Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.
CARL LEAVITT HUBBS October ~ 8, ~ 894-June 30, ~ 979 BY ELIZABETH N. SHOR, RICHARD H. ROSENBLATT, AND JOHN D. ISAACS CA R ~ ~ E A V ~ T T H u B B S. electect to the National Acad- emy of Sciences in 1952, cried on June 30, 1979, at the age of eighty-four. In 1975 he said: "I have been praised, or criticized, as the case may be, for being one of the last of the dying tribe of general naturalists, a clisciple of natural phi- losophy."~ Such he was, for while his expertise was fishes, he also contributes! significantly to our knowlecige of marine mammals, archeology and climatology, biography and his- tory of science, evolution and ecology, and conservation. His earliest known paternal ancestor was Samuel Hubbs, who emigrated from Scotland with two brothers prior to the American Revolution and farmed in the Mohawk Valley, New York State. His son Alexander Hubbs lived out his life in the same area. Alexancler's son Daniel moved to Peterson County, New York, then to Wisconsin in IS50, and to Min- nesota in ~ 856. Daniel's son Charles Leavitt Hubbs, father of Car] Leavitt Hubbs, was born on June 6, IS43, in Pamelia-Four-Corners, Jefferson County, New York, and moved with his father to Wisconsin. When he was fourteen, Charles began three years '"Biological Oceanography, Geochronology, and Archeology Along the Pacific Coast of Middle America and California," talk given at University of Nevada, Las Vegas, April 17, 1975. 215
216 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS of employment with a book ant! stationery firm in New York City; in ~ X59 he joined a brother near Vicksburg, Mississippi, and in X60 returned to his father's home in Minnesota. There he married ant! fathered six children before the mar- riage was dissolvent. Following Civil War service with the First Minnesota Infantry regiment, he moved often and tries! his hand at various tracles: In IS66 he farmed in Missouri, in 1867 he was in the mercantile business in Minnesota, and in 1870 he triecI the lumber business in that state. In 1873 he settled for a time in Ec~warcts County, Kansas, as a farmer, dealer in real estate, county surveyor, and proprietor of a newspaper.2 Car} later noted that cluring the years in Kansas his father shot from the cleclining herds at least one buffalo and one pronghc~rn antelope, and that "as one saving grace he preserved in alcohol the pronghorn's unborn fetus, which he Emuch later] gave me to be preserver] in the Museum of Zoology at the University of Michigan as probably the only extant specimen of that species from Kansas."3 In 1894, with his second wife and their son Leonard Goss Hubbs, Carl's father moved west to work placer claims in Arizona. Car! later recalled: Soon afterward, as the placer operation petered out, Dad took off for the Santa Fe Railroad at Williams LArizona1, leaving my mother and my brother, and me, still unborn, to follow by horse and wagon. Less skilled than Dad in the ways of the very scantily populated West, she got lost, and after wandering for three days and nights without food or water finally saw the headlight of the Santa Fe and managed to wave down the engineer before fainting. Soon after she reached Williams, I was ushered into the world on October 18, 1894 by some midwife, two months prematurely.... I was soon brought to California and got my first taste of the Mohave Desert. At Daggett Dad ran the water pump for the thirsty Santa Fe en 2The United States Biographical Dictionary (Chicago: C. S. Lewis & Co., 1879), pp. 342-43. 3"Preservation of Species and Habitats," talk given to Scholia (a San Diego club), October 9, 1973.
origin."4 CARL LEAVITT HUBBS 217 gines. I must have been a real desert rat, for I walked freely at eight months and ran away from home at ten months (though I didn't talk until three years old and was diagnosed later as mentally defective). After a short spell in the town of Los Angeles, I was carried in 1896 to San Diego, when the population was about 17,000, with a high percentage of Mexican Carl's father located an iron-ore property in the desert, which he later sold profitably, and in San Diego he served as an assayer and cleveloped housing property. In the open country of San Diego's mesas, valleys, anct shoreline, Car! and his brother wanderect freely: watching with boyhood interest the burrowing owls . . . catching horntoads for pets, and otherwise communing with nature.... For diversion we, or I alone, often paddled our tiny sneak-boat over San Diego Bay, then still in near primeval condition. I recall once chasing a Western Grebe . . . until at last it was exhausted and rose so close that I grabbed it by the neck fend was bitten].... Once near the harbor entrance I saw close by a bull ele- phant seal, which in my childish fancy I thought to be a walrus.5 In later years Hubbs liked to recall that on one childhood trip to the beach of La JolIa (at the north enct of San Diego), he hac! "envisioned a long building sweeping along the slope twhere Scripps Institution of Oceanography is now locatecl], containing case after case of magnificent sea shells, by which I, in a bright blue uniform, kept explaining the exhibit to the assembled publicly Hubbs's parents were among a group that objected to a new ruling by the San Diego schools that children must be vaccinated against smallpox. Several families persuacled Katherine Tingley to open a private school (without required vaccination), which she was glad to do as an expansion of the 4 ibid. 5 ibid. 6"Some Highlights from My 61-year Career in Marine Biology," talk given at Scripps Institution, May 2, 1974.
218 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS organization that she headecI: the Universal Brotherhood and Theosophical Society. The Society incorporated Egyp- tian lore, reincarnation, Greek architecture, music anct drama, pacifism, anct vegetarianism. Young Car! had not been doing well in the public school. The new one, the pri- mary school of the Raja Yoga Acaclemy, appealed to him at first, and he became a keen student; but after three years he rebelled against its militant discipline ant! was cTismissecl.7 Carl's mother was Elizabeth Goss Johnson Hubbs (she had been married briefly to a man named Johnson before this marriage), the daughter of Leonard Goss, a prominent law- yer of Cincinnati, Ohio. Car! recallecl that his mother hacI ~ ~ . · · ~ · .1 .1 . . ~ ~ ·, · 1 , _ 1- _. ~1_ ·1- ~ ~ T told elm in nls youth tnat tne ruse narurallsr r~llll~ Gosse was related to them. Elizabeth Goss had taught art and other subjects. Following her divorce from Charles Hubbs in 1907, she and the two boys returned to the Midwest for a year anc! stayed with various relatives. Of that time, Hubbs said much later: I saw much of nature that I had largely missed before. For the first time in my memory I saw lightning close enough to cause thunder, wit- nessed the colors of fall, enjoyed a chance to skate on ice, suffered lasting frostbite on breaking through the ice, experienced the reawakening of nature in the spring, dug in the rich Paleozoic fossil beds in Cincinnati, spent the summer on a farm in northern Ohio . . . often wandering away from field work to see new kinds of animals and plants; caught bullfrogs in the new state of Oklahoma, watched tornados come frighteningly close, and successfully disarmed and duly punished a nasty Indian boy who rushed at me swinging a big knife. Great fun being young and observant, preparing for the life of a naturalist.8 In the fall of 190X Hubbs's mother returned to California. She settled in Redondo Beach, and with an associate ran a 7"Raja Yoga Glass Domes Astride Point Loma," talk given to Scholia, May 12, 1970. 8"Preservation of Species and Habitats."
