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Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1999. The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9620.
×

INDEX

Acute renal failure

protein intake enhancement of, 138, 144

See also Diseases and disorders;

Renal function

Adaptation

amino acid metabolism, adaptive component of, 180-184, 221-224

Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP), 111, 112, 113, 115, 121-122, 123, 124, 125, 244, 245

Age and aging

dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry models, influence of age, 272

glomerulosclerosis development role of, 144, 145, 146, 147

muscle mass changes over time, monitoring considerations, 273-275

protein Recommended Dietary Allowances by age group, 6, 37

sarcopenia of aging, muscle mass/function effects of, 48, 123-126

Alaska, 87, 98, 99-100

Amino acid metabolism

adaptive component of, 180-184, 221-224

diurnal cycling role in, 184-186, 224-225

energy-dependent processes of, 110-112

exercise and catabolism, 29-30, 244-247

exercise, endurance, and, 310-311

infection/injury effects on muscle transmembrane transport, 280-281

influences on, 199-202

physical activity and, 243, 244, 250-251

physical activity, increased, role of energy supply and, 244, 248-249

See also Amino acids (AA);

Indispensable amino acids (IAA);

Obligatory oxidative amino acid loss (OOL)

Amino acid requirements

animal data for composition/requirement patterns, 178

brain function and, 289-293

controversy over, 3-4, 25-28, 170-173

definition, inherent difficulties, 169-202

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1999. The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9620.
×

estimation feasibility and necessity, 217-237

FAO/WHO/UNU requirements, 218, 219, 220, 229, 230, 231, 236, 237

FAO/WHO/UNU values, 3-4, 24-28, 171

FAO/WHO/UNU values adjustment, 192-193

isotope, stable, use for estimating, considerations, 193-197, 232-234

military operations and, CMNR conclusions/recommendations, 77-79

MIT Requirement Pattern proposal and physical activity, considerations , 235-237

MIT Requirement Pattern proposal, overview, 218-221

nitrogen balance use for estimating, limitations, 22-24, 186-202, 226-231

obligatory oxidative loss patterns, use for predicting, 175

Amino acids (AA), 19, 133, 160, 162

Army's interest in role of, 2-3, 20-21

blood-brain barrier, overview of, 290-293

central nervous system transport mechanisms for, 291

cognitive performance effects of military lightweight rations, field studies results, 301-303

functions of, 110, 111

intake adequacy, functional indicators of, 198-202

intake adequacy, protein turnover as indicator of, 198-199

intake of, metabolic studies of long-distance cyclists, 52

military limited-use operational rations, for optimal cognitive/physical function, research needs, 86-87

neurotransmitter system products of, 292, 293

performance role of, 20

Amino acid supplements

Army personnel use of, 39, 42

benefits/health risks of, 7-11, 39, 42-63

branched-chain amino acids, endurance performance and metabolism effects of, 53-54, 310, 312-317

branched-chain amino acids, possible benefits, 249

cognitive performance effects of, 8, 42-45

glutamine, endurance performance and metabolism effects of, 310, 317-320

immune function effects of, 9, 54-56

metabolism and performance effects of, rationale for, 309-322

military performance optimization using, CMNR conclusions/recommendations , 79-81

military personnel reported use, by gender/military specialty, 103-104

performance and, study considerations, 334

physical performance effects of, 10, 52-54

pregnancy effects of, 11, 62-63

safety of, 11, 13, 14, 61-63, 79-81, 332-334

tryptophan, and cognitive performance, 43-44

tyrosine, and cognitive performance, 44-45

See also Amino acids (AA);

Food supplements;

Indispensable amino acids (IAA);

Protein supplements

Aminotransferase

branched-chain amino acid reaction with, interaction with tricarboxylic acid in muscle, 315-317

Ammonia

branched-chain amino acids ingestion, effects on plasma concentrations/muscle production of, during exercise, 317

Anabolic hormones

injuries/infection treatment with, effects of, CMNR conclusions/recommendations , 12, 14, 78, 79

muscle protein effects of, 49-51, 125, 127, 128, 129

muscle protein metabolism, effects of following infection/injury, 281-282

See also Growth hormone (GH);

Hormones;

Insulin;

Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I)

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1999. The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9620.
×

Animal studies

amino acid composition and requirement patterns for selected animal, data, 178

dogs, calcium clearance determinants for, 139, 140, 141

ileal indispensable amino acid losses, animal data, 180

obligatory metabolic demand pattern, animal data for, 175-180

protein-free diet, responses to, data on selected animals, 177

Anorexia

infection/injury effects on whole body protein metabolism, 160

Antarctic

walk across, protein turnover rates during, 36, 249

Anthropometry

muscle mass/composition measurement, methods overview, 45, 46, 258 , 259-261, 273-274

See also Measurement techniques

Arginine, 13, 14

See also Amino acids (AA)

Army Food and Nutrition Survey I, 97, 99, 103

Army Regulation 40-25 (AR 40-25), 95

Army Regulation 40-250 (AR 40-250), 102

Athletics

Antarctic, walk across, protein turnover rates during, 36, 249

Boston Marathon and other athletes, endurance performance studies, 336

endurance athletes, amino acid/protein metabolism in, 310-312

overtrained athletes, glutamine plasma concentrations in, 318-319

overtraining syndrome, glutamine and immune function, 249-250

Tour de France cyclists, amino acid/protein metabolism in, 52, 311

Tour de France cyclists, glutamine plasma concentrations in, 318-319

Yale university athletes, reduced-protein diet study, 32, 201, 251

See also Physical activity

ATP. See Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP)

Auditory Consonants Trigrams Recognition test, 336


Behavioral function. See Cognitive performance

Bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA)

muscle mass/composition measurement, methods overview, 45, 46, 258 , 259, 262-263, 264, 274

