National Academies Press: OpenBook
« Previous: Biographical Sketches
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. High Stakes: Testing for Tracking, Promotion, and Graduation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6336.
×

INDEX

A

Ability grouping, 31, 33, 82, 90

see also Tracking and placement

Accommodations/adaptations

English-language learners, 7, 24, 80, 214-219, 226-230, 231-232, 284, 296-297

exemption from assessment, 215-218, 219, 226, 233

legal issues, 63, 211

oral reading of/responses to questions, 80, 216, 218

translation of tests, 216, 218, 219, 221, 222-223, 226, 227, 229-230, 297

students with disabilities, 7, 24, 80, 195-206, 293-295

categories of, 195, 293

computer-assisted testing, 195, 203, 293

eligibility, 190-191, 281

fairness, 80, 191-192, 200

indicator systems, 8, 281

individualized education programs, 33, 188-189, 191-193, 194, 195, 204, 294, 295

legal issues, 55(n.6), 190-193 (passim), 198-199

predictive validity, 200, 201

scoring, general, 197, 199, 200, 201, 202, 206, 293, 295

see also Bilingual education;

Special education

Accountability, 1, 2, 5, 13, 39, 273, 274, 278

educators, 1, 2, 5, 15, 16

English-language learners, 7, 217, 296, 298

graduation tests, 165, 182

independent oversight body, 256-257

legal issues, 18, 65, 189, 192, 193, 198, 200

promotion/retention in grade, 115, 127, 132

school-based factors, 2, 5, 15, 16, 21, 29-31, 35, 40, 274, 278

school districts, 2, 5, 35, 274, 278

English-language learners, 217

students with disabilities, 189

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. High Stakes: Testing for Tracking, Promotion, and Graduation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6336.
×

 

standards-based reform, general 13-14, 15, 36, 132, 199, 206, 273, 288-289

students, general, 1, 2, 5, 15, 16, 21, 165

students with disabilities, 7, 118, 189, 192, 193, 198, 292

see also Standards

Accuracy of measurement, 4, 14, 20, 23, 265, 280, 284

cutscores, 96, 99-100, 124, 166

English-language learners, 7, 66, 214, 226, 229-230, 232, 296

exogenous factors, 77, 79

graduation requirements, 163, 166, 276, 287

labeling strategies, 263

promotion/retention in grade, 116, 119, 124, 276

reading and mathematics achievement, 2, 16, 24, 273, 274

students with disabilities, 7, 193, 198, 201

tracking, 97, 99-100, 101, 276

voluntary national tests, 15, 242, 243, 291

see also Error of measurement;

Predictive validity

Achievement, general, 2, 4, 5, 6, 8, 14, 23, 35, 273, 274, 281, 295, 300

English-language learners, 217, 296, 297

international comparisons, 7, 18, 174, 238-239, 241, 290, 291

see also Competency testing;

Graduation requirements;

Mathematics achievement;

Multiple assessment criteria;

Performance standards;

Promotion/retention in grade;

Reading achievement;

Science achievement;

Tracking and placement;

Writing achievement

ADA, see Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990

Adaptations, see Accommodations/adaptations

Administration procedures, testing, 7, 55(n.6), 216, 274

fairness, general, 78-79, 80-81

graduation tests,

adequate notice of testing, 51, 63-64, 163, 289

retaking of tests

graduation tests, 165, 178, 180, 181, 182, 220, 243, 289, 292

promotion/retention in grade, 127(n.11), 132, 133, 135, 287, 291

test length and time, 24, 195, 199, 203, 206, 216, 218, 219, 293

tracking, 100-101

voluntary national tests, 15, 238, 239

see Accommodations/adaptations

Administrative law, 8, 17, 248, 251, 264-268, 301

discrimination and funding, 58

Advanced diplomas, 180, 181, 182

Advanced placement, 95, 98, 99, 100, 106, 126, 219, 225, 240, 289, 291

see also Gifted and talented students

African Americans

discrimination against, 20, 21, 53-54, 56, 57

dropouts, employment of, 177

graduation tests, 175-176

kindergarten retention, 119

retention in grade, 119, 122, 137, 148, 155-156, 157, 281

tracking, 100, 105-106

Age factors, 114, 279

employment of diploma holders, 176

English-language learners, 212, 216

kindergarten, 118-120

retention in grade, 5, 120-122, 133, 136, 137, 147-158, 281, 286

tracking, 98

see also Developmental factors;

Grade-level factors

American Association of Mexican-American Educators v. California, 58, 59, 60

American College Test, 19, 20, 60, 61

American Educational Research Association, see Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. High Stakes: Testing for Tracking, Promotion, and Graduation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6336.
×

 

American Federation of Teachers, 37, 45, 115, 128(n.13)

American Psychological Association, see Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing

Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, 18, 188, 191, 196, 198

Anderson v. Banks, 52, 53, 56

Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery, 19, 20

Athletes, 20-21

Attendance requirements and records, 6, 43, 279

graduation requirements, 164, 174, 279, 288

promotion/retention in grade, 115, 116, 124, 130, 284

Attitudes

expectations of and by students, 5, 102-103, 282

graduation tests, 181, 288

promotion/retention in grade, 125, 284, 285

public opinion, 1, 14

students, 14, 287

emotional problems, 91, 190, 293

low-tracking, 5, 101-105, 276, 281, 282

teachers, 5, 14, 103, 284, 287

Attribution of cause, general, 296

defined, 3, 23, 275

legal issues, 51, 61

B

Beliefs, see Attitudes

Bias, see Discrimination; Error of measurement; Fairness

Bilingual education, 33, 46, 211, 212, 216, 219, 221, 224-225, 283, 296

translation of tests, 216, 218, 219, 221-224, 226, 227, 229-230, 297

see also English-language learners

Black persons, see African Americans

Board of Education of New York v. Harris, 59

Board on Testing and Assessment, v, 67, 188

Buckley Amendment, see Family Education Rights and Privacy Act of 1974

Bureau of Census, 117, 118-119, 136

Current Population Survey, 118, 137, 281

C

Civil Rights Act of 1964, 58, 211, 265, 266, 267, 301

Classroom practice, see Instructional factors

Clinton Administration, v, 13, 14, 41, 42, 114-115, 284-285

Code of Fair Testing Practices in Education, 8, 17, 82, 249-250, 262, 266, 268

Code of Professional Responsibilities in Educational Measurement, 83

Cognitive factors and theory, 17

construct validity, 74-75, 80

disabilities, 190, 191, 293

see Learning disabilities; Retardation

College admissions exams, 33, 45, 76, 82, 181, 199, 205

ACT, 19, 20, 60, 61

SAT, 19-20, 33, 60, 182, 215, 216, 240

Compensatory models, 165-166, 180

English-language learners, 213

Competency testing, 38-39, 163, 287, 288

discrimination, litigation, 21, 38, 52, 53, 56, 57, 63-64, 163, 171, 178, 179, 183, 251-252

history of, 15, 38

mathematics, 38, 126-127, 179

public opinion, 44

reading, 2, 16, 24, 273, 274

see Graduation requirements; Promotion/retention in grade

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. High Stakes: Testing for Tracking, Promotion, and Graduation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6336.
×