CARL LEAVITT HUBBS 219 private school that enrollect her two sons. Earlier in San Diego young Car} had become much interested in seashells through the guidance of his maternal grandmother, Jane Goble Goss, one of the first women physicians. She macle him a "proud partner in her moderately large private shell col- lection," which was, he said, "one of the greatest thrills of my boyhood. ~ continues! the collection after her death, ant! at late high-school age spent long hours in the Los Angeles Pub- lic Library reading books on conchology to produce an illus- tratecl phylogeny of molluscs happily lost."9 At Redonclo Beach, said Hubbs, his school training was good and intensive, leaving time for me to add to my shell collection; to fish off the old Redondo wharf when yellowtail were very plentiful and sardines seemed almost to fill the waters; to observe marine life in the tide pools at Rocky Point (I recall most vividly seeing the brilliant red and turquoise-blue young of the garibaldi); to wander over the then- uninhabited Palos Verdes, where I found my first perfect arrowhead and observed Pleistocene fossils and Indian middens.~° Carl's mother marriect Frank Newton, who soon bought a twenty-acre ranch in the San toaquin Valley, near TurIock, California. There Car! spent most of his high-school years and "plunged into nature StUClY with a vengeance." He be 1 <A , came an avid bircI-watcher and with great pleasure once accompanied "one of California's greatest and most loved ornithologists," L.oye Holmes Miller, on a fielcl trip. His chem- istry teacher, impressed with his scientific ability, urged him to attend the University of California at Berkeley to major in chemistry. Following another family move, Hubbs graduatecl from high school in Los Angeles in 1912 and continued at junior college in that city. There he came to the attention of George 9"Some Highlights from My 61-year Career." '°"Preservation of Species and Habitats."
220 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Bliss Culver, a onetime field assistant to David Starr Jordan. Culver surreptitiously transferred Hubbs's interest from birds to fishes, encouraged him to collect the poorly known fishes of the streams of the Los Angeles plain, and persuaded him to attend Stanforc! University, which hac! become the center of American ichthyology uncler the leadership of Jordan. Charles Henry Gilbert, a close associate of Jordan's and the chairman of the Zoology Department, became Hubbs's true mentor. He assignee] his student, as an unclergraduate job, the curatorship of the large Stanford fish collection. Hubbs also spent considerable time in the field during his co11~e vears. "over the mountains, alone the bay, and along - J - - 7 , '' 1 · 1 ~ _ _ ~ .1_ ~ _ ~ a: :~ 1 ~ 1 ~ : the coast, ne salcl. On one of Close Alps lo ~o ~ a loll ocean area off southern Monterey County he thrilled at the glimpse of one sea otter, then assumed extinct in the area. Later he found that Joseph Grinnell knew that a small num- ber survived there, but he had kept the knowledge to himself so that the remnant would not be clestroyed. In the summer of 1915 Hubbs accompanied John Otterbein Snyder of Stan- ford in a survey of the fishes of the Bonneville Basin in Utah, and thus commenced a lifelong study of relict desert fishes. Hubbs received an A.B. from Stanforc] in 1916 and began a semester of graduate work. Gilbert spoke highly of him: "My assistant Hubbs is going to be all that one couIcI wish for. He has the proper attitude towards the work and is encIlessly keen." ~ ~ The peripatetic president of Stanford, David Starr Jor- cian, hac] returnee! to the campus after a long absence, and during that semester Hubbs collaborated with him. A few years later Jordan clescribed Hubbs as "the ablest student I have had for the last thirty years. . . " Letter from Gilbert to John Babcock, October 10, 1916. There is no one now
CARL LEAVITT HUBBS . 221 doing systematic work on fishes that has as keen an insight, or as accurate a minct, as Hubbs, ancT he is tremendously industrious." ~2 Hubbs retainer! a lifelong awe of the monumental man who long dominated American ichthyology, and in the late years of his own productive life sometimes voiced his regret that he would never be able to equal the written output of the prolific Jordan. Early in 1917 Hubbs accepted the position of assistant curator in charge of fishes, amphibians, and reptiles at the FielcI Museum of Natural History in Chicago. He was awarded an M.A. from Stanford that June, in absentia. The following year he married Laura Clark, a fellow student who hack received her B.A. in 1915 and M.A. in 1916 at Stanford, where she was teaching freshman mathematics. Of his Chicago years Hubbs saicl: "After three busy years of service there, 1917-1920, involving also research and a bit of graduate work at the University of Chicago, I was abruptly fired for blatant insubordination. My indiscretion I must act- mit resulted in part from having been lined up for an ap- pointment at the University of Michigan." i3 That appointment, from 1920 to 1944, became a highly productive one for Hubbs. He was curator of the fish division in the University of Michigan Museum of Zoology, he ad- vancect from instructor to assistant, associate, and full pro- fessor, he was awarded a Ph.D., he instituted research proj- ects, anct he published prodigiously. In a program of upgrading the caliber of its faculty, the Zoology Department of the University of Michigan suggested to Hubbs that he should obtain a Ph.D. Accorcling to his later recounting, he pointed to his shelves of publications and sug ~" Letter from Jordan to Roy Chapman Andrews, February 19, 1924, when Hubbs was working with Jordan on a collection of fishes from Japan. ''Preservation of Species and Habitats."
222 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS gestec! that any of several of them would constitute an ap- propriate dissertation. Thus, his paper of 1926 was selected: "The Structural Consequences of Modifications of the De- velopmental Rate in Fishes Considered in Reference to Cer- tain Problems of Evolution." He was awarclec! the Ph.D. in 1927, at a ceremony that he was too busy to attend. Hubbs increased the fish collection of the Museum of Zo- ology through his own Fled work, from collections macle by stab and students of the university, and by simple begging. With his family he collected in the intermontane basins of the American West during eight summers from 1922 to 1943. From a long excursion in the Orient in 1929, following his participation in the Fourth Pacific Science Congress in lava, Hubbs shipped back to the museum five tons of specimens. During 1935 he collected in remote areas of Guatemala, as one of a series of expeditions sponsored jointly by the Car- negie Institution of Washington and the University of Mich- igan. Hubbs reaclily agreed to identify collections sent to him by other institutions, and as a result the museum was given many specimens. Collectors routinely sent him additional material; for example, his wife's sister Frances N. Clark, who served many years with the California State Fisheries Labo- ratory, proviclect him with many West Coast fishes. Robert Rush Miller has estimated that during Hubbs's tenure at the University of Michigan Museum of Zoology, the collection of fishes was increased from about five thousand to nearly two million specimens.~4 The emphasis was on freshwater fishes, especially those of North anct Central America. Laura Hubbs, in aciclition to raising three children, also worked in the Museum of Zoology as a cataloger. Together the Hubbses undertook a study of hybridization in various ~4 "A Tribute to Carl L. Hubbs," presented at annual meeting of American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists,July 30, 1979.
