Schweder, and L. Herdt, eds. 1990. Cultural Psychology. Cambridge, United Kingdom:Cambridge University Press.
Stites, J. 1994. Complexity. Omni 16(8):42-52.
Stone, M. 1960. Models for reaction time. Psychometrika 25:251-260.
Stryker, S. 1980. Symbolic Interactionism. Menlo Park, CA: Benjamin Cummings.
Stryker, S., and R. Serpe. 1982. Commitment, identity salience, and role behavior. In Personality, Roles and Social Behavior, W. Ickes and E. Knowles, eds. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag.
Sullivan, K., and T. Kida. 1995. The effect of multiple reference points and prior gains and losses on managers' risky decision making. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 64(1):76-83.
Sun, R. 1995. A Hybrid Learning Model for Sequential Decision Making. Presented at the ONR Hybrid Learning Kick-Off Meeting, Washington, DC, August 3-4.
Sun, R., and F. Alexandre. 1997. Connectionistic-Symbolic Integration. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Sussman, G.J. 1975. A Computer of Skill Acquisition. New York, NY: American Elsevier.
Sutton, R.S. 1992. Special issue on reinforcement learning. Machine Learning 8:1-395.
Tajfel, H. 1982. Social psychology of intergroup relations. Annual Review of Psychology 33:1-39.
Tambe, M. 1996a. Executing team plans in dynamic, multiagent domains. In AAAI FALL Symposium on Plan Execution: Problems and Issues.
1996b Teamwork in real-world, dynamic environments. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Multiagent Systems (ICMAS).
1996c Tracking dynamic team activity. In Proceedings of the National Conference on Artificial Intelligence, August.
1997 Agent architectures for flexible, practical teamwork. In Proceedings of the American Association of Artificial Intelligence.
Tambe, M., W.L. Johnson, R.M. Jones, F. Koss, J.E. Laird, P.S. Rosenbloom, and K. Schwamb. 1995. Intelligent agents for interactived simulation environments. AI Magazine (Spring):15-37.
Tang, Z., K. Pattipati, and D. Kleinman. 1991. An algorithm for determining the decision thresholds in a distributed detection problem. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics 21(1):231-237.
Tate, A. 1977. Generating project networks. Pp. 888-893 in Proceedings of the Fifth International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence , Menlo Park, CA.
Tate, A., J. Hendler, and M. Drummond, eds. 1990. A review of AI planning techniques. In Readings in Planning. San Mateo, CA: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, Inc.
Taube, J.S., and H.L. Burton. 1995. Head direction cell activity monitored in a novel environment and during a cue conflict situation. Journal of Neurophysiology 74(5):1953-1971.
Thagard, P. 1989. Explanatory coherence. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 12(3):435-502.
Theeuwes, J. 1994. Endogenous and exogenous control of visual selection. Perception 23(4):429-440.
Thomas, E.M. 1994. Management of violence among Iu/wasi of Nyae Nyae. In Studying War: Anthropological Perspectives, S.P. Reyna and R.E. Downs, eds. Langhorne, PA: Gordon and Breach.
Thompson, J.D. 1967. Organizations in Action. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Thorsden, M., J. Galushka, G.A. Klein, S. Young, and C.P. Brezovic. 1989. Knowledge Elicitation Study of Military Planning. Technical Report 876. Army Research Institute, Alexandria, VA.
Thorngen, B. 1977. Silent actors: Communication networks for development. In The Social Impact of the Telephone, I. del Sola Pool, ed.. Cambridge, MA:MIT Press.
Thurstone, L.L. 1959. The Measurement of Values. Chicago, IL:Chicago University Press .
Tolcott, M.A., F.F. Marvin, and P.E. Lehner. 1989. Expert decision making in evolving situations. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics 19(3):606-615.
Touretzky, D.S. 1995. Connectionist and symbolic representations. In The Handbook of Brain Theory and Neural Networks, M.A. Arbib, ed. Cambridge, MA:MIT Press.
