BURTON H. SINGER (Chair) is professor of demography and public affairs at the Woodrow Wilson School, Princeton University. Dr. Singer's work has altered the ways in which quantitative studies of economic, social, and epidemiological processes are carried out to determine causal mechanisms and associations. His research interests include the epidemiology of tropical diseases, demography and economics of aging, health and social consequences of economic development, and the interrelationships between genetics and historical demography. At Yale University he served as chair of the Department of Epidemiology and Public Health. He was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1994 and was a Guggenheim fellow in 1981-1982. Dr. Singer has served as chair of several National Research Council (NRC) committees.
LISA F. BERKMAN is chair of the Department of Health and Social Behavior and is Norman Professor of Health and Social Behavior and of Epidemiology at the Harvard School of Public Health. She is also chair of the Harvard Center for Society and Health. Dr. Berkman is an epidemiologist whose research focuses on social influences on health outcomes and their role in predicting declines in physical and cognitive functioning and the onset of disease and mortality. She is particularly interested in the role of social networks, social integration, and social inequalities and health. She serves as chair of the Steering Committee on Enhanced Recovery in Coronary Heart Disease of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI). She has been a member of the Advisory Board for the NHLBI
study of cardiovascular disease in the elderly. She serves on the IOM Committee on Health and Behavior: Research Practices and Policy.
LINDA M. BURTON is director of the Center for Human Development and Family Research in Diverse Contexts and professor of human development and family studies and sociology at Pennsylvania State University. Her research explores the relationship of neighborhood contexts, poverty, intergenerational family processes, and mental health outcomes across the life course. She is currently involved in a four-year multisite collaborative study of the impact of welfare reform on families and children. Dr. Burton has been a Spencer Foundation fellow, a Brookdale National fellow, and a fellow at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences, Stanford, California. In 1996 she received the American Family Therapy Academy Award for innovative contributions to family research, the Faculty Medal for Outstanding Achievement of Pennsylvania State University, and a “Products of Compton” Award. She currently serves on the Board on Behavioral, Cognitive, and Sensory Sciences for the NRC and is director of the Research Consortium on Diversity, Family Processes, and Child Adolescent Mental Health as well as the consortium's multisite postdoctoral training program, which are sponsored by the National Institute of Mental Health.
JOHN T. CACIOPPO is the Tiffany and Margaret Blake Distinguished Service Professor at the University of Chicago, directs the social psychology program, and is a member of the executive committee of the Institute for Mind and Biology. Dr. Cacioppo has also served as chaired university professor of psychology at Ohio State University, as director of the National Science Foundation-sponsored Program for advanced study and research in social psychophysiology, and as director of the National Institute of Mental Health-sponsored social psychology training program grant at Ohio State University. Dr. Cacioppo has been a Sigma Xi national lecturer, president of the Society for Psychophysiological Research, president for the Society for Consumer Research, and president of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, and a member of the Board of Directors for the Ohio State University Research Foundation. He is the recipient of the Distinguished Scientific Award for an Early Career Contribution to Psychophysiology, the National Academy of Sciences Troland Research Award, and numerous other awards. Dr. Cacioppo is the former editor in chief of Psychophysiology, a former associate editor of Psychological Review, and a former member of the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation Research Network on Mind/Body Interactions. He has been elected to the Society of Experimental Social Psychology and the Gesellschaft fur Unendliche Versuche and is a fellow in the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, American Psychological Association, Academy of Behavioral Medicine Research, International Organization of Psychophysiol-
ogy, American Psychological Society, American Association for the Advancement of Science, and the Society for Behavioral Medicine.
MARGARET A. CHESNEY is professor of medicine at the University of California at San Francisco. She is nationally recognized as an expert in behavioral medicine with a focus on interventions for prevention and coping with chronic disease. She received her Ph.D. from Colorado State University and was a postdoctoral fellow in psychiatry at the School of Medicine, Temple University. Dr. Chesney is codirector of the Center for AIDS Prevention Studies and a senior scientist involved in several projects studying behavioral factors in the prevention and treatment of HIV disease. In addition, she is director of the behavioral core of the Center for AIDS Research at San Francisco General Hospital and associate director of the California AIDS Research Center at UCSF. Prior to joining the University of California, she was director of the Department of Behavioral Medicine at Stanford Research Institute. Margaret Chesney currently serves on the IOM Board on Neuroscience and Behavioral Health and is past president of the Division of Health Psychology of the American Psychological Association, the American Psychosomatic Society, and the Academy of Behavioral Medicine Research.