CARL LEAVITT HUBBS 223 fishes in nature ant! in the laboratory. In the course of this work they cliscoverec! the matroclinous, gynogenetic repro- cluction of the all-female fish species Poecilia (formerly Mol- lienisiaJ Formosa, the "Amazon molly." In earlier researches they had also clevelope(1 through carefully annotated ge- netic crosses hybrid specimens of sunfishes (Centrarchiciae) that were similar to so-called species in nature, and thus Hubbs was able to untangle taxonomic confusion in that fam- ily. Detailect analysis of natural hybrids lee! him to conclucle that interspecific hybridization was especially frequent in freshwater regions that hac! been disturbed by Holocene cli- matic changes. In 1930 the Institute for Fisheries Research was estab- lished to formalize the cooperation between the University of Michigan ant! the Michigan Department of Conservation. Hubbs was instrumental in setting up the Institute and servect as its director for the first five years. Its programs inclucled making biological inventories of lakes anti streams, mapping lakes, investigating fish mortalities anc! water pol- lution, studying the age and growth of fishes ancT preciation on them, and developing methods of improving lake and stream habitats. This lee! Hubbs into testing some techniques that he later questioned, such as introducing mosquitofish (Gambusia) for mosquito control and using poisons broadly to eliminate "trash fish." In tune of 1939 Hubbs was asker] to serve as a field rep- resentative of the Department of the Interior to look into the administration of fish and wildlife in Alaska. After a brief interview with the irascible Secretary Harold Ickes in Wash- ington, Hubbs spent the summer traveling throughout the territory, interviewing fishermen anti game managers. He uncovered irregular conduct by some officials, illegal fishing operations, controversies over regulations, Japanese monop- oly of the king-crab fishery, pollution from canneries, and
224 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS peculiarities in the bounty on Dolly Varden as predators on trout. As a result of his report, several officials were fired, the bounty on bald eagles was ctiscontinucct, and an American fishery for king crabs was subsidize. Hubbs's publications while at the University of Michi- gan in excess of 300 were almost entirely on fishes from throughout the world. In his 1922 paper, "Variation in the Number of Vertebrae and Other Meristic Characters of Fishes Correlatect with the Temperature of Water During De- velopment," he proposed an explanation for the effect of temperature that has been moclified but not yet supersedecl. He clevoted time in 1923 to helping Davict Starr Jordan ana- Ivze the largest collection of fishes from Japan ever made (according to Jordan), and their memoir was published in 1925. With Karl F. Lagler, Hubbs compiled a "Guide to the Fishes of the Great Lakes and Tributary Waters," first pub- lished in 1941 and revised several times. While many of his papers were taxonomic, others sum- marized his studies of variation and its causes. Primary pub- lications concerned groups that continued to interest him later, such as the lampreys, the catastomict fishes, and the subfamily Oligocottinae. A major series of papers was on the systematics, distribution, and habits of fishes of the order Cyprinodontes. Long-term studies on the fishes of isolated Great Basin waters culminated in the 1948 publication, "Cor- relation between Fish Distribution and Hyctrographic His- tory in the Desert Basins of Western United States," co- authorec! with Robert Rush Miller. H-ubbs's interest in this subject never waned, and in 1974 with colleagues he pub- lished the monograph, "Hydrographic History and Relict i5"Investigations in Alaska in 1939 as Field Representative, Department of the Interior: An Historical Review of Natural Resource Problems In Alaska," talk given by Hubbs at University of Alaska, April 8, 1976.
CARL LEAVITT HUBBS 225 Fishes of the North-Central Great Basin" (Hubbs, Miller, and Hubbs). During his years at Michigan, Hubbs also began his service and devotion to the American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists. As editor of its journal Copeia from 1930 to 1937, he increased publication to a quarterly cycle; as secre- tary in 1929 and 1930, he increased the society's membership consiclerably. He served as president of the society in 1934 and in 1946, ant! was reelectect in 1947. Chiefly through his urging, the society became increasingly active in conserva- tion of fishes, amphibians, and reptiles, beginning with the fish fauna of isolatect desert springs. Hubbs became the first chairman of the society's Committee on Nomenclature. He also established a regional committee on nomenclature through the auspices of the University of Michigan Museum of Zoology to advise on local problems that could then be referred to the International Commission on Zoological No- mencIature. This lect to considerable correspondence with other taxonomists and to his later participation in other scientific societies such as the Society of Systematic Zoology. During the summer of 1943, at the invitation of Director Harald U. Sverdrup, Hubbs visited! Scripps Institution of Oceanography. There he gave seminars ancT wrote two short papers with aquarium curator Percy S. Barnhart. The sug- gestion of the visit had come from Francis B. Sumner, whose retirement was imminent; Sumner was a geneticist who was then studying the causes of color changes in fishes. In Sep- tember Svercirup askect Hubbs if he would consider an offer from Scripps. "Your field of research would fit into our pro- gram aclmirably," wrote Sverclrup, "and your coming here would strengthen the general position of the Institution." in Letter from Sverdrup to Hubbs, September 1, 1943.
226 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Hubbs declinect. The staff at the University of Michigan museum hac! been severely depleted by wartime absences, and he was much needed there, but he macle it clear that he was interested in moving to the West Coast at some later time. 17 In May of 1944 Hubbs reopened the correspondence with Svercirup, with the comment that "of several possible open- ings on the Coast ~ believe that one at Scripps might prove most alluring." t~ He was looking for a good base for research, what he called "a set-up that will make for real accomplish- ment." ~9 Many of his prewar students were in military service, as were his two sons, and his daughter was married, so the time seemed suitable for a move. Sverdrup held out a tentative offer (contingent on ap- proval by the administration of the University of California), and Hubbs accepted, even though the salary at Scripps would be slightly less than he was making at the University of Mich- igan.20 He also knew that his wife could not be employed at Scripps ("I recognize that many institutions have a rule or policy against employment of two members of one family.") He adcled: "l am more interested in the opportunities for research work than in the salary." This was his lifelong phi. losophy. He continucct: We have had relatively little discussion regarding fields of research in which I might be engaged at Scripps. I would no doubt want to put con- siderable emphasis on systematic and variational studies of west coast ma- rine fishes, particularly those in which speciation would be correlated with oceanographical conditions. I have two or three rather major pieces of work along such lines nearly completed, and I have set these aside with the idea that these jobs would be among the first to be completed if we go to the coast. I would no doubt be interested in exploratory work, for in |7 Letter from Hubbs to Sverdrup, September 11, 1943. '8 Letter from Hubbs to Sverdrup, May 2, 1944. |9 Letter from Hubbs to Paul Needham, May 15, 1944. 't~ Letter from Hubbs to Sverdrup, May 19, 1944.
CARL LEAVITT HUBBS 227 stance with the fauna of the deep basins off the southern California coast. I will probably be interested too in detailed analyses of the distribution of fishes along the entire west coast, again as correlated with the oceano- graphic conditions.2' Hubbs had another California project in mind as well, as he wrote to W. I. Follett in Oakland, with whom he had been corresponding for a clecacle: "I look forward particularly to cooperating with you in making better known the California fish fauna. ~ no doubt will have new material published from time to time on the systematics and biology of the fishes but will definitely hope that you will maintain your plan to work toward a 'Fishes of California.' It will be a pleasure to make records and other information available for your project."22 Notice of Hubbs's appointment as professor at Scripps institution came on September I, 1944, with an announce- ment by University President Robert G. Sprout that Hubbs "is an exceptionally prolific writer.... His fertility in pro- clucing sound ideas is as amazing as is the energy he brings to his work."23 Among the goods that the Hubbses sent to their new lo- cation was his personal library of ichthyological and natural history items. He had begun accumulating a library while a student at Stanford-, anct he increased it actively through ex- changes of reprints, membership in many scientific societies, and purchases. He had, for example, bought significant works on fishes from the library of Car! H. Eigenmann (some purchased by Eigenmann from British ichthyologist Albert C. L. G. Gunther in 19104. Hubbs also received a number of books as review editor for American Naturalist from 1941 to 1947. During Hubbs's long trip to the Orient in 1929, his wife had set up the cataloging of his library, which was then " Ibid '-' Letter from Hubbs to Follett, June 1, 1944. 23 University of California Clip Sheet, September 5, 1944.
