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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Engineering and National Research Council. 1999. Industrial Environmental Performance Metrics: Challenges and Opportunities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9458.
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INDEX

A

Accidents, see Environmental incidents;

Health and safety

Accountability, 4, 12-13, 20, 35

environmental cost accounting, 21, 22, 23-24, 113, 119

product life cycle, 5, 12-13,

Aggregation of metrics, 164-165, 178-180, 182

automotive industry, 77, 80-81

chemical industry, 103

Air pollutants, 4, 34, 234

automotive industry, 54, 57, 58, 61, 64-67, 71, 74, 76-77, 78

best practices, 7-8

chemical industry, 92-93, 101

international perspectives, 78, 222, 223

pulp and paper industry, 140, 141, 144

see also Climate change

AMD, 229-230

American Chemical Society, 85

American Forest and Paper Association, 139

Asia Environmental Partnership, see U.S.-Asia Environmental Partnership

Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, v-vi, 26

Attitudes

corporate, 2, 4, 157

see also Public opinion

Automotive sector, 51, 53-84

aggregation of metrics, 77, 80-81

air emissions, 54, 57, 58, 61, 64-67, 71, 74, 76-77, 78

computer applications, 56-57

cost factors, other then fuel economy, 61, 63, 77

decision making, general, 74, 75, 76

energy consumption issues, other than fuel economy, 54, 56, 57, 59 , 60, 65, 67, 74, 76, 80, 148

environmental burdens, 75, 79, 162

EPA, 56, 59

Superfund, 57, 58, 74

TRI, 57, 58, 59, 74, 80

facility considerations, 3, 59, 62, 75, 148, 170

fuel economy, 56, 57, 65, 74, 81, 162

hazardous materials and wastes, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 69;

see also "toxicity metrics" and "Toxic Release Inventory" infra

health and safety, 58, 74, 75, 77, 148

historical perspectives, 56-57, 62, 69, 71

international perspectives, 53(n.1), 56, 78-79

materials use and flow, 49, 54, 56-57, 58, 59, 61-63, 73, 74, 148

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Engineering and National Research Council. 1999. Industrial Environmental Performance Metrics: Challenges and Opportunities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9458.
×

packaging, 58, 63, 70, 74, 148

pollutant emissions, general, 54, 56, 62;

see also "air emissions" supra

product-centered metrics, 51, 64, 75, 78, 162

product life cycle, 54, 55, 56, 57, 60, 63, 64, 66, 79-80, 162

recycling and reuse of materials, 53-54, 57, 58, 59, 63-65, 69, 70 , 71-72, 73, 74, 76, 77, 148, 158

regulatory issues, 54, 56, 57, 64, 65-66, 75;

see also "fuel economy" supra

reporting, 57, 59

resource use, 67, 72, 75, 77, 80-81

small and medium-sized companies, 53, 77

solid wastes, 58, 63-64, 68, 74

Superfund, 57, 58, 74

suppliers, 63, 77, 78, 148

small and medium-sized companies, 53, 77

toxicity metrics, other than TRI, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 64-65, 80

Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), 57, 58, 59, 74, 80

types of metrics used, tables/lists, 3, 64-65, 74, 82, 148

waste management, 59-61, 69, 71-72;

see also "solid wastes" supra

water use and water pollutants, 56, 57, 58, 63, 66, 67, 74, 80

weighting of metrics, 79, 83

B

Best practices, 2, 6, 7-9, 13, 23, 161, 202-204, 212

forestry, 137-139, 142-143, 144

product life cycle, 6, 13, 161

small and medium-sized companies, 5, 13, 161, 212

Biodiversity, 10, 38, 50, 105, 158, 165, 186, 189

environmental condition metrics, 34

forestry, 136, 137, 139, 186

Biotechnology

chemical industry, 85, 89

forests, 137, 138

C

Case studies, analytic framework, 40

see also Automotive sector;

Chemical sector;

Electronics sector;

Pulp and paper sector;