See also Measurement techniques

Biological value (BV)

plant proteins biological value in nitrogen balance trials, 190-192

Blood-brain barrier (BBB)

nutritional status of brain, determination by, overview of, 290-293

See also Central nervous system (CNS)

Body composition, 256, 258

infection/injury effects on, 160, 161

See also Body weight (BW);

Skeletal muscle (SM);

Visceral organs

Body measurements. See Anthropometry

Body weight (BW), 37, 161, 256

Bolivia

U.S. military protein/energy intake studies, 40, 99, 101

Boston Marathon

endurance performance studies, 336

Brain. See Blood-brain barrier (BBB);

Central nervous system (CNS);

Cognitive performance

Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), 53, 54, 245, 246

aminotransferase reaction with, interaction with tricarboxylic acid cycle in muscle, 315-317

ammonia, plasma concentrations and muscle production of during exercise , 317

central fatigue theory and, 53-54, 312-313

endurance performance/metabolism effects of ingestion, studies results , 310, 313-315

supplementation of, possible benefits, 249

See also Amino acids (AA)

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1999. The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9620.
×

Breastfeeding, 37, 39

protein military Recommended Dietary Allowance for, CMNR conclusions/recommendations , 7, 39, 79

protein Recommended Dietary Allowance for, 6-7, 37, 39

See also Women

Bursailleus, Jacques, 19, 109-110


Calcium

clearance determinants, 139-142

protein supplementation and status of, 10, 60-61

renal stone disease and intake/excretion of, 138-143

Camp Carson, 96, 97

Camp Parks, California, 41, 99, 102

Carbohydrates (CHO), 58, 244, 248, 250

glycogen resynthesis following exercise, supplementation effects, 310, 320-322

military operational rations energy content, by ration type, 411

premenstrual syndrome management using supplements of, 335-336

Catabolic hormones

muscle protein effects of, 52, 131

Catecholamines. See Dopamine;

Epinephrine;

Norepinephrine

Central fatigue theory

branched-chain amino acids and, 53-54, 312-313

Central nervous system (CNS)

amino acid/protein requirements and function of, 289-303

blood-brain barrier determination of nutritional status of, 290-293

stress and amino acids changes during field studies, effects on, 301-303

tryptophan/serotonin effects on brain function, 293-294, 296, 297

tyrosine/norepinephrine effects on brain function, 289, 290, 292, 297-300

See also Blood-brain barrier (BBB)

Children

preschool, indispensable amino acid requirement patterns, FAO/WHO/UNU , 171, 219

protein/indispensable amino acid requirements, FAO/WHO/UNU values, 3-4, 171

Chocolate Mountain Desert Gunnery Range, California, 98, 100

Choline

dietary supplementation and endurance performance, 336

Cognitive performance

amino acid changes in military lightweight rations, effects of, field studies results, 301-303

military limited-use operational rations, for optimal function, research needs, 86-87

military performance optimization, use of protein/amino acid supplements, CMNR conclusions/recommendations, 13, 14, 79-81

protein/amino acid requirements, role in, 20, 289-303

protein/amino acid supplements effects on, 8, 42-45

protein intake timing, effects on, 57-58

stress and amino acid changes, effects on, 87, 298-300, 301-303,

tryptophan/serotonin effects on, 43-44, 87, 289, 290, 292, 293-297

tyrosine/norepinephrine effects on, 44-45, 87, 289, 290, 292, 297-300

See also Physical performance

Committee on Military Nutrition Research (CMNR), 2, 3, 6, 8, 21, 35, 36, 54, 55, 61, 86, 87, 88, 110

endurance exercise, protein requirements in, conclusions/recommendations , 77, 78

injuries/infection effects of anabolic hormones treatment, conclusions/recommendations , 12, 14, 78, 79

operational rations and Military Recommended Dietary Allowance, conclusions/recommendations , 12, 14, 79

operational rations protein/energy content, conclusions/recommendations , 12-13, 14, 79

pregnancy/lactation and protein Military Recommended Dietary Allowance,

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1999. The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9620.
×

conclusions/recommendations, 12, 14, 79

protein/amino acid requirements effects of military operational stressors, conclusions/recommendations, 11-12, 14, 77-79

protein/amino acid supplementation, safety of, conclusions/recommendations , 12-13, 14, 79-81

protein/amino acid supplementation to optimize military performance, conclusions/recommendations, 13, 14, 79-81

Computerized tomography (CT), 266, 267

muscle mass/composition measurement, methods overview, 46, 47-48, 258, 259, 268-269, 274

See also Imaging methods;

Measurement techniques

Cortisol, 131, 133

See also Catabolic hormones;

Hormones

Creatinine (Cr), 145, 146, 147

urinary metabolite muscle mass/composition measurement, methods overview , 45, 46, 258, 259, 263, 265-267, 274

Cytochrome c oxidase (COX), 126


Defense Women's Health Research Program, 88

Demographics. See Age and aging;

Children;

Gender

Depression. See Mood

Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA), 333

Diseases and disorders

muscle protein degradation, altering conditions, 115

protein requirements effects of illness, 5, 20, 33-34,

renal disease development, protein intake effects on, 137-147

See also Acute renal failure;

Eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome (EMS);

Glomerulosclerosis;

Infectious diseases and disorders;

Injuries;

Renal stone disease

Diurnal cycling

amino acid, indispensable, requirements and, 184-186, 224-225

Dopamine, 290, 292, 293

cognitive performance effects of, 297, 298

See also Neurotransmitters

Drugs

renal stone disease treatment, 143

Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), 262, 263

muscle mass/composition measurement, methods overview, 46, 47-48, 259, 269-272, 274-275

