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National Survey Data on Food Consumption Uses and Recommendations Coordinating Committee on Evaluation of Food Consumption Surveys Food and Nu tr i t ion Boar d Commiss ion on Life Sciences National Research Counci 1 National Academy Press Wash ington, D. C . 1984
NOTICE : The project that is the sub ject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine . The National Research Council was es tablished by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and of advising the federal government. The Council operates in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy under the authority of its congressional charter of 1963, which establishes the Academy as a private, nonprofit, self- governing membership corporation. The Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in the conduct of their services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. It is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Engineering and the Institute of Medicine were established in 1964 and 1970, respectively, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences . The study summarized in this report was supported by the United States Department of Agriculture, Human Nutrition Information Service Grant No. 59-3198-2-52, modified by an interagency agreement dated April 18, 1983 to include additional support by the National Center for Health Statistics, Department of Health and Human Services. Copies available from: National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 Printed in the United States of America
COORD INAT ING COMMITTEE ON EVALUAT ION OF FOOD CONSUMPT ION SURVEYS Jean-Pierre bight, Divis ion of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, Chairman George H. Beaton, Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Vice-Chairm Per Pinstrup-Anderson, Food Consumption and Nutrition Policy Research, International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, D.C. Owen R. Fennema, Department of Food Science, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin L. J. Filer, Jr., University of Iowa, College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa Peter Greenwald, Division of Cancer Prevention and Control, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland Helen A. Guthrie, Department of Nutrition, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania Richard Havlik, Clinical and Genetic Epidemiology Section, Division of Heart and Vascular Diseases, National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland D. Mark Hegsted, New England Primate Center, Harvard Hedical School, Southborough, Massachusetts H. David Hurt, Quaker Oats Company, John Stuart Research Laboratory, Barrington, Illinois Kent K. Stewart, Department of Food Science and Technology, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia Helen Smiciklas-Wright, Department of Nutrition, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania Food and Nutrition Board Staff Stephanie C. Crocco, Staff Officer Margaret R. Stewart, Consultant Norman Grossblatt, Editor
FOOD AND NUTRIT ION BOARD - Kurt J. Isselbacher, Massachusetts General Hospital, Bonton, Massachusetts, Chairman Richard L. Hall, Science and Technology, McCormick & Company, Inc., Hunt Val fey, Maryland, Co-Vi ce Cha irman Ilamish N. Munro, Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Tufts University, Boston, Massachusetts, Co-Vice Chairman Sol H. Chafkin, Local Initiatives Support Corporation, New York, New York William E. Connor, Department of Medicine, Oregon Health Science University, Portland, Oregon Ivan D. Franz, Jr ., Department of Medicine and Biochemistry, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota Peter Greenwaid, Divis ion of Cancer Prevention and Control, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland Jean-Pierre Habicht, Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York Richard J. . Have 1, Card loves cu. 1 ar Re s earch Ins t i Lute, UP ivers i ty of California School of Medicine, San Francisco, California Victor Herbert, State University of New York, Downstate Medical Center, Bronx, New York Henry Kamin, Department of Biochemistry, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina James R. Kirk' Campbell Research Institute, Campbell Soup Company, Camden, New Jersey Jerry L. Moore, Mead Johnson & Company, Evansville, Illinois Maiden C. Nesheim, Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York Myron Winick, Institute of Human Nutrition, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columb is Un ivers i ty, New York, New York Food and Nutrition Board Staff Sushma Palmer, Executive Director
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The Coordinating Committee on Evaluation of Food Consumption Surveys expresses its appreciation to Robert L. Rizek, Director, Consumer Nutrition Division, Human Nutrition Information Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture and Gerald Wheeler, Senior Program Planner, Division of Health Examination Statistics, National Center for Health Statistics, Department of Health and Human Services, Project Officers and to staff members of the agencies for their cooperation, interest and support of the workshop and symposium conferences undertaken during this study. The Coordinating Committee gratefully acknowledges the coop- eration of the workshop and symposium speakers and participants for providing thoughtful comments on their uses of the food consumption survey data. The names of these speakers and participants are listed in appendixes to this report. The Committee also thanks and commends Margaret R. Stewart, Consultant to the Committee, for her able assistance during the workshop and symposium. Finally, the Coordinating Committee on Evaluation of Pood Con- sumption Surveys thanks and commends Dr. Stephanie C. Crocco for her able assistance and professional contributions to the development of this report and her management of the unusual requirements of this project -- the timely and successful conduct of the workshop and symposium.
t CONTENTS - Exe cu t ive Sunn: ary Overview and Sugar ary Recommendations Introduct ion 2 e ~ ~ e Backgr ound Food and Nu tr ition Board Res ponse Increase in Scope of Work Plan of Action Scope of the Report The Nationwide Food Consumption Surveys His tory Purpos es Des ign Data Collection Methods General Quality Assurance Techniques Survey Reporting Research Initiatives Future Plans Use of Dietary Data from NFCS Summary National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys His tory Purposes Des ign Data Collection Methods Quality Assurance Data Process ing Data Reporting Research Initiatives Research Needs Future P tans Uses of Dietary Data from NHANES Summary Page ~ e e 13 31
4 Identification of Current and Potential Data Uses Data Users' Conferences General Concepts Related to Data Usere and Needs Data Uses: Overview Summary Conjoint Data Use: Committee Perspective . . . Background Committee Perspective Purposes o f the Core Surveys Purposes of a Nationwide Monitoring System Uses of a Monitoring System Data Needs of a Monitoring Sys tem Rationale for Not Recommending a Single Dietary Survey Needs of Data Uses Sugary Recommendations for Early Action Introduction Survey Purposes as Gu ides Recommendations on Survey Design Recommendations on Food Intake Methods Informat ion on the Compos it ion of Foods Population Information Summary Re commenda t ions for Longer-Term Impl emen ta t ion Survey Purposes as Guides Food Intake Me thods Improvements in Information on Compos ition of Foods General User Needs Summary Re ferences . . . . . . . . . . 45 Appendix A Technical Comments on Survey Planning and Survey Des ign Limitations ~ . ~ . . e e ~ ~ ~ e e e e ~ ~ ~ ~ 103 Appendix B Agenda and Participants: June 1983 Workshop e Appendix C Agenda and Participants: October 1983 Symposium . . . e 117