Semiconductors

Chemical Manufacturers Association, 87(n.4), 91, 98, 99

Chemical sector, 85-105, 223, 234

aggregation of metrics, 103

air pollutants, 92-93, 101

biotechnology, 85, 89

cost factors, 87, 89

decision making, general, 89, 103

economics of, 85-86

ecosystems and ecoefficiency, 87, 105

energy factors, 87, 97, 101, 104, 105, 148

environmental burden metrics, 16, 101, 104, 158, 163

environmental incidents, 93, 98, 101, 148

facility-based considerations, 3, 92, 148

hazardous materials and wastes, 98, 101, 102;

see "toxicity metrics" and "Toxic Release Inventory" infra

health and safety, 87, 89, 91, 98, 99, 102, 148

international perspectives, 85-86, 97

materials use, 49-50, 86, 87, 93, 95-96, 99, 101, 148;

see also "raw materials" infra

packaging, 93, 98-100, 101, 148

pollutant emissions, 87, 89, 92-94, 103;

see also "air pollutants" supra

product-centered metrics, 86, 97-98, 99, 102

public opinion, 87, 91, 93

raw materials, 49, 51, 86, 93, 104

recycling and reuse of materials, 98, 100, 104-105, 148

regulatory issues, 87, 100;

see also "standards" infra

reporting, 91, 92, 97, 220, 221

resource use, 93-95, 103-104

standards, 87, 91, 96, 99

stewardship issues, 87(n.4), 98, 99, 100, 102

Superfund, 92, 98

suppliers, 98, 99, 148

sustainability, 104-105

toxicity metrics, other than TRI, 92-93, 101

Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), 92, 98, 101, 103

types of metrics used, tables/lists, 3, 101-102, 148

waste management, 49-50, 93-95

weighting of metrics, 93, 94, 103, 104

see also Hazardous materials and wastes

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Engineering and National Research Council. 1999. Industrial Environmental Performance Metrics: Challenges and Opportunities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9458.
×

Clean Air Act, 54, 61

Clean Water Act, 54

Climate change, 4, 65, 76, 105, 110, 148, 158, 162, 186, 203, 223, 227-231 (passim), 235

Kyoto Protocol, 97, 139, 165, 210

Coalition for Environmentally Responsible Economics, 78, 118, 160, 209

Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, 38

see also Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act

Computer applications

automotive industry, 56-57

semiconductors manufacturing, 108

see also Internet

Cost factors, 4, 10, 41, 155, 159, 160, 165, 171, 223

automotive fuel economy, 56, 57, 65, 74, 81, 162

automotive industry, other, 61, 63, 77

chemical industry, 87, 89

environmental cost accounting, 21, 22, 23-24, 113, 119

historical perspectives, 21, 22

product life cycle metrics, general, 13

semiconductors, 109, 114-117 (passim), 126

see also Energy consumption and conservation

Council for Automotive Research (USCAR), 57, 61, 64-65

Council on Environmental Quality, 205, 208, 209, 214

D

Decision making, v, 11, 15, 24, 33, 34, 39, 42-44, 183-184, 188, 191

automotive industry, 74, 75, 76

chemical industry, 89, 103

investors, 39, 40-43, 79, 118, 156, 157, 160

ISO standards, 29-30

semiconductor manufacturing, 116

see also Management metrics

Department of Commerce, 57, 107, 210, 212

Department of Defense, 162

Department of Energy, 166

Department of State, 210

Design for environment, 115-117, 118, 119, 121, 123-124, 125

Digital Equipment, 230

E

Economic factors, 6, 154, 155-156

automotive industry, 53

chemical industry, 85-86

environmental factors vs, 20, 23-24, 25

financial metrics, 19, 118, 163, 169, 178

pulp and paper industry, 129-130, 136

socioeconomic status, 166, 214-215

suppliers, demand-side purchasing power, 161-162

sustainability, 14, 187

taxes and incentives, 77, 82

see also Cost factors;

Market factors

Ecosystems and ecoefficiency, 4, 8, 10, 13-14, 33, 37, 39, 155, 157 , 158, 164, 165, 169, 183, 185, 189, 192, 194, 224

chemical industry, 87, 105

historical perspectives, 21, 24, 25

pulp and paper industry, 136

see also Biodiversity;

Forestry;