228 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS continuously kept up-to-date as items were added. Hubbs estimated in ~ 944 that his library contained 40,000 books and reprints, as well as a collection of journals.24 (In comparison, the l.ibrary of Scripps Institution of Oceanography in 1941 held 18,000 volumes, of which about 12,000 were bound pe- rioclicals, and 30,000 reprints.) Hubbs arriver] at Scripps in mid-October of 1944, near his fiftieth birthday, after collecting fishes in the Great Basin en route. Like other educational institutions, Scripps was in a slow perioc! in 1944; wartime researches and military ser- vice decimatect the staff and student enrollment. There were . · ~ · . · ~ ~ ~ · 1 essentially seven senior academic stats members in residence, five students, and several research visitors. The institution's ship, E. IF Scripps, was on loan to the Navy until 1947. Re- pairs and renovations to the buildings were almost impossible to arrange. The Hubbses accepted the circumstances and turned im- mecliately to marine researches. Although she was not on the payroll, Laura Hubbs continuccT to work alongside her hus- band, both at the office and in the fielcI. In a seminar six months after his arrival, Hubbs commented that their col- lecting had been curtailed by gasoline rationing, so that "we have taken only 10~7 species to date." These includecl, how- ever, several rare and a few new species of fishes. He anno- tated extensions of ranges, observer] territorial defense in blennies in the aquarium tanks, began an analysis of the fish fauna of the kelp beds through specimens from the kelp har- vesters and from lobster traps, anct noted ecological effects on speciation. "We have managed," he commented, "to dip into the edge of the marine grab bag."25 One of Hubbs's concerns before reaching Scripps tract . 24 Letter from Hubbs to Sverdrup, May 19, 1944. 25"Ichthyological Discoveries Since Coming to Scripps," seminar at Scripps Inst tution, March 30, 1945.
CARL LEAVITT HUBBS 229 been where he would be able to store large series of speci- mens while he was studying them. He felt that Scripps Insti- tution or Berkeley wouIc! not have such a facility and askocI Svercirup if he should arrange for storage at Stanforcl, the California Academy of Sciences, the University of Michigan, or even the National Museum.26 Svercirup replier! that a post- war building program shouIct make the needed facility avail- able,27 essentially assuring the establishment of what has be- come one of the country's largest collections of fishes. Hubbs devisecT the system for cataloging the collection ant! super- visecl it through many years of exponential growth. His first opportunity to collect beyond the southern Cali- fornia coast came, odcTly enough, from a movie star: Errol Flynn, the son of a marine biologist. In the summer of 1946, Flynn offerer! to let a scientist from Scripps Institution ac- company him on his yacht Zaca from San Diego to Acapulco, Mexico. Hubbs leaped at the chance. It was scarcely a scien- tific expedition, but Hubbs ctid succeed in making extensive fish collections at several islands off the west coast of Mexico and in Acapulco Bay, areas that were then scantily repre- sentect in collections. He commented on what he thought was insular endemism in the fishes of Guacialupe Island, but later collecting established broader ranges for those species. Gua- cialupe Island, with its populations of marine mammals and its distinctive plants, became a favorite destination for Hubbs over many years. In the spring of 1947, a multi-institutional program was created to try to (letermine why the catch of sardines off Cali- fornia had dropped dramatically. State and federal fisheries people joined forces with researchers from Scripps Institu- tion and the California Academy of Sciences to attack the problem, with generous support from the state and com 26 Letter from Hubbs to Sverdrup, August 17, 1944. ->7 Letters from Sverdrup to Hubbs, August 21, 1944.
230 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS mercial fishermen. Hubbs was active in establishing the format of the California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries In- vestigation, and he derived support from it for fisheries re- searches for many years. The Isaacs-Kidd Midwater Trawl, which opened an almost untouched collecting region to biol- ogists, was one of the program's earliest equipment devel- opments (19504. Simultaneously, from 194X to the micI-1950s, Hubbs su- pervised researches by Conrad Limbaugh, financed by Kelco Company, to determine whether the cutting of kelp inter- ferec} with sportfishing. The project became an intensive study of the ecology of the kelp beds of southern California, with an inventory of their plant and animal life and interre- ~at~ons. it was concluded that kelp harvesting hack no cletect- able detrimental effect on fishing. As noted earlier, Hubbs continued his studies of the iso ~ . . lated relict fish populations of the western states, chiefly with his son-in-law Robert Rush Miller of the University of Mich igan. His concern over the extinction of some species of west- ern freshwater fishes led Hubbs into major conservation ef- forts on their behalf. One of his earliest concerns was with the Devils Hole pupfish (Cyprinodon diabolic). He suggested the common name pupfish for the genus, for the seemingly playful behavior of these small fishes. In the 1940s he and Miller proposed that Devils Hole, the small spring that held the sole population of C. diabolic, be made a separate part of Death Valley National Monument. This was finally done in ~ 952 in a proclamation by President Harry S Truman. Through the years Hubbs monitored the spring regularly and participated in efforts to keep its water level adequate for the threatened pupfish. Others joined the conservation efforts for endangered western fishes, and in ~ 969 they formed the Desert Fishes Council, which Hubbs participated in each year with keen enthusiasm.
CARL LEAVITT HUBBS 231 Hubbs's observations of anomalies in the distribution of fishes and other marine organisms along the Pacific Coast led him to try to determine the causes. In 1949 he published a landmark paper, "Changes in the Fish Fauna of Western North America Correlatect with Changes in Ocean Temper- atures." This much-cited and influential work documents changes in north-south fish distribution correlated with water temperature changes in historic time. Hubbs enIargec] his researches into archeology and an analysis of past climate. Many years of (laity coastal temper- ature records were available from Scripps Institution and other California locations, so in ~ 948 Hubbs set out to extend the series southward into Baja California, Mexico. The roacis there were dusty or san(ly ruts, and in the rainy season mutiny morasses, but he acquired a four-wheel drive vehicle and, accompanied always by Laura and sometimes by stu- dents or hardy guests, he jolted down the peninsula. For fourteen years they took temperature records once a month (with a few exceptions) at a series of sixty-one coastal stations extending 225 miles southward. "At first we waded out into fairly clear water Esaid Hubbsl, ant! then, after some very col(l-water cluckings, and ankles painfully struck by rolling cobbles, we used a casting thermometer constructed in our instrument shop."28 The temperature runs, as Hubbs called them, quickly showed dramatic differences over short distances, in one case 12°C in two miles on either sicle of a projecting point (Punta BanciaN. He delimited alternating coict and warm areas alone . 1 To · ~ 1~ r · . · . 1 ' ' the Gala ~;al~torn~a coast; In the coIc! spots the fishes, inver- tebrates, and algae included species typical of the coIcI central California coast not found in the intervening warmer waters. 28"Biological Oceanography, Geochronology, and Archeology Along the Pacific Coast of Middle America and California," talk at University of Nevada, Las Vegas, April 17, 1975.
