National Academies Press: OpenBook
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Estimating Eligibility and Participation for the WIC Program: Phase I Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10158.
×

Estimating Eligibility and Participation for the WIC Program

Phase I Report

Panel to Evaluate the USDA’s Methodology for Estimating Eligibility and Participation for the WIC Program

Michele Ver Ploeg and David M.Betson. Editors

Committee on National Statistics

Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, DC

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Estimating Eligibility and Participation for the WIC Program: Phase I Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10158.
×

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418

NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This study was supported by Contract No. 53–3198–0–012 between the National Academy of Sciences and the United States Department of Agriculture. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project.

International Standard Book Number 0-309-07590-4

Additional copies of this report are available from the
National Academy Press,
2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, D.C. 20055; (800) 624–6242 or (202) 334–3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu

Printed in the United States of America

Copyright 2001 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Suggested citation:

National Research Council (2001) Estimating Eligibility and Participation for the WIC Program: Phase I Report. Committee on National Statistics, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Michele Ver Ploeg and David M.Betson (Eds.), Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Estimating Eligibility and Participation for the WIC Program: Phase I Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10158.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

National Academy of Sciences

National Academy of Engineering

Institute of Medicine

National Research Council

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M.Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A.Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering.

The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I.Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine.

The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M.Alberts and Dr. William A.Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Estimating Eligibility and Participation for the WIC Program: Phase I Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10158.
×
This page in the original is blank.
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Estimating Eligibility and Participation for the WIC Program: Phase I Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10158.
×

PANEL TO EVALUATE THE USDA’S METHODOLOGY FOR ESTIMATING ELIGIBILITY AND PARTICIPATION FOR THE WIC PROGRAM

DAVID M.BETSON (Chair),

Department of Economics, University of Notre Dame

PAUL BUESCHER,

Statistical Services Branch, North Carolina State Center for Health Statistics

ALICIA CARRIQUIRY,

Department of Statistics, Iowa State University

JANET CURRIE,

Department of Economics, University of California, Los Angeles

JULIE DaVANZO,

RAND, Santa Monica, California

JOHN F.GEWEKE,

Department of Economics, University of Iowa

DAVID GREENBERG,

Department of Economics, University of Maryland, Baltimore County

ROBERT P.INMAN,

Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania

JAMES LEPKOWSKI,

Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan

JOHN KARL SCHOLZ,

Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin, Madison

CAROL WEST SUITOR,

Consultant, Northfield, Vermont

MICHELE VER PLOEG, Study Director

CONSTANCE F.CITRO, Senior Program Officer

JAMIE CASEY, Senior Project Assistant

MICHAEL SIRI, Project Assistant

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Estimating Eligibility and Participation for the WIC Program: Phase I Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10158.
×

COMMITTEE ON NATIONAL STATISTICS 2000–2001

JOHN E.ROLPH (Chair),

Marshall School of Business, University of Southern California

JOSEPH G.ALTONJI,

Department of Economics, Northwestern University

LAWRENCE D.BROWN,

Department of Statistics, University of Pennsylvania

JULIE DAVANZO,

RAND, Santa Monica, California

ROBERT M.GROVES,

Joint Program in Survey Methodology, University of Maryland, College Park

JOEL HOROWITZ,

Department of Economics, University of Iowa

HERMANN HABERMANN,

Statistics Division, United Nations

WILLIAM KALSBEEK,

Department of Biostatistics, University of North Carolina

RODERICK J.A.LITTLE,

School of Public Health, University of Michigan

THOMAS A.LOUIS,

RAND, Arlington, Virginia

DARYL PREGIBON,

AT&T Laboratories-Research, Florham Park, New Jersey

FRANCISCO J.SAMANIEGO,

Division of Statistics, University of California, Davis

RICHARD L.SCHMALENSEE,

Sloan School of Management, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

ANDREW A.WHITE, Director

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Estimating Eligibility and Participation for the WIC Program: Phase I Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10158.
×

Acknowledgments

The Panel to Evaluate the USDA’s Methodology for Estimating Eligibility and Participation for the WIC Program wishes to thank the many people and institutions that contributed to the preparation of this interim report. Without their help, the panel could not have completed this initial examination within the short time frame provided for in the first phase of the project. As chair of the panel, I want to thank my fellow panel members for their commitment to the work of the panel under a rather demanding time schedule. Their quick and constructive responses to the numerous drafts of the report and follow-up emails made meeting the deadlines possible.

The panel wishes to thank the staff of the Food and Nutritional Service (FNS) for their patient explanation of the many rules and regulations pertaining to the WIC program: Jay Hirschman, Cindy Long, Dawn Aldridge, and Stefanie Schmidt. We also wish to acknowledge David Smallwood for his role as a liaison to the panel with the Economic Research Service (ERS), the funding agency for this project.

In the preparation of this report, the panel convened two meetings. The initial open meeting of the panel was held on December 8, 2000. At this meeting, informative and helpful presentations on the regulations and operation of the WIC program were provided by Cindy Long and Debbie Whitford of FNS; Anne Gordon of Mathematica Policy Research, Inc. (MPR); and Robert Greenstein and Leighton Ku of the Center for Budget Priorities and Policy.