Sustainability

Electronics sector, 50, 107-127

types of metrics used, table/list, 3, 111, 119, 148

see also Semiconductors

Emergency Planning and Right-to-Know Act, 57

Emissions, see Pollutant emissions

Energy consumption and conservation7, 8, 149, 155, 160, 171, 172, 173, 186, 203, 227-231 (passim), 235

automotive fuel economy, 56, 57, 65, 74, 81, 162

automotive industry, other, 54, 56, 57, 59, 60, 65, 67, 74, 76, 80 , 148

chemical industry, 87, 97, 101, 104, 105, 148

global scale reporting, 222, 223

historical perspectives, 22

operational metrics, 30, 31

materials flow, general, 50

pulp and paper industry, 132, 140, 143, 148

semiconductors, 108, 110, 111, 113, 114, 120, 121, 122, 124, 126, 148

Energy Policy Act, 57

Energy Policy and Conservation Act, 56

Environmental burden metrics, 4, 5, 11, 20, 24, 33, 34, 51, 160, 162, 164, 166, 170, 179, 180, 204, 207, 209

automotive industry, 75, 79, 162

chemical industry, 16, 101, 104, 158, 163

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Engineering and National Research Council. 1999. Industrial Environmental Performance Metrics: Challenges and Opportunities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9458.
×

operational metrics, general, 30

pulp and paper industry, 144

semiconductors, 112, 119

Environmental Defense Fund, 38, 158, 164

Environmental incidents, 7, 148, 203, 223, 233

chemical industry, 93, 98, 101, 148

pulp and paper industry, 144, 148

Environmental justice, see Minority groups;

Socioeconomic status

Environmental management systems, 236

automotive industry, 77

global scale reporting, 222, 224

historical perspectives, 21

semiconductor manufacturing, 113

Environmental Protection Agency, 38, 205, 206, 208, 209-210, 212, 214

automotive industry, 56, 59

pulp and paper industry, 140

semiconductor manufacturing, 110, 112, 113

see also Toxic Release Inventory

Ethnicity, see Minority groups

F

Facility-based considerations, 10-11, 14, 159-160, 162, 164, 171, 180, 204, 207

automotive industry, 3, 59, 62, 75, 148, 170

chemical industry, 3, 92, 148

by sector, 3, 148

semiconductors, 3, 110, 111, 112, 115, 117, 148

pulp and paper industry, 3, 143-145, 148

stakeholders, 35

Federal government, 6, 23, 165, 205-214

see also Legislation;

Public-sector industries;

Regulatory issues;

Reporting;

specific departments and agencies

Financial metrics, 19, 42, 118, 163, 169, 178

Foreign countries, see International perspectives;

specific countries

Forestry, 130-131, 136-139, 140, 142-143, 144, 165

best practices, 137-139, 142-143, 144

biodiversity, 136, 137, 139, 186

biotechnology, 137, 138

G

Global Reporting Initiative, 209

Government, see Federal government;

Local communities and government;

Public-sector industries;

State government

Great Lakes persistent toxics (GLPT) program, 56, 58, 59, 74

Greenhouse gases, see Climate change

H

Hazardous materials and wastes, 3, 10-11, 37, 38, 155, 207, 227-231 (passim), 234, 235

automotive industry, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 69

chemical industry, 98, 101, 102

best practices, 7-8

historical perspectives, 22

operational metrics, 30

pulp and paper industry, 144

real estate transactions, liability, 38-39

semiconductor manufacturing, 110, 111, 120, 121, 123

see also Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act;

Toxicity metrics;

Toxic Release Inventory

Hazard Ranking System, 38, 158

Health and safety, 4, 7, 25, 37, 51, 149, 165, 174-175, 179, 180, 203, 233

automotive industry, 58, 74, 75, 77, 148

chemical industry, 87, 89, 91, 98, 99, 102, 148

environmental condition metrics, 33

global scale reporting, 222

pulp and paper industry, 140, 144, 148

semiconductor manufacturing, 110-113(passim), 116, 119, 121, 148

sustainable development, 187(n.2)

see also Environmental incidents;

Toxicity metrics;

Toxic Release Inventory

Hewlett Packard, 229

Historical perspectives, 20-22, 50, 183-184, 187-188

automotive industry, 56-57, 62, 69, 71

ecosystems and ecoefficiency, 21, 24, 25

metrics comparability over time, 35, 36

pulp and paper industry, 134-135

semiconductor manufacturing, 110

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Engineering and National Research Council. 1999. Industrial Environmental Performance Metrics: Challenges and Opportunities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9458.
×

I

IBM, 230

Imperial Chemical Industries, 93, 94, 103, 158, 163, 207

Incentives, see Taxes and incentives

Industrial Toxics Project, 141

Information technology, see Computer applications

Insurance industry/liability, 4, 38-39, 41, 157

Integrated circuits, see Semiconductors

Intel Corporation, 227-228

International Organization for Standardization (ISO), 29-34, 118, 120

International perspectives, 5, 25, 184, 186, 204-205, 234, 235

Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, v-vi, 26

automotive industry, 53(n.1), 56, 78-79

chemical industry, 85-86, 97

climate change, 4, 65, 76, 105, 110, 148, 158, 162, 186, 203, 223, 227-231 (passim), 235