232 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS In another effort at establishing temperature data, Hubbs arrange(1 in 1949 for approximately thirty volunteer yachts- men to take lines of measurements of surface temperatures from their craft simultaneously on a single (lay, while he su- pervisec! from above in a Coast Guard airplane. The trips in Baja California also disclosed considerable evidence of earlier human habitation there anc! ctrew Hubbs into collecting shell debris from aboriginal miciclens for its bearing on past climate. In 195 ~ he note(1 that "by supplying critical material from the ascertained coo} and warm areas and by running controlle(1 temperature experiments, we have been able to assist tHaroIct C.] Urey in checking his method of estimating past ocean temperatures through anal- yses of the oxygen-isotope ratios in mollusk shelIs."29 These analyses led Hubbs to conclude that, in the southern Califor- nia region, ocean temperatures since the enc! of the Wiscon- sinan Perio(1 (! 1,000 years ago) were generally warmer than at present, except from 2,500 to 600 years ago, when the ocean was coIcler. Throughout the period from ~ i,000 years ago rainfall was higher than at present-until about 400 years ago.30 In 1957 the La Volta Radiocarbon Laboratory was estab- lished at Scripps Institution uncler Hans E. Suess, which made possible the determination of a large number of dates of archeologic and geologic significance. Throughout the 1960s Hubbs coorctinatect the submission of samples to that laboratory, and he compiled its first five reports. Samples he submitted were chiefly from shell micIdens ciating from the modern to 7,500 years before present, from tufa ant! shell ''9 "Research in the Biological Sciences," talk at conference on The Place of Scripps Institution in the University, the State, and the Nation, at Scripps Institution, March 26, 1951. "Carl L. Hubbs and Gunnar I. Roden, "Oceanography and Marine Life along the Pacific Coast of Middle America," vol. 1, Handbook of Middle American Indians (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1964), pp. 169-70.
CARL LEAVITT HUBBS 233 remnants along former shorelines of ancient Lake LeConte (Imperial Valley, California) and from onshore islands. In 1973 Hubbs donated his large collection of archeolog- ical samples from Baja California and southern California to the Museum of Man in San Diego, where they have been cataloged and inclexecI for continuing use. Hubbs's interest in marine mammals began during his first winter at Scripps Institution in 1944: At that time, no one, either among biologists or the general public, gave any serious thought to the gray whale, and the general assumption was that the species, if not extinct, had at least very largely abandoned its runs along the California coast to and from its traditional breeding grounds in the lagoons of Baja California in Mexico.... My first inkling that the parade of the gray whale along the coast of southern California had not totally ceased came in 1945 and 1946, when Henry Kritzler, a visiting postdoctoral fellow in Scripps Institution of Oceanography, re- ported to me his sighting of a few individuals about the kelp beds of Pt. Loma incidentally observed as he was collecting fulmars.... This excit- ing news led me to establish a gray-whale monitoring project atop the roof of Ritter Hall of Scripps Institution, close to the shore. Here we installed in a small rooftop enclosure . . . an 18.5-power binocular instrument that I had secured from a soldier who had taken it on Iwo Jima. Willing asso- ciates and drafted graduate students took turns with me on 15-minute watches per hour throughout daylight, to count the whales going by, plot their positions and speed, and to note down their behavior.3~ In 1947 Hubbs obtained permission from the commancl- ing general of the Coast Guard in Washington to accompany mercy flights off Mexico. The first of those flights took him low over Scammon and San Ignacio lagoons in Baja Califor- nia, where he hac! his first view of the calving locale. "This gave me an uncontrollable desire to go down to observe the whale life in one of the lagoons," he saicl. So he turned to i'"Initial Studies 1945-66 and Conservation Efforts 1956-73," talk to University of California, Berkeley Extension Special Program on "Life of the California Gray Whale," November 8, 1973.
234 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Errol Flynn again, on the premise that very exciting movie shorts could be made at the lagoons. Flynn heartily agreed, and in February, 194X, arranged for a flight by helicopters and a small plane. Some of the footage on gray whales was incorporatec! into the movie short, "Cruise of the Zaca," re- leased by Warner Brothers in 1952. After a few years Hubbs relinquishecT the shore count of gray whales to Raymond M. Gilmore of the U.S. Fish & Wild- life Service. But in 1952 Hubbs took the opportunity to tally the gray whales in the calving lagoons by airplane, piloted by Scripps Institution physical oceanographer Gifford C. Ew- ing, "a superb pilot who flew his own planes and knew Baja California as few others ever have."32 The annual aerial counts continued from 1952 through 1964, variously by the Hubbses ant! by Gilmore. On his first visit to Guadalupe Island in 1946, Hubbs ob- served northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris), ant! over the years he tallied the rise of the population there to at least 15,000 animals. With George A. Bartholomew he re- cordect the reestablishment of this once rare mammal on other islancis off the west coast of Baja California and Cali Cornea. The Guadalupe fur seal (Arctocephalus townsendi) was pre- sumed extinct from about 1928 until Bartholomew fount] an old male on San Nicolas IslancT off southern California in 1949. He and Hubbs searched for more on Guadalupe Island without success in 1950, but in 1954 Hubbs finally clicl locate a group of fourteen on that island in the mouth of a remote cave. For some years he tallied the rise in population of that rare animal also. Hubbs published twenty-eight papers on marine mam- mals and participated often in conferences pertaining to 3" Ibid.
CARL LEAVITT HUBBS 235 their habits, with emphasis on their conservation. As early as 1956 he and Gifford C. Ewing urged Mexican officials to es- tablish a sanctuary for gray whales in lagoons of Baja Cali- fornia. The plan was finally implementecl, with Hubbs's par- ticipation, in 1972. He also helpecI persuade Mexican officials to protect the elephant seal and fur seal on Guadalupe Is- land. Norris noted: "Few Americans have proved as aclept as he in garnering the trust of foreign government officials ant! scientists necessary to achieve such international results."33 Hubbs was an optimistic and diplomatic conservationist. He observed and commented sagely on national and interna- tional efforts to preserve whales, porpoises, sea otters, anct other marine mammals. Anct for many years he prodded ant! measured every cetacean that was found ashore in the vicinity of San Diego, as he, like others, tried to resolve why these animals become stranded. Beyond the time that Car! Hubbs clevoted to his scientific researches, he acceptect and carried out a great many outside commitments. At Scripps Institution he was in charge of the Division of Marine Vertebrates for many years until reorga- nization ctrew several units into a larger Division of Marine Biology. He devotee! considerable time to the selection of new academics in biology when the institution acquired a major contribution from the Rockefeller Foundation in the 1950s. Always he was a conscientious committee member. He served for several years on the International Commis- sion on Zoological Nomenclature, patiently working out fine points of usage and priority. He reviewed books frequently, and he was often called upon to review scientific proposals. In later years he founct himself obligect to write obituaries frequently. He wrote with facility, in longhancT, and without 33 Kenneth S. Norris, "To Carl Leavitt Hubbs, A Modern Pioneer Naturalist on the Occasion of his Eightieth Year," Copeia, 3(1974):581-94.