See also Measurement techniques


Endurance

branched-chain amino acids/tryptophan ingestion, effects on performance, studies results, 310, 313-315

choline dietary supplementation and performance, 336

exercise, endurance, and protein/amino acid metabolism, 310-311

exercise, endurance, and protein requirements, CMNR conclusions/recommendations , 77, 78

glutamine ingestion, effects on performance, studies results, 310, 317-320

See also Physical performance

Energy

deficit of, protein/amino acid supplementation effects on, CMNR conclusions/recommendations , 79-81

intake of, metabolic studies of long-distance cyclists, 52

military operations protein requirements, energy intake effects, CMNR conclusions/recommendations, 11, 14, 77, 78

military operational rations content of, by ration type, 94-95, 411

military operational rations content of, CMNR conclusions/recommendations , 12-13, 14, 79

military operational rations, historic intake of, World War II studies , 96-97

military operational rations, requirements of, determination, 102-103

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1999. The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9620.
×

physical activity increases, and interaction with protein metabolism , 244, 248-249

physical activity restriction of, effects on protein requirements, 4-5, 29-33

protein breakdown, costs of, 114-116

protein metabolism use of, energy-dependent processes associated with, 110-112

protein requirements and balance of, 31-33

proteins, regulatory, turnover, energy-dependent processes in, 114

protein synthesis and regulation, costs of, 112-114

Eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome (EMS)

L-tryptophan-associated, 294, 331-332, 335

Epinephrine, 131

cognitive performance effects of, 297

See also Catabolic hormones;

Hormones;

Neurotransmitters

Exercise. See Athletics;

Physical activity


Federation of the American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB)

amino acids as dietary supplements, study on safety, 332-334

Field operations

protein intake studies, 38, 40-41

protein supplemental intake by personnel, overview, 93-104

rations amino acid changes, lightweight v. standard, cognitive performance effects, 301-303

rations, operational, protein/energy current intake, 97-102

rations, operational, protein/energy historic intake, World War II studies, 96-97

See also Military operations;

Military personnel

Fluid Doctrine, 13, 14, 81

Food

Minnesota bread study, 191, 192, 231

North Carolina wheat study, 191-192, 231

See also Food and drug safety;

Food supplements;

Military rations;

Plants and vegetation;

Soybeans;

Wheat

Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), 24, 25, 26, 27, 57, 170, 172, 173, 174, 175, 186, 192, 194, 195, 199

nitrogen balance use for estimating amino acid requirements, 186-202

protein/amino acid obligatory oxidative losses, FAO/WHO/UNU values , 171

protein/amino acid requirements, 3-4, 24-28, 171, 218, 219, 220, 229, 230, 231, 236, 237

protein/amino acid requirements adjustment, 192-193

Food and Drug Administration (FDA), 332, 334

"Current Good Manufacturing Practice in Manufacturing, Packing, or Holding Dietary Supplements," 334

Food and drug safety

amino acid supplements, toxicity of, 11, 61-63, 331, 332-334

protein/amino acid supplements safety, CMNR conclusions/recommendations , 13, 14, 79-81

protein supplements, health risks of, 7-11, 39, 58-63

supplements, dietary, for enhancing performance, efficacy/safety considerations, 331-337

Food supplements

choline, and endurance performance, 336

military training nutritional intervention for immune function, research needs, 88

performance enhancement using, efficacy/safety considerations, 331-337

premenstrual syndrome management using, 335-336

See also Amino acid supplements;

Protein powders (PP);

Protein supplements

Fort Chaffee, Arkansas, 41, 98, 100

Fort Devens, Massachusetts, 40, 98, 100-101

Fort Jackson, South Carolina, 40, 99, 102

Fort Hood, Texas, 40, 99, 101-102

Fort Lewis, Washington, 40, 98, 100-101

Fort Polk, Louisiana, 98, 101, 103

Fort Riley, Kansas, 98, 100-101

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1999. The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9620.
×

Fort Sam Houston, Texas, 41, 99, 102

Fractional synthesis rate (FSR), 125, 126, 130

Free fatty acids (FFA), 53, 312-313


Gender

protein/amino acids supplemental use by military personnel, by sex , 103-104

protein Recommended Dietary Allowance by sex, 6, 37

Glomerular filtration rate (GFR), 59, 139, 140, 144, 145, 147

Glomerulosclerosis

aging and development of, 144, 145, 146, 147

protein intake and development of, 138, 144-147

See also Diseases and disorders;

Renal function

Glucagon, 131, 133

See also Catabolic hormones

Glutamine

endurance performance/metabolism effects of, 310, 317-320

glycogen resynthesis following exercise, supplementation effects, 310, 321-322

immune response effects of supplementation, CMNR conclusions/recommendations , 13, 14

immune system, link to, 319-320

muscle concentrations during exercise, 244-246

overtraining syndrome and immune function, role of, 249-250

plasma concentrations of, 318-319

See also Amino acids (AA)

Glycogen

resynthesis following exercise, effects of amino acid/protein supplementation , 310, 320-322

Grains. See Plants and vegetation

Growth hormone (GH), 50-51, 52

muscle protein effects of, 50-51, 125, 128-129, 133

muscle protein metabolism following infection/injury, effects of, 281

See also Anabolic hormones


Hormones, 19, 20,

infection/injury effects on whole body protein metabolism, regulators of, 161-162

muscle protein effects of, 127-131

See also Amino acids (AA);

Anabolic hormones;

Catabolic hormones;

Growth hormone (GH);

Insulin;

In-sulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I);

Sex steroids

Hunter Army Airfield, Georgia, 98, 101, 103


Imaging methods

muscle mass/composition measurement, methods overview, 46, 47-48, 258, 259, 268-269, 274

See also Computerized tomography (CT);

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI);

Measurement techniques

Immune function

amino acid supplementation effects on, 9, 13, 14, 54-56

glutamine, effects on, 319-320

glutamine, overtraining syndrome, and, 249-250

military training/stressors effects on, nutritional intervention research needs, 88