Kyoto Protocol, 97, 139, 165, 210

energy consumption, 222, 223

environmental management systems, 222, 224

OECD, 20, 210, 219

paper impacts, 130

reporting, 219-225

semiconductors, 111, 118, 120

standardization of metrics, 12, 29-34, 35, 36, 78-79, 118, 120, 158 , 210

United Nations, 39, 183

U.S. Agency for International Development, v-vi, 1-2, 210

U.S.-Asia Environmental Partnership, v, 1-2

U.S. Trade Representative, 210

World Business Council for Sustainable Development, 172, 186, 209

World Commission on Environment and Development, 187

World Council on Environment and Development, 25

World Resources Institute, 35, 42

Internet, 38, 117, 164, 189, 227

Investors, 39, 40-43, 79, 118, 156, 157, 160

Coalition for Environmentally Responsible Economics, 78, 118, 160

regulatory issues, 39, 42, 43-44

ISO, see International Organization for Standardization

J

Just-in-time inventory, 56, 61, 61-62, 98

K

Kyoto Protocol, 97, 139, 165, 210

L

Legislation

Clean Air Act, 54, 61

Clean Water Act, 54

Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, 38

see also ''Superfund ...'' infra

Emergency Planning and Right-to-Know Act, 57

Energy Policy Act, 57

Energy Policy and Conservation Act, 56

Pollution Prevention Act, 54

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, 10-11, 54, 207, 208

Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act, 54, 57, 58, 74, 92, 98, 113

see also Toxic Release Inventory

Liability, 4, 38-39, 41, 157

management metrics, 32

Life cycle metrics, see Product life cycle

Local communities and government, 4, 33, 37, 157, 160, 166, 222

automotive industry, 78

urban areas, 5, 166, 184

Lucent Technologies, 229

M

Management metrics, 32-33, 40-42, 224

historical perspectives, 21

ISO standards, 29-30

Market factors, 2, 3, 24, 81, 155

investors, 39, 40-43, 79, 118, 156, 157, 160

see also Public opinion

Massachusetts, 161

Materials use, 148, 149, 155, 160, 170-171, 172, 203

automotive industry, 49, 54, 56-57, 58, 59, 61-63, 73, 74, 148

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Engineering and National Research Council. 1999. Industrial Environmental Performance Metrics: Challenges and Opportunities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9458.
×

chemical industry, 49-50, 86, 87, 93, 95-96, 99, 101, 148

best practices, general, 7-8

just-in-time inventory, 56, 61, 61-62, 98

operational metrics, 30, 31, 32

pulp and paper industry, 50, 130-131, 136-137, 142-143, 148

sectoral studies, compared, 49-50

semiconductor manufacturing, 50, 116, 117, 122-123, 124, 148

see also Packaging and containers;

Raw materials;

Recycling and reuse of materials;

Waste management;

Water use and water pollutants

Minority groups, 166

Models and modeling

aggregation and presentation of metrics, 169-182

chemical industry emissions, 92

environmental cost accounting, 23-24

semiconductor manufacturing, 108

sustainable development, 189-191

Motorola Corporation, 228

Motor vehicles, see Automotive sector

N

National Institutes of Health, 208

National Science Foundation, 214

National Semiconductor, 229

New Jersey, 161

O

Occupational safety and health, see Human health and safety

Occupational Safety and Health Administration, 113, 116, 140, 144

Operational metrics, 30-32

automotive industry, 51

defined, 30

semiconductor manufacturing, 117

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, 20, 210, 219

Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, 56

P

Pacific Rim, see Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation

Packaging and containers, 7, 148, 149, 173, 179, 203

automotive industry, 58, 63, 70, 74, 148

chemical industry, 93, 98-100, 101, 148

operational metrics, 30

semiconductor manufacturing, 109, 113, 116, 148

Paper sector, see Pulp and paper sector

Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles, 57

Pollutant emissions, 3, 149, 158, 189, 203

automotive industry, 54, 56, 62

best practices, general, 7-8

chemical industry, 87, 89, 92-94, 103

defined, 147

global scale reporting, 219, 222, 223

historical perspectives, 21

operational metrics, 30, 31

semiconductor manufacturing, 112, 117

see also Air pollutants;