Computer technology

assisted testing, 195, 202, 203, 218, 293

low-tracking, impacts of, 103

Confidentiality of students' records, 18, 201, 251

Conjunctive models, 165

Constitutional law, 38, 50-59 (passim), 61, 251-252

Constructed-response items, 24, 36, 169, 181, 274

English-language learners, 226

fairness, 81

reliability, 72

Construct validity, 61, 73-77

defined, 72

English-language learners, accommodations, 80, 225, 297

fairness, general, 78-79, 81-82

graduation tests, 168, 177

multiple assessment criteria, 74

predictive validity and, 75, 77-78, 79, 82

promotion/retention decisions, 124

reliability and, 72

students with disabilities, accommodations, 80, 196-198, 201, 293

Content coverage, 2, 29, 36, 40, 74, 75

English-language learners, 226

graduation tests, 167-168, 169, 177-179

legal issues, 60 (n.17), 66

promotion/retention in grade, 124-125

students with disabilities, 199

tracking and, 98

see also Curriculum

Cost-effectiveness factors, 23, 275

graduation tests, 172

litigation, 8, 252, 299

post-secondary remediation, 45

standardized tests, general, 30

students with disabilities, 194

validation of tests, 67

Council of Chief State School Officers State Collaboration on Assessment and Student Standards, 205, 215, 232

CRESST, see National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards and Student Testing

Criterion-referenced testing, 76, 82, 93, 94, 127, 165, 265

Cultural factors, 62, 212, 214, 218, 225, 248

intelligence tests, 31-32

see also Discrimination;

English-language learners

Current Population Survey, 118, 137, 281

Curriculum, 6, 29, 36, 37, 39, 278

graduation tests, 164, 172-173, 177-179, 181, 288

indicator systems, 8, 36, 281

legal requirements, 25, 38, 51, 64-65, 66

overlap across grades, 114

promotion/retention in grade, 125, 287

standards, 37

students with disabilities, 198

individualized education programs, 33, 188-189, 191-193, 194, 195, 204, 294, 295

tracking, 103-105

validity, general, 3, 64-65, 275, 277-278

voluntary national tests, 65

see also Bilingual education;

Teaching to the test;

Test preparation;

Tracking and placement

Cutscores, 98

accuracy of, 96, 99-100, 124, 166

graduation requirements, 98, 166, 168-170, 289, 290

legal issues, 55(n.6), 60, 64, 252

promotion/retention in grade, 116, 125-127, 128, 287

D

Debra P. v. Turlington, 21, 38, 52, 53, 56, 57, 63-64, 163, 171, 178, 179, 183, 251-252, 277

Deliberative model, 253-255, 299-300

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. High Stakes: Testing for Tracking, Promotion, and Graduation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6336.
×

Department of Education, 65, 67-68, 265, 267, 268, 290

see also National Center for Education Statistics;

terms beginning "National Center…" and "Office of…"

Developmental factors, promotion/retention in grade, 124, 279, 284

see also Age factors;

Learning disabilities;

Retardation

Diana v. Board of Education, 54, 61

Diplomas, see Graduation requirements

Disabilities, see Learning disabilities; Students with disabilities

Discrimination, 1, 2, 9, 16, 17, 21, 23, 25, 26, 45-46, 273

African Americans, 20, 21, 53-54, 56, 57

gender-based, 51, 52

historical perspectives, 20, 32

legal issues, 18, 51-63, 67, 215, 218

disparate impact, 57-62

effects test, 52, 55-57

intelligence tests, 53-55

intentional discrimination, 52-55

segregation/desegregation, 21, 32, 53, 55-57

retention in grade, 131-132

students with disabilities, 191, 201

voluntary national tests, 239, 290

Dropouts, 8

employment, 177

graduation tests, 172, 174-176

indicator systems, 8, 281

retention in grade and, 130, 131, 151, 155-156, 181, 285

students with disabilities, 189

tracking and, 102, 104-105

E

Economic factors, see Cost-effectiveness factors; Funding; Poverty; Socioeconomic status

Educable mentally retarded, 21, 53-55, 91, 93-94

see also Special education

Educating One and All: Students with Disabilities and Standards-Based Reform, 188, 191-201 (passim)

Educational Testing Service, 205, 252

Education Amendments of 1972, 58, 266, 301

Education reform, 13-14, 34, 40

Clinton Administration, v, 13, 14, 41, 42, 114-115, 284-285

curricular, 6, 278

standards-based, general, 13-14, 15, 36, 132, 199, 206, 273, 288-289

students with disabilities, 195

see also Accountability;

Cost-effectiveness factors

Effectiveness of treatment, general, 3, 23, 275

Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965, 15, 18, 25, 35, 40, 63

see also Improving America's Schools Act

Elementary school, 37, 279

English-language learners, 212, 226(n.5)

promotion/retention in grade, 120-121, 126-127, 129, 133, 137-146, 149-153, 285, 286

remediation, 133

tracking, 91, 93, 103-104

see also Kindergarten;

Voluntary-national tests

Elston v. Talladega County Board of Education, 58(n.12)

Emotional problems, 91, 190, 293

Employment factors

diploma holders, 176-177

see also Job qualifications and testing

English-language learners, 3, 4, 7, 16, 24, 25, 40-41, 46, 81, 211-237, 274, 280, 281, 296-298

accountability, 7, 217, 296, 298

accuracy of measurement, general, 7, 66, 214, 226, 229-230, 232, 296

age factors, 212, 216

demographics, 212, 213

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. High Stakes: Testing for Tracking, Promotion, and Graduation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6336.
×

