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Glossary and Acronyms ABS. Alky} benzene sulfonate. Acute. Having a su(lden onset, lasting a short time, of a stimulus severe enough to induce a response rapidly. Can be used to define either the exposure or the response to an exposure (effect). The duration of an acute aquatic toxicity test is generally 4 days or less and mortality is the response measured. A MOP. Arctic Marine 0ilspiD Program. BIOS. Baffin Island 0i! Spill Project. Chronic. Involving a stimulus that is lingering; often signifies pe- riods from several weeks to years, depending on the reproductive life cycle of the aquatic species. Can be used to define either the exposure or the response to an exposure (effect). Chronic exposure typically induces a biological reponse of relatively slow progress and long continuance. CMC. Critical micelle concentration. CONCAWE. Conservation of Clean Air and Water in Europe. DOOSIM. Dispersion of 0i! on Sea Simulation (model). EC50. Median effective concentration; the concentration of mate- rial in water to which test organisms are exposed that is esti- mated to be effective in producing some sublethal response in 50 percent of the test organisms (Rand and Petrocelli, 1985~. See also, 1;C50. 324
GLOSSARY 325 FAO. Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations. H[B. Hydrophile-lipophile balance. IFP. Institut Francaise du Petrol (French Institute of Petroleum). ITOPF. International Tanker Owners Pollution Federation. Continental Shelf Institute, Trondheim, Norway. Linear alkyl benzenes. IBM. LAB. [AS. Linear alky~benzene sulfonates. I;C50. Median lethal concentration; the concentration of material in water to which test organisms are exposed that is estimated to be lethal to 50 percent of the test organisms (Rand and Petrocelli, 1985~. See also EC50. [et halt Causing death by direct action. Death of aquatic organ- isms is the cessation of ah visible signs of biological activity. MNS. Mackay-Nadeau-Steelman test. Mousse. Water in oil emulsion. NOE[. No-observable-effect level. OHMSETT. Oil and Hazardous Materials Simulated Environ- menta] Test Tank (U.S. EPA). OSC. On-scene coordinator. SPM. Suspended particulate matter. SubJetha]. Below the concentration that directly causes death. Exposure to sublethal concentrations of a material may produce less obvious effects on behavior, biochemical or physiological functions, and histology of organisms. Toxicity. The inherent potential of the capacity of a material to cause adverse effects in a living organism (Rand and Petrocelli, 1985~. It is usually expressed as an effect concentration (ECso, I.C50) at a specific time, or as an effect time (ET50, I`T50) at a spe- cific concentration. Effect concentrations (e.g., 4-day LC50s) in this review are expressed as parts per minion (ppm) or parts per billion (ppb), the units are used interchangeably with mg/liter and ~g/liter, respectively, minor differences in exact concentra- tions notwithstanding. Toxicity Threshold Concentration. A concentration above which some effect or response will be produced and below which it wiD not. UNEP. United Nations Environment Programme. VMD. Volume mean diameter. WSF. Water-soluble fraction. WS[. Warren Spring Laboratory.