Hazardous materials and wastes;

Solid wastes;

Toxicity metrics;

Toxic Release Inventory;

Water use and water pollutants

Pollution Prevention Act, 54

Prioritization of impacts, see Weighting of metrics

Product-centered metrics, 24, 147-148, 149, 162, 164, 179, 203

automotive industry, 51, 64, 75, 78, 162

chemical industry, 86, 97-98, 99, 102

comparability across products/companies, 35, 36, 78, 158, 159-160, 204

global scale reporting, 222

historical perspectives, 22

operational metrics, 30, 31

by sector, 3, 148

semiconductor manufacturing, 113

Product life cycle, 2, 5, 6, 12-13, 26, 50, 158, 161-163, 210-211

automotive industry, 54, 55, 56, 57, 60, 63, 64, 66, 79-80, 162

best practices, general, 6, 13, 161

historical perspectives, 21, 22

pulp and paper industry, 51, 130-136

semiconductor manufacturing, 116-117, 118, 120-124

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Engineering and National Research Council. 1999. Industrial Environmental Performance Metrics: Challenges and Opportunities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9458.
×

see also Recycling and reuse of materials;

Suppliers and supply chain metrics

Public opinion, 3, 6, 20, 24, 38, 50, 156-157, 158, 165, 188, 201

chemical industry, 87, 91, 93

toxic releases, general, 38

Public-sector industries, 5, 161, 162, 166

Pulp and paper sector, 129-146

air pollutants, 140, 141, 144

economic factors, 129-130, 136

energy, 132, 140, 143, 148

environmental incidents, 144, 148

facility-based considerations, 3, 143-145, 148

forestry, 130-131, 136-139, 140, 142-143, 144, 165

sustainability, 131, 136-137, 142-143, 144, 148

health and safety, 140, 144, 148

historical perspectives, 134-135

materials use, 50, 130-131, 136-137, 142-143, 148

product life cycle, 51, 130-136

raw materials, 50, 51, 141;

see also "forestry" supra

resource use, 140-142;

see also Forestry

solid wastes, 140, 142

sustainability, 131, 136-137, 142-143, 144, 148

types of metrics used, tables/lists, 3, 144, 148

water use and water pollutants, 132, 137, 138, 139, 140, 143-144

Q

Quantitative metrics, general, 9-10, 12, 22, 23, 153-154, 156-157, 161, 164, 187, 204, 205-206, 210-211, 219

automotive industry, 65, 80

financial-environmental performance, 39

materials use, 30

semiconductors, 120

sustainability, 188

R

Race/ethnicity, see Minority groups

Raw materials

automotive industry, 58, 73

chemical industry, 49, 51, 86, 93, 104

pulp and paper sector, 50, 51, 141;

see also Forestry

Recycling and reuse of materials, 63-64, 69, 149, 158, 172, 179, 203, 227-230 (passim)

automotive industry, 53-54, 57, 58, 59, 63-65, 69, 70, 71-72, 73, 74, 76, 77, 148, 158

chemical industry, 98, 100, 104-105, 148

electronics industry, 50, 148,

see also "semiconductor ..." infra

historical perspectives, 22

operational metrics, 30, 31

paper industry, 130, 132, 134, 140, 142, 143-144, 148, 155

product take-back, 163

semiconductor manufacturing, 112, 114-116, 118, 120, 121, 123, 125 , 163

Regulatory issues, 1, 3, 23, 37, 42, 154, 156, 157, 174, 188

automotive industry, 54, 56, 57, 64, 65-66, 75

chemical industry, 87, 100

financial metrics, 19, 118, 163

global scale reporting, 222, 223

historical perspectives, 21, 22

investors and, 39, 42, 43-44

operational metrics, 32

quantitative goals, 9

semiconductor manufacturing, 110-113 (passim), 117

see also Environmental Protection Agency;

Standards

Reporting, 1, 3, 9-10, 157-158, 159-160, 205

automotive industry, 57, 59

chemical industry, 91, 92, 97, 220, 221

by country, 220, 221, 224

global scale, 219-225

impact ranking, 10-11

by sector, 220, 21

semiconductor manufacturing, 227-231

standardization of metrics, 11-12, 35, 36

see also Aggregation of metrics;

Toxic Release Inventory (TRI)

