Overcoming Barriers to Collaborative Research
Report of a Workshop
GOVERNMENT-UNIVERSITY-INDUSTRY RESEARCH ROUNDTABLE
The purpose of this report is to contribute to the discussions of how universities and industry can overcome barriers to collaborative research. The views expressed are those of the symposium participants, and do not represent official policy statements of the Government-University-Industry Research Roundtable and its sponsoring organizations, the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, or the Institute of Medicine.
NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Government-University-Industry Research Roundtable
The Research Roundtable, sponsored by the National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine, was created to foster strong American science through effective working relationships among government, universities, and industry. The Research Roundtable does not develop advice or recommendations on specific policies or programs within the range of responsibility of participating government officials.
This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant ENG-9728967 and by the U.S. Department of Commerce and U.S. Department of Defense under MOU-725. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation, U.S. Department of Commerce, or U.S. Department of Defense.
International Standard Book Number: 0-309-06784-7
Copyright 1999 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Printed in the United States of America.
THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES
National Academy of Sciences
National Academy of Engineering
Institute of Medicine
National Research Council
The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences.
The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering.
The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine.
The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.
The Research Roundtable thanks the Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy for its cooperation. We are especially grateful to Gerald Dinneen and Jean Bonney, who co-chaired the project guidance group and the workshop. We also thank the experts who made presentations at the workshop: Gene Slowinski, Daniel Vapnek, Paul Christiano, Grant Brewen, Glenn Doell, Kristina Johnson, Stephen Atkinson, Richard Koehn, Stan Schneider, Joe Cunning, Francis Via, Teri Willey, and Eric Haseltine. We would also like to express our thanks to the other members of the guidance group: Alice Agogino, Kelly Carnes, C. Thomas Caskey, Mary Good, Kate Latta, Philip Majerus, James McGroddy, Walter Plosila, William Spencer, and Carolyn Woo; to David Challoner for serving as review coordinator; and to Karen Hersey and Karen Holbrook for assisting in the review of this report. The participants, guidance group members, and other reviewers provided many useful suggestions; the report, however, is not a consensus document or conference proceedings.
We specially acknowledge the U.S. Department of Commerce, U.S. Department of Defense, and the National Science Foundation for their financial support for the workshop, this report, and related activities. The workshop was held at the Arnold and Mabel Beckman Center of the National Academies, and the Roundtable appreciates the Beckman Foundation's support for the Center.
Allison A. Rosenberg
Associate Executive Director, Government-University-Industry Research Roundtable
(until July 1998)
Senior Program Officer, Government-University-Industry Research Roundtable
Wanda E. London
Administrative Associate, Policy Division, National Research Council