India

Anura Kurpad, amino acid requirements studies, 234

Bangalore amino acid requirements studies, 223, 234

nitrogen loss studies, 223

St. John's Medical College, amino acid requirements studies, 223

Indispensable amino acids (IAA)

composition/requirement patterns in, animal data, 178

ileal losses, animal data, 180

metabolic demand for, adaptive component, 180-184, 221-224

metabolic demand for, diurnal cycling role in, 184-186, 224-225

metabolic demand for, summary of, 186, 187

nitrogen balance use for estimating FAO requirement patterns in, 22-24, 186-202

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1999. The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9620.
×

obligatory metabolic demand pattern for, animal data for, 175-180

obligatory oxidative losses, FAO/WHO/UNU values, 171

plant proteins biological value in nitrogen balance trials, 190-192

protein-free diet, responses to, animal data, 177

protein quality issues, 56-57

requirements for, debate over, 3-4, 25-28, 170-173

requirements for, FAO/WHO/UNU values, 3-4, 24-28, 171

requirements for, FAO/WHO/UNU values adjustment, 192-193

requirements for, feasibility and necessity of estimates, 217-237

supplementation of, cognitive performance effects of, 8, 42-45

See also Amine acids (AA);

Leucine;

Lysine;

Tryptophan;

Tyrosine

Infectious diseases and disorders

anabolic hormones treatment, effects on, CMNR conclusions/recommendations , 12, 14, 78, 79

muscle protein metabolism effects of, 20, 279-282

nitrogen loss/translocation following, 156, 158, 159-160

protein requirements effects of, 5, 20, 33-34

protein translocation during, regulators of, 160-162

whole body protein metabolism, effects of, 155-159

See also Diseases and disorders

Injuries

anabolic hormones treatment, effects on, CMNR conclusions/recommendations , 12, 14, 78, 79

muscle protein metabolism effects of, 20, 279-282

nitrogen loss/translocation following, 156, 158, 159-160

protein requirements effects of, 5, 20, 33-34

protein translocation during, regulators of, 160-162

whole body protein metabolism, effects of, 155-159

Insulin

infection/injury, and effects on muscle protein metabolism, 282

muscle protein effects of, 49-50, 125, 127-128, 133

See also Anabolic hormones

Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), 20, 50-51, 52

muscle protein effects of, 50-51, 125, 128-129, 133

See also Anabolic hormones

In vive neutron activation analysis (IVNA)/whole body counting

muscle mass/composition measurement, methods overview, 47, 258, 259 , 272-273, 275

See also Measurement techniques


Japan

nitrogen loss studies, 223

renal stone disease incidence, 138

women breast cancer incidence, relationship to diet, 334-335


Kidney. See Acute renal failure;

Renal function;

Renal stone disease


Lactation. See Breastfeeding

Large neutral amine acids (LNAA), 42, 43, 44, 335

See also Amino acids (AA);

Tryptophan;

Tyrosine

Leucine, 219, 221-224, 225, 233, 234, 246

See also Amino acids (AA);

Indispensable amino acids (IAA)

Life Sciences Research Office (LSRO), 332-334

Luzon, Phillipines

U.S. military personnel, protein intake studies, 96, 97

Lysine, 219, 221-224, 225, 233-234

nitrogen balance use for estimating requirements of, limitations, 226-231

Toronto Break Point stable isotope studies on, limitations of, 197-198

wheat flour content of, 229, 230

See also Amino acids (AA);

Indispensable amino acids (IAA)

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1999. The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9620.
×

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 31, 260, 262, 267

muscle mass/composition measurement, methods overview, 46, 47, 48, 258, 259, 268-269, 274

See also Imaging methods;

Measurement techniques

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), 25, 88, 175, 176, 189 , 194, 197, 199, 223

Massachusetts Institute of Technology Amino Acid Requirement Pattern (MIT-AARP), 26, 27, 170, 172-173, 229, 230, 231

FAO/WHO/UNU patterns comparison, 219

overview of, 218-221

physical activity and, considerations, 235-237

Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), 124, 126

Meal, Ready-to-Eat (MRE), 20-21, 36, 38, 86, 87

lightweight rations comparison, cognitive performance effects of amino acid changes, field studies results, 301-303

nutrient intake of, field study, 301

See also Military rations

Measurement techniques

descriptive methods, for muscle mass, 45-46

in vivo methods, for muscle mass, 46, 47, 258-275

model-based methods, for muscle mass, 46-48

See also Anthropometry;

Bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA);

Computerized tomography (CT);

Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA);

Imaging methods;

In vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNA)/whole body counting;

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI);

Stable isotopes;

Ultrasound;

Urinary metabolites

Medicine. See Drugs

Metabolic demand (MD)

amino acids, indispensable, adaptive component of, 180-184, 221-224

amino acids, indispensable, diurnal cycling role in, 184-186, 224-225

amino acids, indispensable, summary of, 186, 187

See also Amino acid metabolism;

Obligatory metabolic demand (OMD);

Protein metabolism

Metabolism. See Amino acid metabolism;

Metabolic demand (MD);

Protein metabolism

Methionine

urinary excretion effects of, 141, 142

Methodology, 3

isotope, stable, amino acid requirements prediction using, limitations , 193-197

muscle mass/composition measurement, methods organization, 257-259

nitrogen balance studies, amino acid requirements prediction using, limitations , 186-192

protein requirements assessment, 22-24

Toronto Break Point stable isotope studies on phenylalanine/lysine, limitations of, 197-198

3-Methylhistidine

urinary metabolite measurement of muscle mass/composition, 45, 46, 258, 259, 263, 265, 267, 274