 

exclusion/exemption from assessment, 214, 215-218, 219, 226, 233

funding, 219, 221, 231, 232

graduation tests, 175-176, 219-225, 233, 289, 298

learning disabilities, 213-214

legal issues, 63, 66, 211, 212, 265

discrimination, 50, 51, 54, 61, 62-63, 215, 218

mathematics achievement, 24, 213, 216, 223, 226(n.5), 228, 229

multiple assessment criteria, 216, 218, 298

National Assessment of Educational Progress, 226, 228, 231

oral language proficiency, 217, 222, 224, 226, 229

participation, 24, 204, 212-214, 226-227, 228, 229, 231, 265, 296, 298

performance standards, general, 226, 233

poverty, 211, 212

promotion/retention in grade, 125-126, 219-220, 224-225, 298

psychometrics, general, 219, 225-230, 298

reading achievement, 24, 215, 216, 229, 298

oral reading of/responses to questions, 80, 216, 218

reliability issues, 225, 297

remedial instruction, 213

school districts, 213, 217, 222-224

science achievement, 213, 216

scores and scoring criteria, 214, 217, 223, 226, 296, 297, 298

state actions, 63, 213, 214-224, 229-230, 232, 233

tracking, 4-5, 95, 98, 99, 101, 105-106, 213, 219-220, 224-225, 284, 298

validity issues, 225, 231, 296, 297

construct validity, 80, 225, 297

writing achievement, 215, 216-217, 221, 223, 229, 298

see also Accommodations/adaptations;

Bilingual education

Equal educational opportunity, see Discrimination

Equal Education Opportunities Act of 1974, 63

Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, 59

Error of measurement, 3, 14, 76, 124, 279

English-language learners, 226

standard error, 72-73

students with disabilities, accommodations, 196

see also Accuracy of measurement

Evaluation

see also Attribution of cause;

Fairness;

Program evaluation;

Reliability

Evaluation for the Voluntary National Tests: Phase 1, v, 18

Exclusion from assessment

English-language learners, 214, 215-218, 219, 226, 233

indicator systems, 8, 281

students with disabilities, 193, 195, 204

Expectations, see Attitudes

Expert judgment, 60, 74, 168, 206, 213-214, 254, 256-257, 259, 289, 297

IQ testing, 54

students with disabilities, 192

tracking, 99

F

Fairness, 1, 14, 15, 17, 25, 31, 39, 71, 74, 78-82, 191-192, 276

administration procedures, general, 78-79, 80-81

defined, 39, 72

Department of Education standards, 67-68

English-language learners, 226

graduation tests, 177-178

legal issues, 64, 265

promotion/retention in grade, 82, 134-135

students with disabilities,

accommodations, 80, 191-192, 200

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. High Stakes: Testing for Tracking, Promotion, and Graduation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6336.
×

 

tracking, 82, 100-101

see also Discrimination

Family Education Rights and Privacy Act of 1974, 18, 251

Federal government, 8

see also Clinton Administration;

Funding;

Department of Education;

Legislation;

Voluntary national tests

Foreign countries, see International perspectives

Foreign-language speakers, see Bilingual education; English-language learners; Translation of tests

Fourteenth Amendment, see Constitutional law

Funding, 263-264, 266-267, 301

disadvantaged populations, 15, 18(n.2), 33, 211, 264

discrimination and, 57-58

English-language learners, 219, 221, 231, 232

graduation tests, preparation, 183

minimum competency testing and, 15

state funding,

individual schools, 15, 35

remediation programs, 133

students with disabilities, 190, 204

see also Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965

G

Gender factors, 81

discrimination, 51, 52

graduation tests/diplomas, 81, 176-177, 289

legal issues, 51, 52, 59(n.15), 60

promotion/retention in grade, 5, 118, 119, 122, 125, 130, 134, 137, 148, 150, 154-155, 156, 157, 281

tracking, 95, 98, 99, 100-101, 281

Georgia State Conference of Branches of NAACP v. Georgia, 57, 58(n.12), 62

Gifted and talented students, 4, 91, 93, 97, 106, 219, 280, 282, 283

Goals 2000: Educate America Act, 18, 188, 196, 205-206, 211, 232, 292, 296

Government, see Federal government; Political factors; State government

Grade-level factors, achievement variations, 114

see also Elementary school;

Kindergarten;

Promotion/retention in grade;

Secondary school

Grade retention, see Promotion/retention in grade

Grades, teacher-assigned, 6, 37, 279, 295

grade point average, 33

graduation requirements, 180, 181-182

promotion/retention in grade, 124

tracking, 100

Graduation requirements, 1, 2, 4, 14, 16, 22, 25, 37, 163-187, 273, 287-290

accountability, 165, 182

accuracy of measurement, general, 163, 166, 276, 287

adequate notice of testing, 51, 63-64, 163, 289

administration procedures,

adequate notice of testing, 51, 63-64, 163, 289

retaking of tests, 165, 178, 180, 181, 182, 220, 243, 289, 292

African Americans, 175-176

attendance records, 164, 174, 279, 288

attitudes, 181, 288

content coverage, 167-168, 169, 177-179

curriculum and, 164, 172-173, 177-179, 181, 288

cutscores, 98, 166, 168-170, 289, 290

diploma denial, alternative/complementary strategies, 179-183

remediation, 169, 171, 177, 180, 182-183, 289

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. High Stakes: Testing for Tracking, Promotion, and Graduation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6336.
×

 

dropping out and, 172, 174-176

employment opportunities and, 58, 59(n.15), 61, 76, 82(n.1), 163, 176-177, 180, 194, 222, 251, 288, 289

English-language learners, 175-176, 219-225, 233, 289, 298

exit exams, 39, 45, 63, 165, 194

fairness, general, 177-178

gender factors, 81, 176-177, 289

grades, teacher assigned, 180, 181-182

Hispanics, 175-176

impacts of, 172-177

instructional factors, 164, 172-173, 178-179, 181

legal issues, 163, 288

discrimination, 18, 25, 38, 50-56 (passim), 63, 64

litigation, 38, 52, 53, 56, 63, 163, 171, 178

multiple assessment criteria, 165-166, 179, 180, 279, 288, 290

National Assessment of Educational Progress, 182, 289

poverty, 174, 176, 281, 289

predictive validity, 170-171

professional/public interest groups, opinions, 45

psychometrics, general, 166, 168, 169, 219, 288, 289

racial/ethnic factors, 20, 56, 167, 175-176, 289

remedial instruction, 169, 171, 177, 180, 182-183, 289

scoring and scoring criteria, 166, 177-178, 288, 290

special/differentiated diplomas, 37, 170, 180-181, 194, 289, 290, 295

advanced diplomas, 180, 181, 182

state government role, 37, 38, 39, 163-165, 167, 170, 178, 179, 180-181, 288, 289

end-of-course exams, 181-182, 289, 290

English-language learners, 219-224, 233

students with disabilities, 194, 198, 289

test administration procedures, retaking of tests, 165, 178, 180, 181, 182, 220, 243, 289, 292

