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Committee on the Effectiveness of International and National Measures to Prevent and Reduce Marine Debris and Its Impacts Ocean Studies Board Division on Earth and Life Studies
THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESSâ 500 Fifth Street, N.W.â Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the GovernÂ ing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of EngineerÂ ing, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by Contract No. HSCG23-07-C-MMS158 between the National Academy of Sciences and the Department of Homeland Security. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizaÂ tions or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13:â 978-0-309-12697-7 International Standard Book Number-10:â 0-309-12697-5 Cover: The front cover background image of debris on a beach was provided by Anthony F. Amos of the University of Texas Marine Science Institute. The image of the brown boobies on derelict fishing gear was provided by Dr. Dwayne M Â eadows of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The images of the entangled Hawaiian monk seal and the entangled sea turtle were Âprovided by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The back cover and chapter-opening image of an abandoned fish trap was provided by Wolcott Henry 2005/Marine Photobank. Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2009 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America
The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal governÂ ment on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its memÂ bers, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advisÂ ing the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr.Â Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academyâs purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in proÂ viding services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org
COMMITTEE ON THE EFFECTIVENESS OF INTERNATIONAL AND NATIONAL MEASURES TO PREVENT AND REDUCE MARINE DEBRIS AND ITS IMPACTS KEITH R. CRIDDLE (Chair), University of Alaska Fairbanks, Juneau ANTHONY F. AMOS, University of Texas, Port Aransas PAULA CARROLL, U.S. Coast Guard (retired), Honolulu, Hawaii JAMES M. COE, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (retired), Kirkland, Washington MARY J. DONOHUE, University of Hawaii Sea Grant College Program, Honolulu JUDITH H. HARRIS, Department of Ports and Transportation, City of Portland, Maine KIHO KIM, American University, Washington, DC ANTHONY MACDONALD, Monmouth University, West Long Branch, New Jersey KATHY METCALF, Chamber of Shipping of America, Washington, DC ALISON RIESER, University of Hawaii, Honolulu NINA M. YOUNG, Consortium for Ocean Leadership, Washington, DC Staff SUSAN PARK, Program Officer JODI BOSTROM, Associate Program Officer
OCEAN STUDIES BOARD SHIRLEY A. POMPONI (Chair), Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution, Ft. Pierce, Florida ROBERT G. BEA, University of California, Berkeley DONALD F. BOESCH, University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, Cambridge JORGE E. CORREDOR, University of Puerto Rico, Lajas KEITH R. CRIDDLE, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Juneau MARY (MISSY) H. FEELEY, ExxonMobil Exploration Company, Houston, Texas DEBRA HERNANDEZ, Hernandez and Company, Isle of Palms, South Carolina ROBERT A. HOLMAN, Oregon State University, Corvallis KIHO KIM, American University, Washington, DC Barbara A. Knuth, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York ROBERT A. LAWSON, Science Applications International Corporation, San Diego, California George I. Matsumoto, Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, California JAY S. PEARLMAN, The Boeing Company (retired), Port Angeles, Washington Andrew A. Rosenberg, University of New Hampshire, Durham Daniel L. Rudnick, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, California Robert J. Serafin, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado ANNE M. TREHU, Oregon State University, Corvallis Peter L. Tyack, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts Dawn J. Wright, Oregon State University, Corvallis Staff SUSAN ROBERTS, Director CLAUDIA MENGELT, Program Officer SUSAN PARK, Program Officer JODI BOSTROM, Associate Program Officer DEBORAH GLICKSON, Associate Program Officer SHUBHA BANSKOTA, Financial Associate PAMELA LEWIS, Administrative Coordinator HEATHER CHIARELLO, Program Assistant JEREMY JUSTICE, Program Assistant vi