Military operations

protein/amino acids requirements during, CMNR conclusions/recommendations , 77-79

protein/amino acids role in physiological optimization during, research needs, 85-89

protein/amino acid supplementation to optimize performance, CMNR conclusions/recommendations, 79-81

rations, limited-use, for optimal cognitive/physical function, research needs, 86-87

rations protein/energy content, by ration type, 94-95, 411

rations protein/energy content, CMNR conclusions/recommendations, 12-13, 14, 79

rations protein/energy current intake, 97-102

rations protein/energy historic intake, World War II studies, 96-97

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1999. The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9620.
×

rations protein/energy requirements, determination of, 102-103

rations protein Military Recommended Dietary Allowance, CMNR conclusions/recommendations , 79

stressors during, effects on protein requirements, 35-36

urea formation and recycling during, research needs, 89

Military personnel

Army protein/amino acid supplements use, 39, 42

protein/amino acids supplement use, by gender/military specialty, 103-104

protein/energy historic ration intake, World War II studies, 96-97

protein/energy operational intake, recent studies, 98, 99-101

protein intake studies of, 38, 40-41

protein requirements effects of various stressors, 3-6

training and stress-induced changes in immune function, nutritional intervention research needs, 88

See also Field operations;

Military operations;

Military rations;

Military Recommended Dietary Allowance (MRDA);

Women in military;

U.S. Air Force (USAF);

U.S. Army;

U.S. Army Rangers;

U.S. Army Reserves;

U.S. Marine Corps;

U.S. Special Forces

Military rations, 38

field/operational protein intake, overview, 93-104

garrison protein intake, overview, 93-104

limited-use, for optimal cognitive/physical function, research needs , 86-87

operational, protein/energy content, by ration type, 94-95, 411

operational, protein/energy content, CMNR conclusions/recommendations , 12-13, 14, 79

operational, protein/energy current intake in, 97-102

operational, protein/energy historic intake in, World War II studies , 96-97

operational, protein/energy requirements for, determination of, 102-103

operational, protein Military Recommended Dietary Allowance for, CMNR conclusions/recommendations, 79

protein requirements for, crucial questions, 250

protein supplemental intake, overview, 93-104

World War II studies of, overview of, 93-97, 102

See also Meal, Ready-to-Eat (MRE);

Military personnel;

Ration, Light Weight-30 (RLW-30)

Military Recommended Dietary Allowance (MRDA), 35, 36, 37-39, 78, 79, 87, 100, 101

pregnancy/lactation, protein allowance, CMNR conclusions/recommendations , 7, 12, 14, 39, 79

protein allowance for operational rations, CMNR conclusions/recommendations , 6-7, 12, 14, 37-39, 79

See also Military personnel;

Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)

Minnesota bread study, 191, 192, 231

Models and modeling, 46-48, 257, 258, 260, 265, 272

Mood

tryptophan/serotonin effects on, 293-294, 296

Mulder, Gerardus Johannes, 19-20, 109-110


Natick Research, Development and Engineering Center (NRDEC), 93-94

National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), 191

National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (NHANES III), 37, 103

Naval Medical Research Institute, 87

Nephrolithiasis. See Renal stone disease

Neurotransmitters, 19, 289, 290, 292, 293

See also Amino acids (AA);

Dopamine;

Epinephrine;

Norepinephrine;

Serotonin

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1999. The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9620.
×

NHANES III. See National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (NHANES III)

Nitric oxide (NO), 55-56

Nitrogen, 225

balance of, use for estimating indispensable amino acid requirements, limitations, 22-24, 172, 186-202, 226-231

plant proteins biological value in nitrogen balance trials, 190-192

translocation/loss associated with infection/injury, 156, 157, 158 , 159-160, 161

See also Obligatory nitrogen loss (ONL)

Norepinephrine, 290, 292, 293

cognitive performance effects of, 297-299

stress exposure and cognitive performance, effects of, 297-299

See also Neurotransmitters

North Carolina wheat study, 191-192, 231

Nurses' Health Study, 61

Nutrients

infection/injury effects on whole body protein metabolism, regulators of, 162

military standard field and lightweight ration groups, intakes of, 301

Nutrition

brain status determination by blood-brain barrier, overview of, 290-293

intervention for immune function changes during military training/stresses, research needs, 88

muscle mass/function, implications of, 132

undernutrition and military lightweight rations, cognitive performance effects of amino acid changes, field studies results, 301-303

See also Amino acid metabolism;

Amino acids (AA);

Amino acid supplements;

Energy;

Food supplements;

Metabolic demand (MD);

Nutrients;

Protein;

Protein metabolism;

Protein supplements


Obligatory metabolic demand (OMD) animal data for pattern of, 175-180

obligatory oxidative losses and, 174-175

overview of, 173-174

protein/amino acids, overview of, 173-174

See also Amino acid metabolism;

Metabolic demand (MD);

Protein metabolism

Obligatory nitrogen loss (ONL), 4, 170, 171, 172, 174, 175, 180

See also Amino acid metabolism;

Nitrogen;

Protein metabolism

Obligatory oxidative amino acid loss (OOAL/OOL), 4, 170, 175, 176, 218, 219, 221, 223

amino acids requirements patterns, adjustment of FAO/WHO/UNU values for, 192-193

amino acids requirements patterns, prediction using, 175

FAO/WHO/UNU values for, 171

metabolic demands, obligatory, and, 174-175

See also Amino acid metabolism;

Protein metabolism


Pacific Islands

U.S. military energy/protein intake studies, 96, 97

Phenylalanine, 128, 219

isotope, stable, estimates of requirement values, 232-233

nitrogen balance use for estimating requirements of, 227

Toronto Break Point stable isotope studies on, limitations of, 197-198

See also Amino acids (AA)