236 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS extensive rewriting, except for his longer technical papers; these he often revised through several editions (and multiple carbons). Most of his letters, sometimes very long ones, were dictatecI, without losing the thread of his discourse. Immediately upon his arrival in California in 1944, Hubbs by invitation became a member and fellow of the San Diego Society of Natural History, that city's oIclest scientific organi- zation. In the following year he became a member of the board of directors, on which he servecT for thirty-four years. His primary concerns for the society were its scientific pub- lications and its research program, both of which he subsi- dized as well as advised. Members of the museum staff often accompanied him on temperature runs ant! trips to Baja Cali- fornia islands. By 1948 he also was serving on the Research Committee of the Zoological Society of San Diego, which operates the San Diego Zoo and Wild Animal Park. From 1952 to 1979 he was on the society's board of trustees, ant! he served on several committees, always urging research and conservation of endangered species. In 1963 Hubbs was drawn into a new San Diego organi- zation aimed at marine exhibits, which opened as Sea WorIct in 1964. As a member of the executive board he emphasizer] the great value of and need for research in marine mammals. Quite to his surprise, this culminated in the establishment of the Hubbs-Sea World Research Institute, dedicated in 1977 to both Car! and Laura Hubbs. In a warmly perceptive account, on the occasion of Car! L. Hubbs's eightieth birthday, his former student Kenneth S. Norris presented many facets of the personality of this "mod- ern pioneer naturalist."34 Norris credited Hubbs with tre- menclous energy, enthusiasm, and breadth, with thorough 34 Ibid.
CARL LEAVITT HUBBS 237 ness in his researches, complete dedication to science, an insatiable appetite for collecting, endless helpfulness to stu- dents and colleagues, and forthrightness. Hubbs was a self- assured man, confident in his abilities, yet always surprised at having his scientific accomplishments honored. On such an occasion in 1975 he commented, "I really don't know why I'm receiving this Laward as HeacTliner of the Year]. All I've ever done in life was exactly what ~ wantec! to cio."35 What he wanted to clo was to find out about nature: to observe, annotate, define organisms in their environment. The enormity of the task energized him, so that one admirer could say, "His visits to scientific institutions have left behind him many an exhausted colleague."36 Students and colleagues were awed by Hubbs's painstak- ing attention to cletai! and his command of ichthyology. The man himself was not awesome or pretentious. About five feet ten inches tall, and of stocky build, distinguished by straight, black, crew-cut hair that never grayed, he had a keen gaze with a slight twinkle in his eye. Even when engrossed in writ- ing a manuscript or counting and measuring specimens, he accepted interruptions with good grace ancT turned to the new subject without pause. Amateur naturalists, commercial fishermen, and free-lance writers were received as cordially as colleagues. His work was also his hobby. For many years he routinely was at his office on Saturdays, and often on Sundays. When a major paper was in process, he and Laura returned to the office in the evenings. Otherwise, he carried home each clay a briefcase of unfinished items, anc! devotee! his evenings to them. He also enjoyed many social commitments, especially through his participation in civic and scientific organizations. At his home in Ann Arbor, on the Scripps campus, and . ~ · · , 35 San Diego Union, January 27, 1975. 36 Citation on Fellows Award of California Academy of Sciences, 1966.
238 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS from 1954 on the bluff a mile north of Scripps Institution- the welcome mat was always out for visiting colleagues. ,. `' · · r ~ · '. ~ ~ O l he recognition tor his accomplishments in science went chiefly to Carl, but a great clear of credit should he given also . . · ~ . . ~ , · ~ , . to the wile who wore aiongs~cte norm, maintained his files, kept track of infinite details, traveler! with him, absorbect his outbursts of impatience, and welcomed their guests. To- gether they raised three chilcTren: Frances, wife of Robert Rush Miller; Clark, professor of biology at the Univeristy of Texas at Austin; and Earl; high school teacher of biology in Orange County, California. The legacy continues in the grandchildren, several of whom are scientists. Hubbs was a prolific teacher of graduate students. Twenty-eight students received doctorates uncler his direc- tion at Michigan, and an aciclitional eighteen after his move to Scripps. The dissertation titles reflect Hubbs's broad inter- ests, so that, in adclition to studies on fishes, some were on crayfish, porpoises, and Amerinctians. Hubbs did little formal teaching, ant! his students learned most by accompanying him in the field! and standing at his shouIcler as he worked at the microscope. Perhaps the most lasting lesson was learned as Hubbs examined every sentence anct datum in his stu- dents' theses (ancI colleagues' manuscripts), both for logic and grammar. He retained a keen interest in his students' careers, anc! he took great satisfaction in their students, whom he enjoyed referring to as his ichthyological grancl- children. Car! Leavitt Hubbs died on tune 30, 1979, after a steadily disabling cancer of the kidnev.s It hart slower1 him nEv.si ~ ~, . ~ 1- -J cai~y but starchy mentally. ~ Free weeks before his death he looked over with pride the first printed copy of "List of the Fishes of California," by Car] L. Hubbs, W. T. Follett, and Lillian I. Dempster, the project that he tract promised to help Follett with in ~ 944. This one was clone, and he was pleased
CARL LEAVITT HUBBS 239 although he really wanted it to be a much more annotates! publication. It was difficult for him to let a project go; there were always unfinished loose encis that wouIc! make it better. But he clip publish, very extensively, even when he knew that the last wore! on the subject could not yet be written. His collectect works totaled 712 titles. To Scripps Institution of Oceanography Hubbs willecI his library and his personal papers. The library of 80,000 re- prints once books and i25 linear feet of personal papers to- gether constitute Hubbs Collection, houses! in the Archives of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, where they con- tinue to be available to researchers. NOTE: John D. Isaacs participated in the preparation of this account before his death in 1980. All manuscript material and correspondence cited here are from: Carl Leavitt Hubbs, 1894-1979: Papers, 1915-1979, 81-8. In the Archives of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093.
240 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS S E LE C T E D B I B L I O G RA P H Y The following list includes Hubbs's major papers and illustrates his breadth of interests. A complete list is in The Scientific Publications of Carl Lec~vitt Hubbs: Bibliography and Index, 1915-1981," by Frances Hubbs Miller (Hubbs-Sea World Research Institute, Special Publication no. 1, 1981~. A selected list through 1974 is in "Selected Bibliography of Carl Leavitt Hubbs from 1915 to 1974," by Elizabeth N. Shor (Copeia, 3; 19741:594-6091. 1915 Flounders and soles from Japan collected by~the United States Bu- reau of Fisheries steamer "Albatross" in 1906. Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., 48:449-96. 1916 With C. H. Gilbert. Report on the Japanese macrouroid fishes col- lected by the United States Fisheries steamer "Albatross" in 1906, with a synopsis of the genera. Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., 51: 135-214. 1918 The fishes of the genus Atherinops, their variation, distribution, re- lationships and history. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 38:409-40. 1919 With D. S. Jordan. Studies in ichthyology. A monographic review of the family of Atherinidae or silversides. Stanford Univ. Publ. Univ. Ser.: 1 - 87. 1920 A comparative study of the bones forming the opercular series of fishes. I. Morphol., 33:61-71. With C. H. Gilbert. The macrouroid fishes of the Philippine Is- lands and the East Indies. Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., 100:369-588. 1921 The latitudinal variation in the number of vertical fin-rays in Lep- tocottus armatus. Occas. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., 94: 1-7. The ecology and life-history of Amphigonopterus aurora and of other viviparous perches of California. Biol. Bull., 40:181-209.
