NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.
This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report:
Bonnie Brunkhorst, Department of Science, Math and Technology Education, Department of Geological Sciences, California State University, San Bernardino
Sharon Brusic, Technology Education Program, Virginia Tech University
Sam Florman, Kreisler Borg Florman Construction Company, Scarsdale, New York
Peter H.Raven, Missouri Botanical Garden
Bert K.Waits, Department of Mathematics, The Ohio State University
Thomas Wright, Center for Implementing Technology Education, Department of Industry and Technology, Ball State University
While the individuals listed above have provided constructive comments and suggestions, it must be emphasized that responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.
Support for this project was provided by the National Science Foundation (under grant no. ESI-9626809). Any opinions, findings, or recommendations expressed in this report are those of the members of the committee and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.
© 1999 the National Academy of Sciences
THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES
National Academy of Sciences
National Academy of Engineering
Institute of Medicine
National Research Council
The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M.Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences.
The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A.Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering.
The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I.Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine.
The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M.Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.
International Technology Education Association (ITEA) Standards Review Committee
William A.Wulf (Chair),
National Academy of Engineering
BioPharmaceutical Technology Center Institute, Madison, Wisconsin
Biological Sciences Curriculum Study, Colorado Springs, Colorado
Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College
American Association for the Advancement of Science