Physical activity

branched-chain amino acids ingestion effects during exercise, 53-54, 317

contractile activity, muscle protein turnover effects of, 30-31,244, 247-248

energy restriction and amino acid/protein requirements, 29-33

exercise and amino acid catabolism and, 29-30, 244-247

exercise effects of protein intake timing, 57-58

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1999. The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9620.
×

exercise, endurance, and amino acid/protein metabolism, 310-311

exercise, endurance, and protein requirements, CMNR conclusions/recommendations , 77, 78

exercise, prolonged, plasma glutamine concentrations following, 318

glycogen resynthesis following exercise, effects of amine acid/protein supplementation, 310, 320-322

increased, energy supply and protein/ amine acid metabolism interactions in, 248-249

MIT amine acid requirement pattern and, considerations, 235-237

protein/amino acid requirements effects of high workload, CMNR conclusions/recommendations , 77-79

protein/amino acid supplementation effects on performance during high workload, CMNR conclusions/recommendations, 79-81

protein metabolism/requirements and, 20, 243-244, 250-251

See also Athletics

Physical performance

branched-chain amine acids/tryptophan ingestion, endurance effects, studies results, 53-54, 310, 313-315

dietary supplements use to enhance, safety/efficacy considerations , 331-337

endurance exercise, protein/amino acid supplementation effects on, rationale for, 309-322

endurance performance and choline dietary supplementation, 336

military limited-use operational rations, for optimal function, research needs, 86-87

protein/amino acid supplementation effects on, 10, 52-54, 309-332

protein/amino acid supplementation to optimize military performance, CMNR conclusions/recommendations, 79-81

protein, dietary, and amine acids supplementation and, study considerations , 334

See also Cognitive performance;

Endurance

Plants and vegetation

proteins in, biological value in nitrogen balance trials, 190-192

proteins in, potential benefits of, 57

See also Food;

Soybeans;

Wheat

Plasma

ammonia concentrations, branched-chain amine acids ingestion effects during exercise, 317

glutamine concentrations following prolonged exercise, 318

glutamine concentrations in over-trained athletes and Tour de France cyclists, 318-319

Population characteristics. See Age and aging;

Gender

Porsolt swim test, 299, 300

Pregnancy, 37, 39

amine acid/protein supplementation effects on, 62-63

protein Military Recommended Dietary Allowance for, CMNR conclusions/recommendations , 7, 39, 79

protein Recommended Dietary Allowance for, 6-7, 37, 39

Premenstrual syndrome (PMS)

dietary supplementation for management of, studies on, 335-336

Profile of Mood States (POMS), 295, 336

Progesterone. See Sex steroids

Prophylactics. See Drugs

Protein

acute renal failure, intake role in, 138, 144

Army's interest in role of, 2-3, 20-21

calcium status and intake of, 10, 60-61

cognitive performance effects of changes during stress, 301-303

functions of, 110, 111

glomerulosclerosis development, intake role in, 138, 144-147

intake adequacy, functional indicators of, 198-202

intake of, metabolic studies of long-distance cyclists, 52

intake timing, effects on exercise and cognitive function, 57-58

military operational rations content, by ration type, 94-95, 411

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1999. The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9620.
×

military operational rations content, CMNR conclusions/recommendations , 12, 14, 79

military operational rations current intake of, 97-102

military operational rations historic intake of, World War II studies , 96-97

military personnel intake of, recent studies, 38, 40-41

Military Recommended Dietary Allowance for, 6-7, 12, 14, 37-39

nonsecretory, targeting costs, 113

obligatory oxidative losses, FAO/WHO/UNU values, 171

origins of term, 19-20, 109-110

plant/legume sources of, potential benefits of, 57

plant versus animal sources of, efficacy/safety considerations, 334-335

quality of, issues, 56-57

Recommended Dietary Allowances for, 6-7, 37, 39

renal disease development, intake role in, 137-147

renal function, intake role in, 10, 59-60, 137-138

renal stone disease development, intake role in, 59-60, 138-143

secretory, targeting costs, 113

total body, distribution of, 256

urea formation and recycling of, research needs for military operations , 89

wheat flour content, 230

See also Amino acids (AA);

Protein metabolism;

Protein powders (PP);

Protein requirements;

Protein supplements

Protein-digestibility corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS), 170, 172

Protein metabolism

amino acid/protein supplements, effects on, rationale for, 309-322

anorexia response to infection/injury, 160

energy costs of breakdown/degradation, 114-116

energy costs of synthesis and regulation, 112-114

energy-dependent processes associated with, summary, 110-112

energy supply and, interactions during increased physical activity , 4-5, 29-33, 244, 248-249

environmental stresses influence on, 6, 20, 35-36

exercise, endurance, and, 310-311

hormonal response pattern following infection/injury, 161

hormones influence on, 20, 49-52

infection/injury effects on, overview of, 20, 155-159

muscle protein degradation, altering conditions, 115

muscle protein metabolism, hormonal interactions with, 49-52

muscle protein turnover effects of contractile activity, 30, 244, 247-248

nitrogen translocation following infection/injury, 157, 158, 159-160, 161

overview of, 21-22, 173-186

physical activity influence and, 20, 243-244, 250-251

translocation of following infection/injury, regulators of, 160-162

turnover, protein, as indicator of amino acid intake adequacy, limitations , 198-199

turnover, regulatory proteins, energy-dependent processes in, 114

urea formation/recycling during military operations, research needs , 89

Protein powders (PP)

supplements use reported by military personnel, by gender/military specialty, 103-104

See also Food supplements;