CARL LEAVITT HUBBS 241 An ecological study of the life-history of the fresh-water atherine fish, Labidesthes sicculus. Ecology, 2: 262-76. 1922 A list of the lancelets of the world with diagnoses of five new species of Branchiostoma. Occas. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., 105:1-16. With C. W. Creaser. A revision of the Holarctic lampreys. Occas. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., 120:1-14. Variations in the number of vertebrae and other meristic characters of fishes correlated with the temperature of water during de- velopment. Am. Nat., 56:360-72. 1924 Seasonal variation in the number of vertebrae of fishes. Pap. Mich. Acad. Sci. Arts Lett., 2:207-14. Studies of the fishes of the order Cyprinodontes. I. A classification of the fishes of the order. II. An analysis of the genera of the Poeciliidae. III. The species of Profundulus, a new genus from Central America. IV. The subspecies of Pseudoxiphophorus bi- maculatus and of Priapichthys annectens. Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ.Mich.,13:1-31. 1925 Racial and seasonal variation in the Pacific herring, California sar- dine and California anchovy. Calif. Fish Game Fish Bull., 8:1- 23. With D. S. Jordan. Record of fishes obtained by David Starr Jordan in Japan, 1922. Mem. Carn. Mus., 10:93-346. 1926 The structural consequences of modifications of the developmen- tal rate in fishes, considered in reference to certain problems of evolution. Am. Nat., 60:57-81. A revision of the fishes of the subfamily Oligocottinae. Occas. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., 171:1-18. A check-list of the fishes of the Great Lakes and tributary waters, with nomenclatorial notes and analytical keys. Univ. Mich. Mus. Zool. Misc. Publ., 15: 1-77. Studies of the fishes of the order Cyprinodontes. VI. Material for
242 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS a revision of the American genera and species. Univ. Mich. Mus. Zool. Misc. Publ., 16:1-86. 1927 Notes on the blennioid fishes of western North America. Pap. Mich. Acad. Sci. Arts Lett., 7:351-94. 1929 With A. I. Ortenburger. Further notes on the fishes of Oklahoma with descriptions of new species of Cyprinidae. Univ. Okla. Bull., 434:15-43. Fishes collected in Oklahoma and Arkansas in 1927. Univ. Okla. Bull., 434:45 -112. The hydrographic and faunal independence of certain isolated deepwater seas in eastern Asia. 4th Pac. Sci. Congr. Proc., 3:1- 6. With D. E. S. Brown. Materials for a distributional study of Ontario fishes. Trans. R. Can. Inst., 17:1-56. 1930 Materials for a revision of the catostomid fishes of eastern North America. Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., 20:1-47. The high toxicity of nascent oxygen. Physiol. Zool., 3:441-60. 1932 With L. C. Hubbs. Experimental verification of natural hybridiza- tion between distinct genera of sunfishes. Pap. Mich. Acad. Sci. Arts Lett., 1 ~ :427-37. With J. R. Greeley and C. M. Tarzwell. Methods for the improve- ment of Michigan trout streams. Bull. Inst. Fish. Res., 1: 1-54. With L. C. Hubbs. Apparent parthenogenesis in nature, in a form of fish of hybrid origin. Science, 76:628-30. 1933 Observations on the flight of fishes, with a statistical study of the flight of Cypselurinae and remarks on the evolution of the flight of fishes. Pap. Mich. Acad. Sci. Arts Lett., 17:575-611. With L. C. Hubbs. The increased growth, predominant maleness,
CARL LEAVITT HUBBS 243 and apparent infertility of hybrid sunfishes. Pap. Mich. Acad. Sci. Arts Lett., 17:613-41. With L. P. Schultz. Descriptions of two new American species re- ferable to the rockfish genus Sebastodes, with notes on related species. Univ. Wash. Publ. Biol., 2:15-44. 1934 Racial and individual variation in animals, especially fishes. Am. Nat., 68: 115 -28. 1935 With G. P. Cooper. Age and growth of the long-eared and the green sunfishes in Michigan. Pap. Mich. Acad. Sci. Arts Lett., 20:669-96. Fresh-water fishes collected in British Honduras and Guatemala. Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., 28:1-22. With M. D. Cannon. The darters of the genera Hololepis and Villora. Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., 30: 1-93. 1936 Fishes of the Yucatan Peninsula. Carnegie Inst. Washington Publ., 457: 157-287. With G. P. Cooper. Minnows of Michigan. Bull. Cranbrook Inst. Sci., 8:1-95. 1937 With E. R. Kuhne. A new fish of the genus Apocope from a Wyo- ming warm spring. Occas. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., 343: 1- 21. With M. B. Trautman. A revision of the lamprey genus Ichthyomy- zon. Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., 35:1-109. 1938 With R. M. Bailey. The small-mouthed bass. Bull. Cranbrook Inst. Sci.,10:1-89. With R. W. Eschmeyer. The improvement of lakes for fishing: A method of fish management. Bull. Inst. Fish. Res., 2: 1-233. The scientific names of the American "smooth dogfish," Mustelus
244 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS cants (Mitchill), and of the related European species. Occas. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., 374: 1-19. Fishes from the caves of Yucatan. Carnegie Inst. Washington Publ., 491:261-95. 1939 With L. P. Schultz. A revision of the toadfishes referred to Porichthys and related genera. Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus., 86:473-96. With C. L. Turner. Studies of the fishes of the order Cyprino- dontes. XVI. A revision of the Goodeidae. Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., 42: 1-80. 1940 Speciation of fishes. Arn. Nat., 74: 198-211. With I. D. Black. Percid fishes related to Poecilichthys variatus, with descriptions of three new forms. Occas. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., 416:1-30. With R. M. Bailey. A revision of the black basses (Micropterus and Huro), with descriptions of four new forms. Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., 48:1-51. 1941 With l. D. Black. The subspecies of the American percid fish, Poe- cilichthys whipplii. Occas. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., 429: 1-27. With K. F. Lagler. Guide to the fishes of the Great Lakes and trib- utary waters. Bull. Cranbrook Inst. Sci., 18:1-100. The relation of hydrological conditions to speciation in fishes. In: A Symposium on Hydrobiology, pp. 182-195. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. 1942 With K. Kuronuma. Hybridization in nature between two genera of flounders in Japan. Pap. Mich. Acad. Sci. Arts Lett., 27:267- 306. With A. Perlmutter. Biometric comparison of several samples, with particular reference to racial investigations. Am. Nat., 76:582- 92.