test preparation, 169, 171, 177-178, 182-183, 289, 290

adequate notice of testing, 51, 63-64, 163, 289

remedial instruction, 169, 171, 177, 180, 182-183, 289

validity issues, 167-171, 172, 177-178

construct validity, 168, 177

voluntary national tests, 7-8, 25, 239, 243, 290, 291-292

writing achievement, 165, 167, 170,

Groves v. Alabama State Board of Education, 38(n.12/n.13), 60

H

High school, see Graduation requirements; Secondary school

Hispanics, 46, 54, 95, 106, 212, 218, 227

dropouts, employment of, 177

exemption from testing, 215-218

graduation tests, 175-176

promotion/retention in grade, 119, 122, 148, 155-156, 157, 225

Historical perspectives, 25, 36

discrimination litigation, 52-62

graduation tests, 163

intelligence testing, 31-32

kindergarten retention, 118-119

litigation, 17-18

retention in grade, 117-122, 136, 138-158, 286

standardized test use, general, 15, 19, 20-21, 29, 31-33

tracking, 15, 91-93

Hobson v. Hansen, 53

Homogeneous grouping, 90-91

see also Tracking and placement

I

IDEA, see Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 1997

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. High Stakes: Testing for Tracking, Promotion, and Graduation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6336.
×

IEP, see Individualized education programs

Improving America's Schools Act, 51, 62-63, 65-66, 188, 196, 211, 219, 264-267, 292, 296

Improving Schooling for Language-Minority Children, 212-213, 220-221, 220-221, 226, 230

Indicator systems

components of, 8, 36, 281

students with disabilities, 190

Individualized education programs, 33, 188-189, 191-193, 194, 195, 204, 294, 295

Individualized instruction, see Tutors and tutoring

Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 1997, 18, 33, 40, 188-190, 191-192, 196, 198, 251, 262, 292, 293

Instructional factors, 6, 29-30, 36, 40

English-language learners, 220, 297

graduation tests and, 164, 172-173, 178-179, 181

indicator systems, 8, 281

legal requirements, 64-65, 66

poor teaching, 5

students with disabilities, 198

tracking, 103, 105

validity and, 3, 64-65, 77, 277

Intelligence tests, 21, 31-32

discrimination litigation, 53-55

kindergarten, 119

promotion/retention in grade, 119, 129

tracking, 53-55, 93-94, 97

International perspectives, 238

differentiated diplomas, 180-181

Second International Mathematics Study, 92-93

Third International Mathematics and Science Study, 7, 18, 174, 241, 290, 291

tracking, 92-93, 282

Iowa Test of Basic Skills, 30-31, 132, 261

IQ testing, see Intelligence tests

Item response theory (IRT), 202-203

J

Job qualifications and testing, 58, 59(n.15), 61, 76, 82(n.1), 163, 176-177, 180, 194, 222, 251, 288, 289

teacher certification, 59(n.15), 60

Joint Committee on Testing Practices, 206

Joint Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing see Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing

K

Kindergarten, 95, 117, 131-132, 133, 137, 285

extended, 114, 118-120, 122, 137, 146-149

L

Labeling model, 257-263, 300

Language factors, see Bilingual education; English-language learners

Larry P. v. Riles, 21, 53-54, 55, 58, 59, 60, 61-62, 252, 299

Lau v. Nichols, 62, 211

Law, see Legal issues; Legislation

Learning disabilities, 91, 190, 293

English-language learners with, 213-214

legal issues, 188

see also Educable mentally retarded

Legal issues, general, 4, 8, 17-18, 25, 50-70, 248, 251-252

accommodations

English-language learners, 63, 211

students with disabilities, 55(n.6), 190-193 (passim), 198-199

accountability, 18, 65, 189, 192, 193, 198, 200

attribution of cause, 51, 61

content coverage, 60(n.17), 66

curriculum, 25, 38, 51, 64-65, 66

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. High Stakes: Testing for Tracking, Promotion, and Graduation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6336.
×

 

cutscores, 55(n.6), 60, 64, 252

discrimination, 18, 51-63, 67, 215, 218

disparate impact, 57-62

effects test, 52, 55-57

intentional discrimination, 52-55

segregation/desegregation, 21, 32, 53, 55-57

English-language learners, 63, 66, 211, 212, 265, 296

discrimination, 50, 51, 54, 61, 62-63, 215, 218

fairness, general, 64, 265

gender factors, 51, 52, 59(n.15), 60

graduation requirements, 163, 288

discrimination, 18, 25, 38, 50-56 (passim), 63, 64

instructional factors, 64-65, 66

learning disabilities, 188

multiple assessment criteria, 61

promotion/retention in grade, 50-51, 52, 55, 198

psychometrics, 51, 59, 67

reliability, 55(n.6)

remedial instruction, 53, 55, 57

reporting, 55(n.6), 189

scaling, 55(n.6)

scoring, 18, 55(n.6)

special education, 18, 50, 55, 190, 191-192, 193

students with disabilities, 18, 33, 40, 58(n.10), 188-195 (passim), 198, 201, 292

individualized education programs, 33, 188-189, 191-193

tracking, 50-57 (passim), 198

validity of tests, 6, 55(n.6), 60, 63, 64-65, 67

see also Administrative law;

Constitutional law;

specific court cases

Legislation

Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, 18, 188, 191, 196, 198

Civil Rights Act of 1964, 58, 211, 265, 266, 267, 301

Education Amendments of 1972, 58, 266, 301

Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965, 15, 18, 25, 35, 40, 63

Equal Education Opportunities Act of 1974, 63

Family Education Rights and Privacy Act of 1974, 18, 251

Goals 2000: Educate America Act, 18, 188, 196, 205-206, 211, 232, 292, 296

Improving America's Schools Act, 51, 62-63, 65-66, 188, 196, 211, 219, 264-267, 292, 296

Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 1997, 18, 33, 40, 188-190, 191-192, 196, 198, 251, 262, 292, 293

Rehabilitation Act of 1973, 18, 58(n.10), 188, 191, 196

study at hand, mandate, xv, 1-2, 22-24

Literacy, see English-language learners; Reading achievement; Writing achievement

Local education authorities, see School districts

Low-income factors, see Poverty

M

Mass media, 19-20, 31, 33, 261, 262

Mathematics achievement, 1-2, 24, 38, 273

accuracy of measurement, 2, 16, 24, 273, 274

English-language learners, 24, 213, 216, 223, 226(n.5), 228, 229

minimum competency testing, 38, 126-127, 179

Second International Mathematics Study, 92-93

students with disabilities, 24, 197-198

Third International Mathematics and Science Study, 7, 18, 174, 241, 290, 291

tracking, 92-93, 97, 98, 100

voluntary national tests, v, 8, 14, 16, 41, 238-243, 291

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. High Stakes: Testing for Tracking, Promotion, and Graduation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6336.
×