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Estimating Eligibility and Participation for the WIC Program: Phase I Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10158.
×

The second open meeting of the panel was convened on March 15–16, 2001, for the purpose of gathering background information relevant to the estimation of eligibility and participation in the WIC program. The panel wishes to acknowledge the presentation at the workshop by Gregory Spencer of the Census Bureau; Booker Smith of Ross Laboratories; Marie Louise Harrell of Sigma One Corporation; Carole Trippe and Allen Schirm of MPR Inc.; Jenny Kenney and Lisa Dubay of the Urban Institute; Michael Brien of the University of Virginia; and Julie Kresge of FNS. The panel also greatly appreciated the panel discussion of four state WIC directors: Phyllis Bramson-Paul of California; Alice Lenihan of North Carolina; Frank Maisano of Pennsylvania; and Peggy Trouba of Nebraska.

The panel could not have completed their work without the assistance of Linda Giannarelli, Joyce Morton, Paul Johnson, and Laura Wheaton of the Urban Institute. Their original empirical work conducted for the panel represents the core evidence that we utilized in drafting this report. The panel also wishes to thank Sheila Zedlewski and the Urban Institute who made this work possible.

The panel was assisted by a very able staff. The work of the panel could not have been completed without the assistance of Michele Ver Ploeg, the study director. Shelly’s preparations of the various drafts of the report and attention to the overall project contributed to the timely completion of the report. Also we would like to thank Constance Citro, senior program officer at the National Research Council for her advice and counsel during this first phase of the panel’s work. Finally, the panel acknowledges the able project and research assistance provided by Jamie Casey, Marisa Gerstein, and Michael Siri.

This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s (NRC) Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Michael J.Brien, Department of Economics, University of Virginia; Mary Kay Fox, Abt Associates, Cambridge, MA; Hermann Habermann, Statistics Division,

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Estimating Eligibility and Participation for the WIC Program: Phase I Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10158.
×

United Nations; Gordon Lewis, School of Urban and Public Affairs, Carnegie Mellon; Cynthia Miller, Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation, New York, NY; Jeffrey Moore, Center for Survey Methods Research/Statistical Research Division, U.S. Census Bureau; and Bruce D. Spencer, Department of Statistics, Northwestern University.

Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Robert Moffitt, Department of Economics, Johns Hopkins University. Appointed by the National Research Council, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

David M.Betson, Chair

Panel to Evaluate the USDA’s Methodology for Estimating Eligibility and Participation for the WIC Program

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Estimating Eligibility and Participation for the WIC Program: Phase I Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10158.
×
This page in the original is blank.
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Estimating Eligibility and Participation for the WIC Program: Phase I Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10158.
×
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Estimating Eligibility and Participation for the WIC Program: Phase I Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10158.
×
Page R1
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Estimating Eligibility and Participation for the WIC Program: Phase I Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10158.
×
Page R2
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Estimating Eligibility and Participation for the WIC Program: Phase I Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10158.
×
Page R3
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Estimating Eligibility and Participation for the WIC Program: Phase I Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10158.
×
Page R4
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Estimating Eligibility and Participation for the WIC Program: Phase I Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10158.
×
Page R5
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Estimating Eligibility and Participation for the WIC Program: Phase I Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10158.
×
Page R6
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Estimating Eligibility and Participation for the WIC Program: Phase I Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10158.
×
Page R7
Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Estimating Eligibility and Participation for the WIC Program: Phase I Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10158.
×
Page R8
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Estimating Eligibility and Participation for the WIC Program: Phase I Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10158.
×
Page R9
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Estimating Eligibility and Participation for the WIC Program: Phase I Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10158.
×
Page R10
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Estimating Eligibility and Participation for the WIC Program: Phase I Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10158.
×
Page R11
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2001. Estimating Eligibility and Participation for the WIC Program: Phase I Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10158.
×
Page R12
Next: Executive Summary »
Estimating Eligibility and Participation for the WIC Program: Phase I Report Get This Book
×
Buy Paperback | $29.00 Buy Ebook | $23.99
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

Each year the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) must estimate the number of people who are eligible to participate in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). These USDA estimates have come under critical scrutiny in part because the number of infants and postpartum women who have actually enrolled in the program has exceeded the number estimated to be eligible by as much as 20 to 30 percent. These high "coverage rates" have led some members of Congress to conclude that some people who participate are truly ineligible, and that funding could be reduced somewhat and still meet the needs of truly eligible persons who wish to participate. But some advocates and state WIC agencies believe that the estimates of the number of eligible persons are too low and more people who are eligible and want to participate could do so.

In response to these concerns, the Food and Nutrition Service (FNS) of the USDA asked the Committee on National Statistics of the National Research Council to convene a panel of experts to review the methods used to estimate the number of people nationwide who are eligible and likely to participate in the WIC program. The panel's charge is to review currently used and alternative data and methods for estimating income eligibility, adjunctive eligibility from participation in other public assistance programs, nutritional risk, and participation if the program is fully funded.

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    Switch between the Original Pages, where you can read the report as it appeared in print, and Text Pages for the web version, where you can highlight and search the text.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  9. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!