Protein supplements

Protein requirements

assessment methods for, 22-24

brain function and, 289-303

cognitive performance, effects of stress and, 298-300

conclusions/recommendations of CMNR on, 77-79

debate over, 3-4, 25-28, 170-173

endurance exercise and, CMNR conclusions/recommendations, 77, 78

energy balance and, 11, 14, 31-33

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1999. The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9620.
×

environmental stresses influence on, 6, 20, 35-36

FAO/WHO/UNU values, 3-4, 24-28, 171

FAO/WHO/UNU values adjustment, 192-193

infection/injury/illness effects on, 5, 20, 33-34

military limited-use operational rations, for optimal cognitive/physical function, research needs, 86-87

military women and, research needs, 88-89

obligatory oxidative amino acid loss pattern use to predict, 175

operational rations, determination for, 102-103

physical activity and, 4-5, 20, 29-33, 243-244, 250-251

stressors effects on, 3-6, 11-12, 38-36

Protein supplements

amino acid/protein, effects on metabolism, rationale for, 309-322

Army personnel use of, 39, 42

cognitive performance effects of, 8, 42-45

benefits/health risks of, 7-11, 39, 49-63

hydrolysates, effects on glycogen re-synthesis following exercise, 310, 322

metabolism and performance effects of, rationale for, 309-322

military performance optimization, use for, CMNR conclusions/recommendations , 12-13, 14, 79-81

military personnel reported use, by gender/military specialty, 103-104

muscle building, use for, CMNR conclusions/recommendations, 12, 14

performance and, study considerations, 334

physical performance effects of, 10, 52-54

plant versus animal sources of, efficacy of, 334-335

pregnancy, effects of high-protein diets and amino acid supplements , 11, 62-63

safety/efficacy considerations, 13, 14, 79-81, 334

timing of intake, effects, 57-58

See also Amino acid supplements;

Food supplements;

Protein;

Protein powders (PP);

Protein requirements


Ration, Light Weight-30 (RLW-30)

amino acid changes from standard rations, cognitive performance effects, field studies results, 301-303

nutrient intake of, field study, 301

Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), 78, 94, 102, 173

pregnant/lactating women, protein allowance, 6-7, 37, 39, 71

protein allowance by age group and sex, 6, 37

protein requirements of FAO/WHO/UNU and, 24-28

See also Military Recommended Dietary Allowance (MRDA)

Renal function

disease development, protein intake effects on, 137-147

protein intake effects on, 10, 59-60, 137-138

See also Acute renal failure;

Glomerulosclerosis

Renal stone disease

calcium clearance determinants, 139-142

calcium excretion and calcium-containing stones, 138-143

calcium intake and, 138

protein intake role in, 59-60, 138-143

treatment, prophylactic, 143

uric acid stones, 138, 143

urinary and excretion patterns in stone formers, 142-143

See also Diseases and disorders

Reproductive diseases and disorders. See Premenstrual syndrome (PMS)

Research

immune function changes during military training/stressors, nutritional intervention research needs, 88

injuries/infection effects of anabolic hormones treatment, CMNR conclusions/recommendations , 79

military limited-use operational rations for optimal cognitive/physical function, research needs, 86-87

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1999. The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9620.
×

military operations and protein/amino acids role in physiological optimization, research needs, 85-89

military women's protein requirements, research needs, 88-89

urea formation and recycling, research needs for military operations , 89


Sarcopenia of aging. See Age and aging

Serotonin

cognitive performance role of, 43-44, 87, 290, 292, 293-297

See also Neurotransmitters

Sex steroids

muscle protein effects of, 125, 129-131

testosterone effects on muscle protein metabolism, 51, 282

Skeletal muscle (SM)

aging effects on mass/function regulation, 123-126

ammonia production of, branched-chain amino acids ingestion effects during exercise, 317

anabolic hormones effects on, 49-51

anabolic hormones effects on following injury/infection, 281-282

anthropometric prediction methods for, overview, 45-46, 258, 259-261, 273-274

bioelectric impedance analysis prediction of, methods overview, 45 , 46, 258, 259, 262-263, 264, 274

building, use of protein supplements for, CMNR conclusions/recommendations , 12, 14

catabolic hormones effects on, 52, 131

descriptive measurement methods for, 45-46

dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry prediction of, methods overview, 46, 47-48, 259, 269-272, 274-275

endurance of, 49

glycogen resynthesis in following exercise, effects of amino acid/protein supplementation, 310, 320-322

growth hormone effects on, 128-129, 133, 281

hormonal effects on muscle protein, 127-131

imaging methods for predicting, overview, 46-47, 258, 259, 268-269 , 274

infection/injury effects on body composition, 160, 161

infection/injury effects on protein metabolism in, 279-281

insulin effects on, 127, 128, 133, 282

insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), effects on, 128-129, 133

in vivo neutron activation/whole body counting as predictors of, methods overview, 46, 258, 259, 272-273, 275

mass and function regulation, overview of, 48-49, 121-123

measurement of, methods overview, 45-48, 259-273

metabolism of, 49

model-based measurement methods for, 46-48

nitrogen translocation to visceral organs following infection/injury , 156, 159-160

protein degradation, altering conditions, 115

protein turnover effects of contractile activity, 30, 244, 247-248

strength of, 48-49

substrates and nutrition, implications for, 132

testosterone effects on, 282

time-related changes in mass and composition, monitoring considerations , 273-275

tricarboxylic acid cycle in muscle, branched-chain amino acid-aminotransferase reaction, interaction with, 315-317

ultrasound prediction of, methods overview, 45, 258, 259, 261-262, 273-274

urinary metabolites as indices of, methods overview, 45, 46, 258, 259, 263, 265, 274

Sodium sulfate

calcium clearance role of, 140, 141, 143

Soybeans

protein alternative sources, efficacy/safety considerations, 80, 334-335

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1999. The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9620.
×