McNeal v. Tate County School District, 57

Mental Measurement Yearbooks, 17

Mexican American Legal Defense and Educational Fund, 46

Military testing, 19, 20

Minimum competency testing, see Competency testing

Minorities, see English-language learners; Race/ethnicity; specific groups

Motivation, see Attitudes

Multiple assessment criteria, 6, 8, 24, 37, 179, 261

construct validity and, 74

English-language learners, 216, 218, 298

graduation requirements, 165-166, 179, 180, 279, 288, 290

legal issues, 61

portfolios, 24, 216, 218, 265-266, 274

promotion/retention in grade, 6, 24, 37, 124, 135, 279, 284-285, 286

scoring and, general, 6, 97-98

students with disabilities, 192, 295

see also Individualized education programs

tracking, 93, 94, 97-98, 100, 279, 284

see also Attendance requirements and records;

Grades, teacher-assigned;

Student portfolios

Multiple-choice items, 24, 36, 81, 94, 163, 165, 169-170, 265, 274

N

NAEP, see National Assessment of Educational Progress

National Academy of Education, 204, 232

National Academy of Sciences, 205

National Assessment of Educational Progress, 7, 15, 19, 34, 99, 126

English-language learners, 226, 228, 231

graduation exams requirements, 182, 289

students with disabilities, 200, 204, 206

voluntary national tests and, 239-243 (passim), 290, 291

National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, 45, 57, 58(n.12), 62

National Center for Education Statistics

English-language learners, 226, 231

students with disabilities, 200, 204

National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards and Students Testing, 205, 228, 233, 263

National Commission on Testing and Public Policy, 251, 256, 263

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 179

National Council on Measurement in Education, see Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing

National Educational Goals Panel, 94-95, 119

National Education Longitudinal Study; 130, 174

National Research Council, 205-206, 233

New York Urban League, Inc. v. New York, 58, 59

Non-native English speakers, see English-language learners

Norm-referenced testing, 30, 51, 62, 94, 165(n.3), 216-217, 225, 249, 264, 297

North Carolina, 39, 171

O

Office of Technology Assessment, 17, 250

Open-response items, see Constructed-response items

P

Parents, 23, 274

accountability, 5

adequate notice of testing, 63-64

English-language learners, parents of, 232

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. High Stakes: Testing for Tracking, Promotion, and Graduation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6336.
×

 

labeling approach to test use, 262

school record inspection, 18

students with disabilities, 189, 195

tracking, 92, 283

Parents in Action on Special Education (PASE) v. Hannon, 55, 299

Parent-Teachers Association, 45

Pedagogy, see Instructional factors

People Who Care v. Rockford Board of Education, 21, 53

Performance standards, 1, 36, 40, 46, 265, 291

conjunctive vs compensatory models, 165-166

English-language learners, 226, 233

legal issues, non-legislative, 51

legislation, 18(n.2)

reliability and, 72-73

students with disabilities, 189-190, 201-202, 203, 292-293

validity and, 73, 76

see also Cutscores;

Voluntary national tests

Personnel Administrator v. Feeney, 52-53

Placement, see Tracking and placement

Political factors, v, 1, 15, 24-25, 30, 33, 39-47, 170, 248, 285, 298

deliberative forums, 253-255, 299-300

independent oversight bodies, 256-257

validity issues, 30-31, 35, 39

see also Accountability;

Clinton Administration;

Education reform

Portfolios, see Student portfolios

Poverty, 4, 280

English-language learners, 211, 212

funding for disadvantaged populations, 15, 18(n.2), 33, 211, 264

graduation requirements, 174, 176, 281, 289

public opinion, 43

retention in grade and, 119, 130, 131, 280, 281

tracking, 92, 95, 98, 100, 103, 105-106, 283

voluntary national testing, 41

Predictive validity, 75, 77-78, 79, 82

defined, 82(n.1)

graduation tests, 170-171

item response theory, 202

promotion/retention in grade, 123, 127

students with disabilities, accommodations, 200, 201

tracking, 97-98, 101-102, 240, 283-284

voluntary national tests, 240, 291

Program evaluation, 15, 35, 40

Promotion/retention in grade, 1, 2, 4, 6, 14, 16, 22, 25, 26, 37, 42, 114-162, 273, 278, 284-287, 298

accountability, 115, 127, 132

accuracy issues, 116, 119, 124, 276

African Americans, 119, 122, 137, 148, 155-156, 157, 281

age factors, retention, 5, 120-122, 133, 136, 137, 147-158, 281, 286

alternatives to retention, 132-133, 285, 287

see also Social promotion

remedial education and, 6, 115, 116, 132-133, 285, 287

attendance records, 115, 116, 124, 130, 284

attitudes, 125, 284, 285

construct validity issues, 124

content coverage, 124-125

curriculum and, 125, 287

cutscores, 116, 125-127, 128, 287

developmental factors, 124, 279, 284

discrimination, 131-132

dropping out, retention and, 130, 131, 151, 155-156, 181, 285

elementary school, 120-121, 126-127, 129, 133, 137-146, 149-153, 285, 286

English-language learners, 125-126, 219-220, 224-225, 298

fairness issues, 82, 134-135

gender factors, 5, 118, 119, 122, 125, 130, 134, 137, 148, 150, 154-155, 156, 157, 281

Hispanics, 119, 122, 148, 155-156, 157, 225

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. High Stakes: Testing for Tracking, Promotion, and Graduation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6336.
×

 

historical perspectives, 117-122, 136, 138-158, 286

impacts on student, 3, 128-132, 285

indicator systems, 8, 281

intelligence tests, 119, 129

kindergarten, 95, 117, 131-132, 133, 137, 285

extended, 114, 118-120, 122, 137, 146-149

legal issues, 50-51, 52, 55, 198

multiple assessment criteria, 6, 24, 37, 124, 135, 279, 284-285, 286

predictive validity, 123, 127

professional/public interest groups, opinions, 45

psychometrics, general, 123, 286, 287

public opinion, 43

racial/ethnic factors, 118, 119, 122, 125, 130, 131-132, 134, 137, 150, 154, 155-157, 281

reading achievement, 125, 126-127

remedial instruction, 6, 115, 116, 132-133, 285, 287

retaking of tests, 127(n.11), 132, 133, 135, 287, 291

scoring issues, 123, 124, 125, 129, 286, 287

secondary school, 120-121, 129, 130, 137-146, 149-152, 153, 286

socioeconomic status, 130

poverty, 119, 130, 131, 280, 281

standardized tests, general, 116, 123-124, 127-128

state government role, 115-116, 123, 126, 133, 136, 284

students with disabilities, 125, 126, 193, 198

teacher recommendations, 6, 284

trends in retention, 117-122, 136, 138-146

validity issues, 123-124, 134-135, 286

voluntary national tests, 7-8, 25, 239, 241-243, 290, 291, 292

writing achievement, 115, 124

see also Graduation requirements;