CARL LEAVITT HUBBS 1943 245 With R. R. Miller. Mass hybridization between two genera of cy- prinid fishes in the Mohave Desert, California. Pap. Mich. Acad. Sci. Arts Lett., 28:343-78. With C. M. Bogert, W. F. Blair, E. R. Dunn, E. R. Hall, E. Mayr, and G. G. Simpson. Criteria for subspecies, species and genera, as determined by researches on fishes. In: Criteria for Vertebrate Subspecies, vol. 44, pp. 109-21. New York: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. With L. C. Hubbs and R. E. Johnson. Hybridization in nature be- tween species of catostomid fishes. Contrib. Lab. Vertebr. Biol. Univ. Mich., 22: 1-76. With B. W. Walker and R. E. Johnson. Hybridization in nature be- tween species of American cyprinodont fishes. Contrib. Lab. Vertebr. Biol. Univ. Mich., 23:1-21. 1944 Concepts of homology and analogy. Am. Nat., 78:289-307. With E. C. Raney. Systematic notes on North American siluroid fishes of the genus Schilbeodes. Occas. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., 487:1-36. Species of the circumtropical fish genus Brotula. Copeia, 1944: 162- 78. 1945 Phylogenetic position of the Citharidae, a family of Catfishes. Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., 63:1-38. With L. C. Hubbs. Bilateral asymmetry and bilateral variation in fishes. Pap. Mich. Acad. Sci. Arts Lett., 30:229-310. 1946 With E. C. Raney. Endemic fish fauna of Lake Waccamaw, North Carolina. Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., 65: 1-30. First records of two beaked whales, Mesoplodon bowdoini and Ziphius cavirostris, from the Pacific coast of the United States. I. Mam- mal., 27: 242-55. With E. M. Kampa. The early stages (egg, prolarva and juvenile)
246 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS and the classificat 1946: 188-218. ion of the California flying fish. Copeia, 1947 With I. D. Black. Revision of Ceratichthys, a genus of American cy- prinid fishes. Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., 66: 1-56. With L. C. Hubbs. Natural hybrids between two species of catos- tomid fishes. Pap. Mich. Acad. Sci. Arts Lett., 31:147-67. 1948 With R. R. Miller. The zoological evidence: Correlation between fish distribution and hydrographic history in the desert basins of western United States. In: The Great Basin, with Emphasis on Glacial and Postglacial Times, vol. 38, pp. 17-166. Salt Lake City: Bulletin of the University of Utah. 1949 With R. M. Bailey. The black basses (Micropterus) of Florida, with description of a new species. Occas. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., 516:1-40. Changes in the fish fauna of western North America correlated with changes in ocean temperature. I. Mar. Res., 7:459-82. 1951 With E. C. Raney. Status, subspecies, and variations of Notropis cum- min~gsue, a cyprinid fish of the southeastern United States. Oc- cas. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., 535:1-25. . 1952 With G. A. Bartholomew, in Winter population of pinnipeds about Guadalupe, San Benito, and Cedros islands, Baja California. }. Mammal., 33: 160-71. 1953 With G. W. Mead and N. I. Wilimovsky. The widespread, probably antitropical distribution and the relationship of the bathype- lagic iniomous fish Anotopterus pharao. Bull. Scripps Inst. Ocean- ogr.,6:173-98. With C. Hubbs. An improved graphical analysis and comparison of series of samples. Syst. Zool., 2:49-56.
CARL LEAVITT HUBBS 1954 247 With L. C. Hubbs. Data on the life history, variation, ecology, and relationships of the kelp perch, Brachyistius frenatus, an embi- otocid fish of the Californias. Calif. Fish Game, 40: 183-98. 1955 Hybridization between fish species in nature. Syst. Zool., 4: 1-20. Recent climat ic history 1958 in California and adjacent areas. In: Pro- ceedin~;slConference on Recent Research in Climatology (Scripps In- stitution of Oceanography, La Jolly, California, March 25-26, 1957), ed. Harmon Craig, pp. 10-22. University of California: Committee on Research in Water Resources. 1959 Initial discoveries of fish faunas on seamounts and offshore banks in the eastern Pacific. Pac. Sci., 13:311-16. 1960 With G. S. Bien and H. E. Suess. La Jolla natural radiocarbon mea- surements. Am. i. Sci. Radiocarbon Suppl., 2:197-223. With R. R. Miller. The spiny-rayed cyprinid fishes (Plagopterini) of the Colorado River system. Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., 115:1-39. Quaternary paleoclimatology of the Pacific coast of North America. Calif. Coop. Oceanic Fish. Invest. Rep., 7:105-12. 1961 The marine vertebrates of the outer coast. In: Symposium: The Biogeography of Baja California and Adjacent Seas. Pt. 2. Ma- rine Biters. Syst. Zool., 9:134-47. Isolating mechanisms in the speciation of fishes. In: Vertebrate Spe- ciation: A Symposium, ed. W. F. Blair, pp.5-23. Austin: University of Texas Press. With G. Shumway and I. R. Moriarty. Scripps Estates site, San Diego, California: A La Jolly site dated 5460 to 7370 years be- fore the present. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 93:37-131.
248 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 1963 Chaetodon aya and related deep-living butterflyfishes: Their varia- tion, distribution and synonymy. Bull. Mar. Sci. Gulf Caribb., 13: 133-92. 1964 History of ichthyology in the United States after 1850. Copeia, 1964:42-60. 1965 With G. I. Roden. Oceanography and marine life along the Pacific coast of Middle America. In: Handbook of Middle American Indi- ans, ed. R. Wauchope and R. C. West, pp. 143-86. Austin: Uni- versity of Texas Press. With R. R. Miller. Studies of cyprinodont fishes. XXII. Variation in Lucania parva, its establishment in western United States, and description of a new species from an interior basin in Coahuila, Mexico. Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., 127:1-104. 1966 With L. C. Hubbs. Gray whale censuses by airplane in Mexico. In: . 1966 Conference on Biological Sonar and Diving Mammals, pp. 84- 92. Stanford: Stanford Research Institute. 1967 With T. Iwai and K. Matsubara. External and internal characters, horizontal and vertical distribution, luminescence, and food of the dwarf pelagic shark, Euprotomicrus bispinatus. Bull. Scripps Inst. Oceanogr., 10:1-81. 1968 With W. I. North as compiler and editor. Utilization of Kelp-bed Re- sources in Southern California. Calif. Dep. Fish Game Fish Bull., 139: 1-264. 1971 Lampetra (Entosphenus) lethophaga, new species, the nonparasitic de- rivative of the Pacific lamprey. Trans. San Diego Soc. Nat. Hist., 16: 125-63.
CARL LEAVITT HUBBS 249 With C. A. Repenning and R. S. Peterson. Contribution to the sys- tematics of the southern fur seals, with particular reference to the Juan Fernandez and Guadalupe species. Am. Geophys Union Antarctic Res. Ser., 18: 1-34. With K. S. Norris. Original teeming abundance, supposed extinc- tion, and survival of the Juan Fernandez fur seal. Am. Geophys. Union Antarctic Res. Ser., 18:35-52. With I. C. Potter. Distribution, phylogeny and taxonomy. In: Biol- ogy of Lampreys, vol. 1, ed. M. W. Hardisty and I. C. Potter, pp. 1-65. New York: Academic Press. 1974 With R. R. Miller and L. C. Hubbs. Hydrographic history and relict fishes of the north-central Great Basin. Mem. Calif. Acad. Sci., 7: 1-259. 1977 With T. Iwamoto. A new genus (Mesobius), and three new bathy- pelagic species of Macrouridae (Pisces, Gadiformes) from the Pacific Ocean. Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 41:233-51. With R. R. Miller. Six distinctive cyprinid fish species referred to Dionda inhabiting segments of the Tampico Embayment drain- age of Mexico. Trans. San Diego Soc. Nat. Hist., 18:265-335. 1979 With W. I. Follett and L. l. Dempster. List of the fishes of Califor- nia. Pap. Calif. Acad. Sci., 133:1-51. 1980 With R. L. Wisner. Revision of the sauries (Pisces, Scomberesoci- dae) with descriptions of two new genera and one new species. US Fish Wildl. Serv. Fish. Bull., 77:521-66.