Special Forces Assessment and Selection (SFAS), 88

See also U.S. Special Forces

Stable isotopes

amino acid, indispensable, requirement values, use for, 193-197, 232-234

Toronto Break Point studies on phenylalanine/lysine, limitations of, 197-198

See also Measurement techniques

Stressors

altitude, high, protein requirements effects of, 35-36, 101

immune function stress-induced alterations, nutritional intervention research needs, 88

protein/amino acid requirements and, cognitive performance effects , 86, 87, 289, 290

protein/amino acid requirements and military operational stressors, effects of, CMNR conclusions/recommendations, 3-6, 35-36, 77-79

protein/amino acid supplementation to optimize military performance during, CMNR conclusions/recommendations, 79-81

protein requirements, effects of, 3-6, 11-12, 20, 28-36

tyrosine role in effects on cognitive performance, 44-45, 87, 298-300

Stroop Task, 300

Substrates

muscle mass/function, implications for, 132


Temperature

cold stress and cognitive performance, tyrosine role in, 87, 298-299

cold stress, protein requirements effects of, 35-36

heat stress and cognitive performance, tyrosine role in, 300

heat stress, protein requirements effects of, 35

Thyroid hormone, 131

See also Catabolic hormones;

Hormones

Toronto Break Point studies

phenylalanine/lysine stable isotope data, limitations of, 197-198

Total body nitrogen (TBN), 272, 273, 275

Total body potassium (TBK), 272, 273, 275

Tour de France, 52

cyclists, amino acid/protein metabolism during, 52, 311

cyclists, glutamine plasma concentrations in, 318-319

Tricarboxylic acid (TCA), 24, 53-54

branched-chain amino acid-aminotransferase reaction, interaction with in muscle, 315-317

Tryptophan

cognitive performance/mood role of, 43-44, 87, 289, 290, 292, 293-297

endurance performance effects of ingestion, studies results, 310, 313-315

L-tryptophan, 331-332, 335

military lightweight rations changes in, cognitive performance effect of, 301-303

Tyrosine, 232-233

cognitive performance/brain function role of, 44-45, 87, 289, 290, 292, 297-300

military lightweight rations changes in, cognitive performance effect of, 301-303

stress response, role of, 87, 298-300


Ultrasound

muscle mass/composition measurement, methods overview, 45, 258, 259 , 261-262, 273-274

See also Measurement techniques

United Nations University (UNU), 24, 25, 174, 175, 192

amino acid/protein obligatory oxidative losses, FAO/WHO/UNU values , 171

amino acid/protein requirement patterns of FAO/WHO/UNU, 3-4, 24-28 , 171, 218, 219, 220, 229, 230, 231, 236, 237

Urinary excretion

calcium clearance determinants, 139-142

protein/nitrogen loss following infection/injury, 157, 159

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1999. The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9620.
×

renal stone formers, patterns in, 138, 142-143

urea formation and recycling, research needs for military operations , 89

Urinary metabolites

muscle mass/composition measurement, methods overview, 45, 46, 258 , 259, 263, 265-267, 274

See also Measurement techniques

Urolithiasis. See Renal stone disease

U.S. Air Force (USAF), 96

U.S. Army, 7, 39, 96, 97, 99, 100, 102, 104

Air Defense Artillery company, 103

Military Nutrition Division, 2

protein/amino acid requirement questions of, CMNR responses, 77-81

protein/amino acid supplements use by personnel, 39, 42

protein, dietary, and protein balance, interest in, 2-3, 20-21

Special Operations, 101

See also Natick Research, Development and Engineering Center (NRDEC)

U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command (USAMRMC), 2

U.S. Army Rangers, 20-21, 55, 86, 87, 88, 101, 103, 110

U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine (USARIEM), 20, 301

U.S. Army Reserves, 101

U.S. Army Surgeon General, 93

U.S. Marine Corps, 45, 87, 100

U.S. Military Academy (USMA), 61

U.S. Special Forces, 2, 39, 103

See also Special Forces Assessment and Selection (SFAS)


Visceral organs

infection/injury effects on body composition, 160, 161

nitrogen translocation from muscle mass following infection/injury , 156, 159-160

See also Body composition

Visual Analog Mood Scale (VAMS), 295

Voit, Carl, 156, 186-187


Wheat

amino acid diet restriction, animal studies, 179

flour amino acid/protein content, 229, 230

North Carolina wheat study, 191-192, 231

See also Plants and vegetation

Whole body counting. See In vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNA) analysis/whole body counting

Women

college women nitrogen balance estimation of lysine requirements, 226

Japan women breast cancer incidence, relationship to diet, 334-335

See also Breastfeeding;

Pregnancy;

Premenstrual syndrome (PMS)

Women in military

protein/amino acids supplemental use by, 103-104

protein/energy operational intakes, recent studies, 99, 101-102

protein intake studies, 38, 40-41

protein requirements, research needs, 88-89

World Health Organization (WHO), 24, 25, 26, 57, 174, 175, 192

amino acid/protein obligatory oxidative losses, FAO/WHO/UNU values , 171

amino acid/protein requirement patterns of FAO/WHO/UNU, 3-4, 24-28 , 171, 218, 219, 220, 229, 230, 231, 236, 237

World War II, 37, 93, 138, 261

operational rations protein/energy recommendations during, 94, 102

operational rations protein/energy content, studies during, 94-95

operational rations protein/energy intake, studies during, 96-97

Suggested Citation:"Index." Institute of Medicine. 1999. The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/9620.
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It is a commonly held belief that athletes, particularly body builders, have greater requirements for dietary protein than sedentary individuals. However, the evidence in support of this contention is controversial. This book is the latest in a series of publications designed to inform both civilian and military scientists and personnel about issues related to nutrition and military service.

Among the many other stressors they experience, soldiers face unique nutritional demands during combat. Of particular concern is the role that dietary protein might play in controlling muscle mass and strength, response to injury and infection, and cognitive performance. The first part of the book contains the committee's summary of the workshop, responses to the Army's questions, conclusions, and recommendations. The remainder of the book contains papers contributed by speakers at the workshop on such topics as, the effects of aging and hormones on regulation of muscle mass and function, alterations in protein metabolism due to the stress of injury or infection, the role of individual amino acids, the components of proteins, as neurotransmitters, hormones, and modulators of various physiological processes, and the efficacy and safety considerations associated with dietary supplements aimed at enhancing performance.

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