Social promotion

Psychometrics, general, 4, 25, 71, 73, 77, 78

English-language learners, 219, 225-230, 298

graduation tests, 166, 168, 169, 219, 288, 289

legal issues, 51, 59, 67

promotion/retention in grade, 123, 286, 287

students with disabilities, accommodations, 196-202, 205

tracking, 95-101, 283-284

see also Fairness;

Item response theory;

Reliability;

Validity

Public opinion, 1, 14, 17, 19, 23, 24, 25, 30, 43-45

mass media, 19-20, 31, 33, 261, 262

R

Race/ethnicity, 4, 14, 16, 20, 276, 280

athletes, 20

dropouts, employment of, 177

graduation tests, 20, 56, 167, 175-176, 289

promotion/retention in grade, 118, 119, 122, 125, 130, 131-132, 134, 137, 150, 154, 155-157, 281

tracking, 21, 93-94, 95, 98, 99, 100-101, 103, 105-106, 281, 283

voluntary national testing, 41

see also Cultural factors;

Discrimination;

English-language learners;

specific groups

Readiness, see Graduation requirements; Promotion/retention in grade

Reading achievement, 1-2, 24, 273, 274

accuracy in testing, 2, 16, 24, 273, 274

English-language learners, 24, 215, 216, 229, 298

oral reading of/responses to questions, 80, 216, 218

minimum competency testing, 38, 42-43, 126-127

promotion/retention in grade, 125, 126-127

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. High Stakes: Testing for Tracking, Promotion, and Graduation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6336.
×

 

students with disabilities, 24, 198

voluntary national tests, v, 7, 14, 16, 41, 238-243, 291

Reform, see Education reform

Regulation, see Administrative law; Legislation

Rehabilitation Act of 1973, 18, 58(n.10), 188, 191, 196

Reliability, 3, 25, 39, 72-73, 80

construct validity and, 74, 75

definitional issues, 39, 71, 72

English-language learners, 225, 297

item response theory, 203

legal issues, 55(n.6)

students with disabilities, 201-202, 203

voluntary national testing, 15, 23

Remedial instruction, 3, 22-23, 133, 279, 285

cost factors, 45

English-language learners, 213

graduation tests, 169, 171, 177, 180, 182-183, 289

legal issues, 53, 55, 57

promotion/retention in grade and, 6, 115, 116, 132-133, 285, 287

summer school, 42, 115, 116, 124, 127(n.11), 132, 133(n.18), 221, 285, 289

test preparation and, 169, 171, 177, 180, 182-183, 289

teaching to the test vs, 7

tracking and, 92, 97, 104-105, 282

tutors and tutoring, 120, 132, 285

see also Special education

Repetition of grade, see Promotion/retention in grade Social promotion

Reporting, 257-263

graduation tests, 167

legal issues, 55(n.6), 189

mass media, 19-20

public, 5, 19

students with disabilities, 189, 195, 201

Retaking of tests

graduation tests, 165, 178, 180, 181, 182, 220, 243, 289, 292

promotion/retention in grade, 127(n.11), 132, 133, 135, 288, 291

Retardation, 190, 293

see also Educable mentally retarded;

Special education

Retention in grade, see Promotion/retention in grade

S

Scholastic Assessment Test (SAT), 19-20, 33, 60, 182, 215, 216, 240

School-based factors

accountability, 2, 5, 15, 16, 29-31, 35, 40, 274, 278

litigation, 21

accreditation, 15

labeling approach to test use, 262

segregation/desegregation, 21, 32, 53, 55-57

School districts

accountability, 2, 5, 35, 274, 278

English-language learners, 217

students with disabilities, 189

discrimination, 64

English-language learners, 213, 217, 222-224

grades, teacher-assigned, 37

graduation tests, 179

multiple measures, 37

promotion/retention in grade, 37

voluntary national testing, 41

Science achievement, 179

English-language learners, 213, 216

Third International Mathematics and Science Study, 7, 18, 174, 241, 290, 291

Scoring and scoring criteria, 3, 14, 74, 259, 262, 278

construct validity, 74-77 (passim), 80

English-language learners, 214, 217, 223, 226, 296, 297, 298

fairness, 79, 81-82, 275-276

legal issues, 18, 55(n.6)

flagging, 201

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. High Stakes: Testing for Tracking, Promotion, and Graduation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6336.
×

 

graduation tests, 166, 177-178, 288, 290

item response theory, 202

multiple criteria and, 6, 97-98

promotion/retention in grade, 123, 124, 125, 129, 286, 287

students with disabilities, accommodations, 197, 199, 200, 201, 202, 206, 293, 295

tracking, 93, 94, 96, 97-98, 123, 239-240, 282, 283

voluntary national tests, 238, 239-243, 290-292

see also Cutscores;

Fairness;

Reliability;

Validity

Secondary school

exit exams, 39, 45, 63, 165, 180-181, 194

retention in grade, 120-121, 129, 130, 137-146, 149-152, 153, 286

tracking, 91-93, 104, 134

see also Dropouts;

Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965;

Graduation requirements

Second International Mathematics Study, 92-93

Second-language speakers, see English-language learners

Segregation/desegregation, 21, 32, 53, 55-57

Sex-based influences, see Gender factors

Shariff v. New York State Education Department, 59, 60

Simmons on Behalf of Simmons v. Hooks, 57

Social factors, see Cultural factors; Race/ethnicity

Social promotion, 6, 14, 22, 26, 41-43, 114-117, 122, 126-127, 133, 136-137, 278, 285, 286

Socioeconomic status, 14

retention in grade, 130

tracking, 92, 95, 98, 100, 103, 105-106, 283

see also Poverty

Spanish-speaking students, see Hispanics

Special education

indicator systems, 8, 281

individualized education programs, 33, 188-189, 191-193

legal issues, 18, 55, 190, 191-192, 193, 194, 195, 204, 294, 295

participation, 190-191, 193-195, 205, 293

social promotion and age-grade retardation, 136

special diplomas, 194, 295

tracking, 93-94, 97, 282

Speech impairments, 190, 293

Standardized tests, general, 8, 14, 17, 25-26

historical perspectives, 15, 19, 20-21, 29, 31-33

kindergarten, 119

professionally codified standards, 8, 17, 25, 60, 78, 82-83, 123-124, 179, 199, 247-250, 252, 262, 266, 268, 298, 299

promotion/retention in grade, 116, 123-124, 127-128

state programs, 15

students with disabilities, accommodations, 196-197

tracking, 93-95

see also Intelligence tests;