Touretzky, D.S., and G.E. Hinton. 1988. A distributed connectionist production system. Cognitive Science 12:423-466.
Treisman, A., and S. Sato. 1990. Conjunction search revisited. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 16(3):459-478.
Treisman, A.M. 1969. Strategies and models of selective attention. Psychological Review 76:282-299.
Tulga, M.K., and T.B. Sheridan. 1980. Dynamic decisions and work load in multitask supervisory control. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics 10(5):217-231.
Tulving, E. 1972. Episodic and Semantic Memory. New York, NY:Academic Press.
Tversky, A. 1972. Elimination by aspects: A theory of choice. Psychological Review 79:281-289.
Tversky, A., and D. Kahneman. 1980. Causal Schemes in Judgments Under Uncertainty. New York, NY:Cambridge University Press.
1992 Advances in prospect theory: Cumulative representation of uncertainty. Journal of Risk and Uncertainty 5:297-323.
U.S. Army. 1997. Knowledge and Speed: The Annual Report of the Army After Next Project. Washington, DC: U.S. Army Chief of Staff.
U.S. Army Command and General Staff College. 1993. The Tactical Decision making Process. Fort Leavenworth, KS: U.S. Army Command and General Staff College.
U.S. Congress. 1989. Iran Airflight 655 Compensation Hearings before the Defense Policy Panel of the Committee on Armed Services. House of Representatives, Second Session, held on August 3 and 4, September 9, and October 6. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
U.S. Department of the Army. 1980. Technical Bulletin, Medical 507 . Occupational and Environmental Health, Prevention, Treatment and Control of Heat Injury. July. Washington, DC: Department of the Army.
1983 Chapter 9: Moderator Variables
1993a Field Manual 22-9, Soldier Performance in Continuous Operations. December.
1993b FM 100-5 Operations. Headquarters. Fort Monroe, VA: U.S. Department of the Army.
U.S. Department of Defense. 1981. Human Engineering Design Criteria for Military Systems, Equipment and Facilities: Mil-STD 1472D. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Defense.
1994 Joint Pub 1-02. Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms. s.v. command and control, p. 77.
1995 Modeling and Simulation (M&S) Master Plan. Training and Doctrine Command. October. Washington, DC: Department of Defense.
1996 Verification, Validation and Accreditation (VV&A) Recommended Practices Guide. Office of the Director of Defense Research and Engineering. Washington, DC: Defense Modeling and Simulation Office.
Utgoff, P.E. 1989. Incremental induction of decision trees. Machine Learning 4:161-186.
Valente, T. 1995. Network Models of the Diffusion of Innovations. Cresskill, NJ:Hampton Press.
Van Creveld, M.L. 1985. Command in War. Cambridge, MA:Harvard University Press .
VanLehn, K. 1996. Cognitive skill acquisition. Annual Review of Psychology 47:513-539.
Van Nostrand, S.J. 1986. Model Effectiveness as a Function of Personnel. CAA-SR-86-34, U.S. Army Concepts Analysis Agency, Bethesda, MD.
Van Schie, E.C.M., and J. van der Plight. 1995. Influencing risk preference in decision making: The effects of framing and salience. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 63(3):264-275.
Vere, S., and T. Bickmore. 1990. A basic agent. Computational Intelligence 6:41-60.
von der Malsburg, C. 1973. Self-organization of orientation sensitive cells in the striate cortex. Kybernetic 14:85-100.
Von Neumann, J., and O. Morgenstern. 1947. Theory of Games and Economic Behavior. ??:Princeton University Press.
von Winterfeldt, D., and W. Edwards. 1986. Decision Analysis and Behavioral Research. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.
Walden, R.S., and W.B. Rouse. 1978. A queuing model of pilot decision making in a multitask flight management situation. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics 8(12):867-874.
Waldinger, R. 1977. Achieving several goals simultaneously. In Machine Intelligence 8, R. Waldinger, ed. Chichester, England: Ellis Norwood Limited.