DAVID CUTLER is the John L. Loeb Professor of Social Sciences of the Department of Economics and the Kennedy School of Government of Harvard University. He received his Ph.D. from MIT in 1991 and his A.B., summa cum laude, from Harvard in 1987. He is affiliated with the National Bureau of Economic Research, the Employee Benefit Research Institute, and the Institute for Research on Policy and serves as the editor or associate editor of several economic journals. Dr. Cutler served on the NRC Committee on the NIH Research Priority-Setting Process. Dr. Cutler is the editor of the Journal of Health Economics and associate editor of the Journal of Public Economics.
BARUCH FISCHHOFF is university professor in the Departments of Social and Decision Sciences and of Engineering and Public Policy at Carnegie Mellon University. He holds a B.S. in mathematics from Wayne State University and an M.A. and a Ph.D. in psychology from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. He is a fellow of the American Psychological Association and a recipient of its Early Career Awards for Distinguished Scientific Contribution to Psychology and for Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest. He is a fellow of the Society for Risk Analysis as well as a recipient of its Distinguished Achievement Award. His current research includes risk communication, adolescent decision making, evaluation of environmental damages, medical informed consent, and insurancerelated behavior. He serves on the editorial boards of several journals, including Journal of Risk and Uncertainty and Journal of ExperimentalPsychology: Applied. Dr. Fischhoff is a member of the IOM.
JEROME KAGAN is the Daniel and Amy Starch Professor of Psychology at Harvard University. He has taught at Harvard since 1964. At the present time Professor Kagan's laboratory is devoted to the biological/biomedical study of temperamental qualities in young children with a focus on two specific groups called inhibited and uninhibited. Professor Kagan took his A.B. at Rutgers University and his Ph.D. at Yale University. After a faculty appointment at Ohio State University and service in the U.S. Army he went to the Fels Research Institute in Yellow Springs, Ohio. A major project at the institute involved evaluation of a group of adults who had been followed by the staff of the institute since they were young children. Dr. Kagan is a recipient of the Distinguished Scientist Award of the American Psychological Association. In 1987 he was elected to the IOM and has served on two NRC committees.
BRUCE S. McEWEN is professor and head of the laboratory of neuroendocrinology at Rockefeller University. A major figure in behavioral neuroendocrinology, Dr. McEwen has produced a massive body of important work on the roles of steroid hormones in reproductive behavior, brain development, gene expression in the brain, and brain plasticity in adulthood and on the effects of stress on the age-related brain degeneration that causes cognitive deficits. He is a past president of the Society for Neuroscience and a member of the Endocrine Society and American Society for Neurochemistry, among other organizations. He is a member of the Research Network for Socioeconomic Status and Health of the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation. Dr. McEwen was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1997 and the IOM in 1998 and has served on several NRC and IOM committees.
BARBARA J. McNEIL is the Ridley Watts Professor and head of the Department of Health Care Policy at Harvard Medical School and professor of radiology at Harvard Medical School and the Brigham and Women's Hospital. Dr. McNeil received her bachelor's degree in chemistry from Emmanuel College, her M.D. from Harvard Medical School, and her Ph.D. in biochemistry from Harvard University. After interning in pediatrics at the Massachusetts General Hospital, she trained in nuclear medicine at Harvard Medical School. She was the founding head of the Department of Health Care Policy at Harvard Medical School in 1988. She continues to practice nuclear medicine at the Brigham and Women's Hospital. Dr. McNeil is a member of the national Blue Cross Technology Assessment Commission and the Council for Performance Measurement for the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations. She has served on the IOM Governing Board. Currently, she is vice-chair of the IOM's Board on Health Care Services and is a member of the NRC Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Dr. McNeil is a member of the publications committee of the Massachusetts Medical Society, pub-
lisher of the New England Journal of Medicine. She continues to be active in several national groups in radiology and nuclear medicine, including the National Council on Radiation Protection. Dr. McNeil's research has involved several broad areas related to the effectiveness and quality of medical practice. She directed one of the first patient outcome research teams funded by the Agency for Health Care Policy Research and is now the principal investigator of a successor project to help improve the care of Medicare beneficiaries after a heart attack. Her work in technology assessment involves imaging technologies. She has recently established a group of several national managed care organizations to implement and evaluate a series of quality measures for patients with cardiac disease.