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, 10-11, 54, 207, 208

Resource use and resource-use metrics, 103-104, 149, 170-173, 179, 180

automotive industry, 67, 72, 75, 77, 80-81

chemical industry, 93-95, 103-104

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Engineering and National Research Council. 1999. Industrial Environmental Performance Metrics: Challenges and Opportunities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9458.
×

pulp and paper industry, 140-142;

see also Forestry

semiconductor manufacturing, 112, 114, 119, 126

see also Energy consumption and conservation;

Materials use;

Recycling and reuse of materials;

Water use and water pollutants

Responsible Care program, 87(n.4), 91

Reuse of waste, see Recycling and reuse of materials

Rockwell International, 231

S

Safety, see Health and safety

SEMATECH, 117

Semiconductor Industry Association, 116

Semiconductors, 51, 107-127, 227-232

cost factors, 109, 114-117 (passim), 126

energy, 108, 110, 111, 113, 114, 120, 121, 122, 124, 126, 148

environmental burden, 112, 119

EPA, 110, 112, 113

Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), 112, 113

facility-based considerations, 3, 110, 111, 112, 115, 117, 148

hazardous materials, 110, 111, 120, 121, 123

health and safety issues, 110-113 (passim), 116, 119, 121, 148

historical perspectives, 110

international perspectives, 111, 118, 120

manufacturing process, 107-110

materials use, 50, 116, 117, 122-123, 124, 148

packaging, 109, 113, 116, 148

pollutant emissions, 112, 117;

see also "water use and water pollutants" infra

product life cycle, 116-117, 118, 120-124

recycling and reuse of waste, 112, 114-116, 118, 120, 121, 123, 125 , 163

regulatory issues, 110-113 (passim), 117

reporting, 227-231

resource and resource-use metrics, 112, 114, 119, 126

solid waste, 113

standards, 118-120, 121

sustainability, 124

toxicity metrics, other than TRI, 110, 111, 113

Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), 112, 113

Types of metrics used, tables/lists, 3, 119, 126, 148

waste management, 112, 113, 117, 121-125 (passim);

see also "solid waste" supra

water use and water pollutants, 111-114(passim), 120, 122, 123

Service sector, 5, 149-150, 166-167, 172

Shareholders, see Investors

Small and medium-sized companies

automotive industry, 53, 77

best practices, 5, 13, 161, 212

product life cycle metrics, 13

Social impacts, 4, 19-20, 184-185, 188, 190-191, 194-195

operational metrics, 30

population dynamics, 194(n. 1), 186

see also Human health and safety;

Public opinion

Socioeconomic status, 166, 214-215

Soils

environmental condition metrics, 34

forests, 137, 140, 144

real estate transactions, liability, 38-39

Solid wastes, 234

automotive industry, 58, 63-64, 68, 74

best practices, 7-8

pulp and paper industry, 140, 142

semiconductor manufacturing, 113

see also Recycling and reuse of materials

Stakeholders, general, 19, 33, 157, 164, 191

commercial/financial, 4, 28, 38-42, 157, 208

automotive industry, 56

external, 4, 11, 29, 34, 35, 37-38, 39, 157, 208

Standards

automotive fuel economy, 56, 57, 65, 74, 81, 162

chemical industry, 87, 91, 96, 99

environmental, general, 2

historical perspectives, 21, 22

International Organization for Standardization (ISO), 29-34, 118, 120

metrics, general, 5, 11-12, 29-42, 118, 154, 158, 169-182, 204, 208 -210

comparability across products/

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Engineering and National Research Council. 1999. Industrial Environmental Performance Metrics: Challenges and Opportunities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9458.
×

companies, 35, 36, 78, 158, 159-160, 204, 208-209

financial metrics, 19, 118, 163, 169, 178

international efforts, 12, 29-34, 35, 36, 78-79, 118, 158, 120, 210

quantitative, 9-10

semiconductor manufacturing, 118-120, 121

see also Best practices

State government, 23, 37, 161, 165

semiconductor manufacturing, 110

Stewardship, 3, 154, 156-157

chemical industry, 87(n.4), 98, 99, 100, 102

historical perspectives, 21

investors and, 39

Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act, 54

automotive industry, 57, 58, 74

chemical industry, 92, 98

semiconductor manufacturing, 113

see also Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act;