Wallace, J.R. 1982. Gideon Criterion: The Effects of Selection Criteria on Soldier Capability and Battle Results. USA Recruiting Command, Fort Sheridan, IL. January.
Wallsten, T.S. 1995. Time pressure and payoff effects on multidimensional probabilistic inference. Pp. 167-179 in Time Pressure and Stress in Human Judgment, O. Svenson and J. Maule, eds. New York, NY: Plenum Press.
Walsh, J.P. 1995. Managerial and organizational cognition: Notes from a trip down memory lane. Organizational Science 6(3):280-321.
Wasserman, P.D. 1989. Neural Computing: Theory and Practice. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
1993 Advanced Methods in Neural Computing. New York, NY: Van Nostrand.
Wasserman, S., and K. Faust. 1994. Social Network Analysis: Methods and Applications. Cambridge, United Kingdom:Cambridge University Press.
Watson, R., J. Barry, and R. Sandza. 1988. A case of human error. Newsweek (August 15):18-21.
Weber, M., and C. Camerer. 1987. Recent developments in modeling preferences under risk. Specktrum 9:129-151.
Wegner, D. M. 1995. Transactive memory: A contemporary analysis of the group mind. Pp. 185-208 in Theories of Group Behavior, B. Mullen and G.R. Goethals, eds. New York, NY: Springer-Verlag.
Wegner, D. M., Erber, R., and Raymond, P. 1991. Transactive memory in close relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 61:923-929.
Weick, K.E., and K.A. Roberts. 1993. Collective mind in organizations: Heedful interrelating on flight decks. Administrative Science Quarterly 38:357-381.
Weismeyer, M.D. 1992. An Operator-Based Model of Human Covert Visual Attention. Ph.D. thesis. Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Department, University of Michigan.
Wellman, B. 1991. Network analysis: Some basic principles. Sociological Theory 1:155-200.
Wellman, B., and S. Berkowitz. 1988. Social Structures: A Network Approach. Norwood, NJ: Ablex. (Reprinted 1997.)
Wellman, B., J. Salaff, D. Dimitrova, L. Garton, M. Gulia, and C. Haythornthwaite. 1996. Computer Networks as Social Networks: Virtual Community, Computer Supported Cooperative Work and Telework. Annual Review of Sociology 22: 213-238.
White, H. 1989. Learning in artificial neural networks: A statistical perspective. Neural Computation 1:425-464.
White, H.C., S.A. Boorman, and R.L. Breiger. 1976. Social structure from multiple networks. I. Blockmodels of roles and positions. American Journal of Sociology 81:730-780.
Whittaker, J. 1967. Resolution and the communication discrepancy issue in attitude change. In Attitude, Ego-Involvement and Change, C. Sherif and M. Sherif, eds. New York, NY: Wiley.
Wickens, C.D. 1984. Processing resources in attention. Pp. 63-102 in Varieties of Attention, R. Parasuraman and D.A. Davies, eds. Orlando, FL:Academic Press.
1989 Resource management and timesharing. In Human Performance Models for Computer-Aided Engineering, J.I. Elkind, S.K. Card, J. Hochberg, and B.M. Huey, eds. Washington, DC:National Academy Press.
1992 Engineering Psychology and Human Performance, second edition. New York, NY: HarperCollins.
Wickens, C.D., A.S. Mavor, and J.P. McGee, eds. 1997. Flight to the Future: Human Factors in Air Traffic Control. Panel on Human Factors in Air Traffic Control Automation. Washington, DC:National Academy Press.
Wigdor, A.K., and B.F. Green, Jr., eds. 1991. Performance Assessment for the Workplace: Volume 1. Committee on the Performance of Military Personnel. Washington, DC:National Academy Press.
Wilensky, R. 1981. Meta-planning: Representing and using knowledge about planning in problem solving and natural language understanding . Cognitive Science: Incorporating the Journal Cognition and Brain Theory: A Multidisciplinary Journal (CSc) 5(3):197-233.