MICHAEL J. MEANEY is professor of psychiatry at McGill University, with his laboratory situated at the Douglas Hospital Research Center. Dr. Meaney's research focuses on the development of individual differences in behavioral and endocrine responses to stress and their importance in determining vulnerability/resistance to stress-induced illness. The research approaches range in scope from molecular biology to human clinical studies. Dr. Meaney has been awarded a University Research Fellowship (Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada), as well as scientist and senior scientist awards (from the Medical Research Council of Canada). He is on the editorial board of Hormones and Behavior, Behavioral Neuroscience, and the Journal of Neuroendocrinology. Research in Dr. Meaney's laboratory has developed through collaborations with individuals such as Drs. Jonathan Seckl, Robert Sapolsky, Paul Plotsky, Remi Quirion, and Greg Rose, as well as the continued mentorship of Bruce McEwen. Michael Meaney was educated in his native Montreal, obtaining an undergraduate degree from Loyola College and a Ph.D. from Concordia University under the supervision of Jane Stewart. He was a postdoctoral fellow in neuroendocrinology with Bruce McEwen at the Rockefeller University and subsequently returned to Montreal.
CAROL D. RYFF is director of the Institute on Aging and professor of psychology at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. She is a member of the MacArthur Research Network of Successful Midlife Development, a fellow of the American Psychological Association and the Gerontological Society of America, a former fellow at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences at Stanford, and consulting editor for the Journal ofPersonality and Social Psychology and Psychology and Aging. She has catalyzed extensive multidisciplinary research via conferences and edited volumes. Her work has been supported by the National Institute on Aging, the National Institute of Mental Health, and the MacArthur Foundation. Dr. Ryff's research centers on the study of psychological well-being, an area in which she has generated a theory-driven, empirically based approach to assessment of multiple dimensions of positive psychological functioning.
These assessment procedures have been translated into 17 languages and are used in diverse studies in the fields of psychology, sociology, demography, epidemiology, and health. Her own descriptive studies, conducted with nationally representative survey samples, have documented sociodemographic correlates of well-being (i.e., how positive mental health varies by age, gender, social class, ethnic/minority status). Explanatory studies have focused on individuals' life experiences and their interpretations of them to account for variations in well-being. Longitudinal investigations of midlife development and old age explore processes of resilience and vulnerability via the cumulation of adversity and advantage. Multiple protective factors (biological, psychological, social) hypothesized to promote resilience are currently under investigation. The linkages between positive mental health and positive physical health are a primary focus in ongoing longitudinal studies.
ROBERT J. SAMPSON is Lucy Flower Professor of Sociology at the University of Chicago and a research fellow at the American Bar Foundation. His major research interests include criminology, the life course, and community/urban sociology. Dr. Sampson is currently studying the sources and consequences of community-level social organization (e.g., collective efficacy, social capital, network density, organizational participation) as part of the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods, for which he serves as scientific director. He is also engaged in a longitudinal study of crime and deviance over 70 years in the lives of 1,000 disadvantaged men born in Boston during the Great Depression. His recent book with John Laub on this project, Crime in the Making: Pathways andTurning Points Through Life (Harvard University Press, 1993), received the outstanding book award from the American Society of Criminology, the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences, and the Crime, Law, and Deviance Section of the American Sociological Association. In 1997 Dr. Sampson was a fellow at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences, Stanford, California. In 1994 he was named fellow of the American Society of Criminology. Dr. Sampson previously served with a NRC work group on communities and crime.
SHELLEY E. TAYLOR is a professor of psychology at the University of California, Los Angeles. She received her Ph.D. from Yale University in 1972 and joined the Harvard Faculty of Psychology and Social Relations, where she remained until 1979. At UCLA she has chaired the Social Psychology Program (1990-1994) and has chaired or cochaired the health psychology program continuously since 1979. Dr. Taylor is the recipient of the Early Career Award from the American Psychological Association, the Donald Campbell Award in Social Psychology, the Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award in Health Psychology, and the American Psychological Association's Distinguished Scientist Award. Her research program
addresses self-regulatory and social processes in the management of stress and the role of psychosocial variables in the progression of disease, especially cancer and AIDS. Her current work explores the interplay of biology and psychology and its role in affecting mental health and health outcomes across the life span.
DAVID R. WILLIAMS is a professor of sociology and senior research scientist in the Institute for Social Research at the University of Michigan. His previous academic appointment was at Yale University. Dr. Williams 's research has focused on differences in socioeconomic status in health in general and the health of the African American population in particular. He has served as a consultant to numerous federal health agencies and private organizations. He has also served on the National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics and chaired its Subcommittee on Minority and Other Special Populations. He is a member of the National Science Foundation's Board of Overseers for the General Social Survey. He has an M.P.H. from Loma Linda University, a M.Div. from Andrews University, and a Ph.D. in sociology from the University of Michigan. He has served on the NRC Panel on Needle Exchange and Bleach Distribution Programs.