Psychometrics;

Voluntary national tests;

specific tests

Standards, general, 1, 13-14, 17, 71

education reform, standards-based, 13-14, 15, 36, 132, 199, 206, 273, 288-289

federal vs state, 15

policy strategies and, 29-30

student with disability, qualification as, 190-191, 199

see also Accountability;

Accuracy of measurement;

Fairness;

Performance standards;

Reliability;

Validity

Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing, 8, 17, 78, 82, 199, 249-250, 252, 262, 266, 268

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. High Stakes: Testing for Tracking, Promotion, and Graduation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6336.
×

State government, 36, 40, 251, 264-265

discrimination, state law, 50, 57-58, 60, 61, 64

English-language learners, 63, 213, 214-224, 229-230, 232, 233

funding, 15, 35, 133

graduation requirements, 37, 38, 39, 163-165, 167, 170, 178, 179, 180-181, 288, 289

end-of-course exams, 181-182, 289, 290

English-language learners, 219-224, 233

students with disabilities, 194

Improving America's Schools Act, 65-66

labeling approach to test use, 262

large-scale achievement tests, 1

minimum competency testing, history, 15, 38-39, 42-43, 57, 163-164

promotion/retention in grade, 115-116, 123, 126, 133, 136, 284

students with disabilities, 33, 189, 193, 194, 195-196, 197, 204, 205, 293

university admission requirements, 33

voluntary national testing, 41

State-level factors and trends, 20

graduation tests, dropouts, 174

retention in grade, 117, 136-137, 138-146

public opinion, 44

Student portfolios, 24, 216, 218, 265, 266, 274

Students with disabilities, 3, 7, 16, 24, 25, 40-41, 188-210, 274, 281, 292-295

accountability, 7, 118, 189, 192, 193, 198, 292

accuracy issues, 7, 193, 198, 201

categories of, 195, 293

curriculum, 198

individualized education programs, 33, 188-189, 191-193, 194, 195, 204, 294, 295

discrimination against, 191, 201

dropouts, 189

eligibility, 190-191, 281, 293

exclusion from assessment, 193, 195, 204

funding, 190, 204

item response theory, 202-203

legal issues, 18, 33, 40, 58(n.10), 66, 188-195 (passim), 198, 201, 265, 292

individualized education programs, 33, 188-189, 191-193

legislation, Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, 18, 188, 191, 196, 198

Goals 2000, 188, 196, 205, 292

Improving America's Schools Act, 188, 292

Individuals with Disabilities Act of 1997, 18, 33, 40, 188-190, 191-192, 196, 198, 251, 262, 292, 293

Rehabilitation Act of 1973, 18, 58(n.10), 188, 191, 196

mathematics tests, 24, 197-198

National Assessment of Educational Progress, 200, 204, 206

parents, 189, 195

participation rates, 24, 190-191, 193, 195, 204-206, 265, 292-294

performance standards, 189-190, 201 202, 203, 292-293

promotion/retention in grade, 125, 126, 193, 198

reading tests, 24, 198

reliability of tests, 201-202, 203

reporting requirements, 189, 195, 201

tracking, 98, 198

validity issues, accommodations, 192, 196, 199-200, 201, 202-203, 205, 206, 293, 294, 295

writing achievement, 197, 198

see also Accommodations/adaptations;

Learning disabilities

Students with limited English proficiency, see English-language learners

Summer school, 42, 115, 116, 124, 127(n.11), 132, 133(n.18), 221, 285, 289

Supreme Court, see Constitutional law

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. High Stakes: Testing for Tracking, Promotion, and Graduation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6336.
×

T

Talented students, see Gifted and talented students

Teacher education

graduation tests and, 173

students with disabilities, 190

Teachers

accountability, 1, 2, 5, 15, 16

administration/scoring of tests, fairness issues, 81, 280

attitudes, 5, 14, 103, 284, 287

certification testing, 59(n.15), 60

graduation tests and, 181

promotion/retention decisions, 6, 284

students with disabilities, 189, 192, 195, 199-200

use of tests, general, 33

Teaching methods, see Instructional factors

Teaching to the test, 6-7, 38, 65, 73, 132, 280

Test administration procedures, see Administration procedures, testing

Test preparation, 7, 132, 280

fairness, 79

graduation tests, 169, 171, 177-178, 182-183, 289, 290

adequate notice of testing, 51, 63-64, 163, 289

remedial instruction, 169, 171, 177, 180, 182-183, 289

litigation, 21

tracking, 100-101

validity and, 73

voluntary national tests, 239

see also Curriculum;

Remedial instruction;

Teaching to the test

Texas Assessment of Academic Skills, 46, 115, 171, 217, 221

Third International Mathematics and Science Study, 7, 18, 174, 241, 290, 291

Time factors

English-language learners, 215, 218

graduation tests, adequate notice of testing, 51, 63-64, 163, 289

litigation, duration of, 8, 252, 299

new test introduction and use, gap, 6, 164

test length and time, 24, 195, 199, 203, 206, 216, 218, 219, 293

voluntary national tests, 15, 65

TIMSS, see Third International Mathematics and Science Study

Tracking and placement, 2, 14, 16, 22, 25, 31, 33, 82, 89-113, 114, 123, 282-284

accuracy issues, 97, 99-100, 101, 276

advanced placement, 95, 98, 99, 100, 106, 126, 219, 225, 240, 289, 291

gifted and talented students, 4, 91, 93, 97, 106, 219, 280, 282, 283

African Americans, 100, 105-106

age factors, 98

curriculum and, 103-105

definitional issues, 1, 89-91, 101, 282

demographic factors, 4-5

dropping out and, 102, 104-105

elementary school, 91, 93, 103-104

English-language learners, 4-5, 95, 98, 99, 101, 105-106, 213, 219-220, 224-225, 284, 298

fairness issues, 82, 100-101

gender factors, 95, 98, 99, 100-101, 281

grades, teacher-assigned, 100

graduation tests, 171

historical perspective on, 15, 91-93

instructional factors, 103, 105

intelligence tests, 53-55, 93-94, 97

international comparisons, 92-93, 282

knowledge access issues, 103-105

legal issues, 50-57 (passim), 198

low-tracking,

English-language learners, 213

impacts of, 5, 101-105, 276, 281, 282

see also Educable mentally retarded

mathematics achievement, 92-93, 97, 98, 100

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. High Stakes: Testing for Tracking, Promotion, and Graduation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6336.
×