Toxic Release Inventory

Suppliers and supply chain metrics, 6, 12-13, 50, 148, 158, 161-162, 175, 179

automotive industry, 63, 77, 78, 148

small and medium-sized companies, 53, 77

defined, 147

chemical industry, 98, 99, 148

electronics industry, 3, 148

global scale reporting, 222

public procurement, 161, 162

by sector, 3, 148

service sector, 166-167

Sustainability, 4, 6, 10, 13-14, 25, 37, 38, 50, 149, 158, 166, 172 , 175-176, 179, 183-197, 204, 213-215, 222

chemicals sector, 104-105

defined, 25, 33, 147, 187

historical perspectives, 21

metrics by sector, 3

pulp and paper industry, forests, 131, 136-137, 142-143, 144, 148

semiconductor manufacturing, 124

socioeconomic factors, 14

see also Best management practices

T

Taxes and incentives, 77, 82

Telecommunications, 124, 220, 221

see also Internet

Tellus Institute, 35, 42

Texas Instruments, 228

3M, 95

Torts, see Liability

Toxicity metrics, general, 22, 25, 37-38, 164

automotive industry, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 64-65, 80

chemical industry, 92-93, 101

Great Lakes persistent toxics (GLPT) program, 56, 58, 59, 74

pulp and paper industry, 141

semiconductor manufacturing, 110, 111, 113

see also Hazardous materials and wastes

Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), 37-38, 154, 159-160, 164, 205, 207, 208

automotive industry, 57, 58, 59, 74, 80

chemical industry, 92, 98, 101, 103

semiconductor manufacturing, 112, 113

Transportation, 220

chemical industry, 102

operational metrics, 30, 31

semiconductor manufacturing, 121

U

United Nations Development Programme, 39

United Nations Environment Programme, 183

Urban areas, 5, 166, 184

U.S. Agency for International Development, v-vi, 1-2, 210

U.S.-Asia Environmental Partnership, v, 1-2

U.S. Trade Representative, 210

V

Volatile organic compounds, 60, 61, 65, 101, 114, 140, 227-230 (passim)

W

Waste management, 63-64, 155, 234

automotive industry, 59-61, 69, 71-72

chemical industry, 49-50, 93-95

electronics industry, 50

global scale reporting, 222, 223

historical perspectives, 21

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Engineering and National Research Council. 1999. Industrial Environmental Performance Metrics: Challenges and Opportunities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9458.
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operational metrics, 30, 31

pulp and paper industry, 140

semiconductor manufacturing, 112, 113, 117, 121-125 (passim)

see also Hazardous materials and wastes;

Recycling and reuse of materials;

Solid wastes

Water use and water pollutants, 4, 149, 160, 171, 172, 186, 203, 227-230 (passim), 235, 236

automotive industry, 56, 57, 58, 63, 66, 67, 74, 80

chemical industry, 105

best practices, 7-8

environmental condition metrics, 34

pulp and paper industry, 132, 137, 138, 139, 140, 143-144

semiconductor manufacturing, 111-114 (passim), 120, 122, 123

Weighting of metrics, vi, 10-11, 22, 37, 38, 51, 163-164, 167, 176 -177, 219, 223

automotive industry, 79, 83

chemical industry, 93, 94, 103, 104

Wildlife and wildlife habitat, 38, 105, 137, 138-139, 144, 165, 186

environmental condition metrics, 33, 34

see also Biodiversity

World Business Council for Sustainable Development, 172, 186, 209

World Commission on Environment and Development, 25, 187

World Resources Institute, 35, 42

World Wide Web, see Internet

X

Xerox Corporation, 125

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Engineering and National Research Council. 1999. Industrial Environmental Performance Metrics: Challenges and Opportunities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9458.
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Industrial Environmental Performance Metrics is a corporate-focused analysis that brings clarity and practicality to the complex issues of environmental metrics in industry. The book examines the metrics implications to businesses as their responsibilities expand beyond the factory gate--upstream to suppliers and downstream to products and services. It examines implications that arise from greater demand for comparability of metrics among businesses by the investment community and environmental interest groups. The controversy over what sustainable development means for businesses is also addressed.

Industrial Environmental Performance Metrics identifies the most useful metrics based on case studies from four industries--automotive, chemical, electronics, and pulp and paper--and includes specific corporate examples. It contains goals and recommendations for public and private sector players interested in encouraging the broader use of metrics to improve industrial environmental performance and those interested in addressing the tough issues of prioritization, weighting of metrics for meaningful comparability, and the longer term metrics needs presented by sustainable development.

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