Acknowledgments T his report was greatly enhanced by the participants of the three workshops held as part of this study. The committee would first like to acknowledge the efforts of those who gave presentations at meetings: Holly Bamford (National Oceanic and Atmospheric AdminÂ istration), Nir Barnea (National Oceanic and Atmospheric AdministraÂ tion), Michael Blair (U.S. Coast Guard), Ginny Broadhurst (Northwest Straits Commission), Steve Collins (Cruise Lines International AssociaÂ tion, Inc.), David Condino (U.S. Coast Guard), Charles (Bud) Darr (U.S. Coast Guard), Libby Etrie (U.S. Department of State), David Gravallese (Environmental Protection Agency), Andrew Gude (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service), MartÃn Hall (Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission), David Itano (University of Hawaii at Manoa), Jenna Jambeck (University of New Hampshire), Lindy Johnson (National Oceanic and Atmospheric AdminÂ istration), Ilse Kiessling (Charles Darwin University), Bob King (Marine Conservation Alliance Foundation), Eric Kingma (West Pacific Regional Fisheries Management Council), Holly Koehler (U.S. Department of State), David Major (U.S. Coast Guard), Rene Mansho (Schnitzer Steel Hawaii Corporation), Thomas Matthews (Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission), Scott Muller (U.S. Coast Guard), William Nuckols (Coastal America), J. Michael Prince (University-National Oceanographic LaboraÂ tory System), David Redford (Environmental Protection Agency), Michael SÂimpkins (Marine Mammal Commission), Christine Ribic (University of Wisconsin), Seba Sheavly (Sheavly Consultants and The Ocean ConÂ servancy), Rodney Smith (Covanta Energy), Mary Sohlberg (U.S. Coast vii
viii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Guard), Heather St. Pierre (U.S. Coast Guard), Dick Stephenson (retired captain of tuna seiner Connie Jean), Paul Stocklin (U.S. Coast Guard), Michael Stone (Fury Group), Lisa Swanson (Matson Navigation ComÂ pany), Steven Vanderkooy (Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission), Howard Wiig (State of Hawaii), and Mark Young (U.S. Coast Guard). These talks helped set the stage for fruitful discussions in the closed s Â essions that followed. This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Councilâs Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its pubÂ lished report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their participation in their review of this report: Anne D. Aylward, U.S. Department of Transportation, Cambridge, Massachusetts David Benton, Marine Conservation Alliance, Juneau, Alaska Lillian C. Borrone, Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (retired), Avon, New Jersey Russell E. Brainard, National Oceanic and Atmospheric A Â dministration, Honolulu, Hawaii Ginny Broadhurst, Northwest Straits Commission, Mount Vernon, Washington Joseph T. DeAlteris, University of Rhode Island, Kingston David G. Dickman, Venable, LLP, Washington, DC MartÃn A. Hall, Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission, La Jolla, California Ilse Kiessling, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Northern TÂerritory, Australia Judith E. McDowell, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts Andrew A. Rosenberg, University of New Hampshire, Durham Seba B. Sheavly, Sheavly Consultants, Virginia Beach, Virginia Although the reviewers listed above have provided many construcÂ tive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conÂ clusions or recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Andrew R.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ix Solow, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts, appointed by the Divison on Earth and Life Studies, and John E. Dowling, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, appointed by the Report Review Committee, who were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with instituÂ tional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considÂ ered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.
Contents Summary 1 1 Introduction 17 Marine Debris Timeline, 20 Study Approach and Statement of Task, 22 Report Organization, 24 2 Understanding Marine Debris and Its Impacts 27 Abundance and Flux, 28 Impacts, 33 Effective Monitoring and Research, 42 Conclusion, 47 3 Measures to Prevent and Reduce Marine Debris and Its Impacts 49 International Legal and Regulatory Framework, 49 Gaps in the International Legal and Regulatory Framework, 59 Domestic Legal, Regulatory, and Management Framework, 64 Gaps in Domestic Regulation and Management, 75 Conclusion, 86 xi
xii CONTENTS 4 Derelict Fishing Gear and Fish Aggregating Devices 89 Derelict Fishing Gear, 90 Fish Aggregating Devices, 121 Conclusion, 139 References 141 Appendixes A Committee and Staff Biographies 157 B Acronyms 163 C Selected Literature on Quantities and Impacts of Marine Debris 165 D Parties to MARPOL Annex V and Member of Regional Fisheries Management Organizations 189 E Management of Waste and Derelict Fishing Gear 193