 

multiple criteria for, 93, 94, 97-98, 100, 279, 284

nature and extent, 91-93

parents, 92, 283

predictive validity, 97-98, 101-102, 240, 283-284

psychometrics, 95-101, 283-284

racial/ethnic factors, 21, 93-94, 95, 98, 99, 100-101, 103, 105-106, 281, 283

remedial education and, 92, 97, 104-105, 282

scoring issues, 93, 94, 96, 97-98, 123, 239-240, 282, 283

cutscores, 99-100, 284

secondary school, 91-93, 104, 134

socioeconomic factors, 4-5, 92, 95, 98, 100, 103, 105-106, 283

poverty, 92, 95, 98, 100, 103, 105-106, 283

special education, 93-94, 97, 282

students with disabilities, 98, 198

test preparation/administration procedures, 100-101

validity issues, 96-101, 123, 283

voluntary national tests, 7-8, 25, 239-241, 290, 291, 292

Translation of tests, 216, 218, 219, 221, 222-223, 226, 227, 229-230, 297

Tutors and tutoring, 120, 132, 285

U

Uncommon Measures: Equivalence and Linkage Among Educational Tests, v, 18

United States v. Fordice, 52, 61

V

Validity, 7, 17, 25, 73-78, 261, 275

curriculum, 3, 64-65, 275, 277-278

defined, 2, 3, 23, 39, 71-72, 275

English-language learners, 225, 231, 296, 297

graduation tests, 167-171, 172, 177-178

instructional factors, 3, 64-65, 77, 277

legal requirements, 6, 55(n.6), 60, 63, 64-65, 67

performance standards, general, 73, 76

political factors, 30-31, 35, 39

preparation for testing and, 73

promotion/retention in grade, 123-124, 134-135, 286

students with disabilities, accommodations, 192, 196, 199-200, 201, 202-203, 205, 206, 293, 294, 295

tracking, 96-101, 123, 283

voluntary national tests, release of items, 15

see also Construct validity;

Cutscores;

Predictive validity;

Teaching to the test

Village of Arlington Heights v. Metropolitan Housing Development Corp., 53

Voluntary national tests, 5, 7-8, 13-15, 41, 65, 238-244, 273, 276, 290-292

Clinton Administration, v, 13-14, 41, 42, 114-115, 284-285

discrimination, 239, 290

mathematics achievement, v, 8, 14, 16, 41, 238-243, 291

National Assessment of Educational Progress and, 239-243 (passim), 290, 291

poverty, 41

predictive validity, 240, 291

promotion/retention in grade, 7-8, 25, 239, 241-243, 290, 291, 292

purpose of, 7-8, 65, 238, 290

racial/ethnic factors, 41

reading achievement, v, 7, 14, 16, 41, 238-243, 291

reliability issues, 15, 23

scoring issues, 238, 239-243, 290-292

test administration procedures, 238, 239

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. High Stakes: Testing for Tracking, Promotion, and Graduation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6336.
×

W

Washington v. Davis, 52

White students, 59(n.15)

dropouts, employment of, 177

graduation tests, 176

minimum competency testing, 56

retention in grade, 119, 122, 130, 148, 155, 156, 157, 281

tracking, 21, 95, 100, 105-106, 281

Writing achievement, 36, 75, 76, 81, 265, 266

English-language learners, 215, 216-217, 221, 223, 229, 298

graduation requirements, 165, 167, 170,

promotion/retention in grade, 115, 124

students with disabilities, 197, 198

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. High Stakes: Testing for Tracking, Promotion, and Graduation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6336.
×
Page 313
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. High Stakes: Testing for Tracking, Promotion, and Graduation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6336.
×
Page 314
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. High Stakes: Testing for Tracking, Promotion, and Graduation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6336.
×
Page 315
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. High Stakes: Testing for Tracking, Promotion, and Graduation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6336.
×
Page 316
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. High Stakes: Testing for Tracking, Promotion, and Graduation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6336.
×
Page 317
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. High Stakes: Testing for Tracking, Promotion, and Graduation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6336.
×
Page 318
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. High Stakes: Testing for Tracking, Promotion, and Graduation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6336.
×
Page 319
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. High Stakes: Testing for Tracking, Promotion, and Graduation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6336.
×
Page 320
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. High Stakes: Testing for Tracking, Promotion, and Graduation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6336.
×
Page 321
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. High Stakes: Testing for Tracking, Promotion, and Graduation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6336.
×
Page 322
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. High Stakes: Testing for Tracking, Promotion, and Graduation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6336.
×
Page 323
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. High Stakes: Testing for Tracking, Promotion, and Graduation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6336.
×
Page 324
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. High Stakes: Testing for Tracking, Promotion, and Graduation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6336.
×
Page 325
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. High Stakes: Testing for Tracking, Promotion, and Graduation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6336.
×
Page 326
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. High Stakes: Testing for Tracking, Promotion, and Graduation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6336.
×
Page 327
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. High Stakes: Testing for Tracking, Promotion, and Graduation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6336.
×
Page 328
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. High Stakes: Testing for Tracking, Promotion, and Graduation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6336.
×
Page 329
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. High Stakes: Testing for Tracking, Promotion, and Graduation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6336.
×
Page 330
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1999. High Stakes: Testing for Tracking, Promotion, and Graduation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6336.
×
Page 331
High Stakes: Testing for Tracking, Promotion, and Graduation Get This Book
×
Buy Paperback | $52.95 Buy Ebook | $42.99
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

Everyone is in favor of "high education standards" and "fair testing" of student achievement, but there is little agreement as to what these terms actually mean. High Stakes looks at how testing affects critical decisions for American students. As more and more tests are introduced into the country's schools, it becomes increasingly important to know how those tests are used--and misused--in assessing children's performance and achievements.

High Stakes focuses on how testing is used in schools to make decisions about tracking and placement, promotion and retention, and awarding or withholding high school diplomas. This book sorts out the controversies that emerge when a test score can open or close gates on a student's educational pathway. The expert panel:

Proposes how to judge the appropriateness of a test. Explores how to make tests reliable, valid, and fair. Puts forward strategies and practices to promote proper test use. Recommends how decisionmakers in education should--and should not--use test results. The book discusses common misuses of testing, their political and social context, what happens when test issues are taken to court, special student populations, social promotion, and more.

High Stakes will be of interest to anyone concerned about the long-term implications for individual students of picking up that Number 2 pencil: policymakers, education administrators, test designers, teachers, and parents.

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    Switch between the Original Pages, where you can read the report as it appeared in print, and Text Pages for the web version, where you can highlight and search the text.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  9. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!