Wilkins, D. 1988. Practical Planning. San Francisco, CA: Morgan Kaufmann.
Wilkins, D.E. 1984. Domain-independent planning: Representation and plan generation. Artificial Intelligence 22:269-301.
Williams, J.M.G., F.N. Watts, C. MacLeod, and A. Mathews. 1997. Cognitive Psychology and Emotional Disorders. (revised edition) New York, NY: John Wiley.
Woldron, A.N. 1997. The art of shi. The New Republic 2/6:36-40.
Wolfe, J.M. 1994. Guided search 2.0: A revised model of visual search. Psychonomic Bulletin of Review 1:202-238.
Yaari, M.E. 1987. The dual theory of choice under uncertainty. Econometrica 55:95-115.
Yantis, S. 1993. Stimulus-driven attentional capture. Current Directions in Psychological Science 2:156-161.
Yates, J. 1990. What is theory? A response to Springer. Cognition 36(1):91-96.
Young, R.M., and R. Lewis. forthcoming. The Soar cognitive architecture and human working memory. In Models of Working Memory: Mechanisms of Active Maintenance and Executive Control, A. Miyake and P. Shah, eds. ??:Cambridge University Press.
Zacharias, G.L., S. Baron, and R. Muralidharan. 1981. A supervisory control model of the AAA crew. Pp. 301-306 in Proceedings of the 17nd Conference on Manual Control, Los Angeles, CA, June.
Zacharias, G.L., A.X. Miao, C. Illgen, and J.M. Yara. 1996. SAMPLE: Situation Awareness Model for Pilot-in-the-Loop Evaluation. Final Report R95192, December 12. Charles River Analytics, Cambridge, MA.
Zacharias, G.L., A.X. Miao, A. Kalkan, and S.-P. Kao. 1994. Operator-based metric for nuclear operations automation assessment. Pp. 181-205 in 22nd Water Reactor Safety Information Briefing. NUREG/CP-0140, Volume 1. Washington: U.S., Nuclear Regulatory Commission.
Zacharias, G., A.X. Miao, E.W. Riley, and R.K. Osgood. 1992. Situation Awareness Metric for Cockpit Configuration Evaluation. Final AL-TR-1993-0042, November. Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH.
Zacharias, G., A. Miao, C. Illgen, J. Yara, and G. Siouris. 1996. SAMPLE: Situation Awareness Model for Pilot in the Loop Evaluation. First Annual Conference on Situation Awareness in the Tactical Air Environment, Naval Air Warfare Center, Patuxent River, MD.
Zachary, W., J.M. Ryder, and J.H. Hicinbothom. forthcoming. Cognitive task analysis and modeling of decision making in complex environments. In Decision Making Under Stress: Implications for Training and Simulation , J. Cannon-Bower and E. Salas, eds. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Zachary, W., J.-C. Le Mentec, and J. Ryder. 1996. Interface agents in complex systems. In Human Interaction With Complex Systems: Conceptual Principles and Design Practice, C.N. Ntuen and E.H. Park, eds. Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Zachary, W., J. Ryder, L. Ross, and M.Z. Weiland. 1992. Intelligent computer-human interaction in real-time, multi-tasking process control and monitoring systems. In Human Factors in Design for Manufacturability , M. Helander and M. Nagamachi, eds. New York, NY: Taylor and Francis.
Zadeh, L.A. 1986. A simple view of the Dempster-Shafter theory of evidence and its implication for the rule of combination. The AI Magazine (Summer):85-90.
1973 Outline of a new approach to the analysis of complex systems and decision processes. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics . SMC-3(1):28-44. 1997. The roles of fuzzy logic and soft computing in the conception, design and deployment of intelligent systems. In Software Agents and Soft Computing, H.S. Nwana and A. Nader, eds. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag.
Zellenberg, M. 1996. On the importance of what might have been. In Psychological Perspectives on Regret and Decision Making. Amsterdam, NL: The Faculty of Psychology of the University of Amsterdam.