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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2009. Cleaning Up Sites Contaminated with Radioactive Materials: International Workshop Proceedings. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12505.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2009. Cleaning Up Sites Contaminated with Radioactive Materials: International Workshop Proceedings. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12505.
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Cleaning up Sites Contaminated with Radioactive Materials I n t e r n a t i o n a l W o r k s h o p Pr o c e e d i n g s Glenn E. Schweitzer, Frank L. Parker, and Kelly Robbins, Editors Committee on Cleaning Up of Radioactive Contamination: Russian Challenges and U.S. Experience Office for Central Europe and Eurasia Development, Security, and Cooperation Policy and Global Affairs In cooperation with the Russian Academy of Sciences

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS  500 Fifth Street, N.W.  Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by a grant from the Russell Family Foundation to the National Academy of Sciences. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-12761-5 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-12761-0 A limited number of copies are available from the Office for Central Europe and Eur- asia, National Research Council, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20001; (202) 334-2376. Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu Copyright 2009 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America.

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examina- tion of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the Na- tional Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL COMMITTEE ON CLEANING UP OF RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION: RUSSIAN CHALLENGES AND U.S. EXPERIENCE Frank L. Parker, Chair, Vanderbilt University Brian B. Looney, Savannah River National Laboratory Dieter K. Rudolph, Science Applications International Corporation Staff Glenn E. Schweitzer, Program Director, National Research Council A. Chelsea Sharber, Senior Program Associate, National Research Council Kelly Robbins, Senior Program Officer, National Research Council 

Contents Preface xi Opening Remarks 1 Welcoming Remarks 3 Nikolay Laverov 2 Welcoming Remarks 5 Frank L. Parker 3 Welcoming Remarks 7 David N. McNelis 4 Interests of the International Science and Technology Center 8 Norbert Jousten Overview Presentations 5 Ensuring Nuclear and Radiation Safety in the Use of Nuclear Energy for Peaceful Purposes 13 A. B. Malyshev vii

viii CONTENTS 6 The Environmental Policy of the Russian Federal Atomic Energy Agency (Rosatom) and Priority Objectives for its Implementation 17 A. M. Agapov and L. A. Bolshov 7 Evaluation of Radiation Ecology Status Around Russian Nuclear and Radiation Enterprises Based on Landscape-Geochemical Research 32  . I. Velichkin, Ye. N. Borisenko, A. Yu. Miroshnikov, V. I. Myskin, V N. V. Kuzmenkova, and I. I. Chudnyavtseva 8 Systems Studies of the Radiation Legacy and the Development of the Informational, Legal, and Regulatory Framework for Post- Rehabilitation Institutional Control, Oversight, and Management of Radiation-Hazard Facilities in the Russian Federation 43 S. N. Brykin, O. G. Lebedev, V. K. Popov, and D. A. Serezhnikov 9 Comprehensive Resolution of the Problem of Radioactive Waste Management and Rehabilitation of Contaminated Areas in the Moscow Region 51 S. A. Dmitriev Case Studies 10 Lands Damaged as a Result of Uranium Ore Mining Operations in the Russian Federation 61 V. P. Karamushka and V. V. Ostroborodov 11 Uranium Recovery and Remediation of Uranium Mill Tailings: Russian and U.S. Experience 69 J. H. Clarke and F. L. Parker 12 Experience in Rehabilitating Contaminated Land and Bodies of Water Around the Mayak Production Association 81 Yu. V. Glagolenko, Ye. G. Drozhko, and S. I. Rovny 13 Rehabilitation of Contaminated Groundwater Layers Near the Mayak Enterprise Using Deep Burial Technology 92 V. G. Skidanov, Ye. N. Kamnev, and A. I. Rybalchenko 14 Observations Concerning Mayak 95 Frank L. Parker

CONTENTS ix 15 Remediation of Contaminated Facilities at the Kurchatov Institute 99  . G. Volkov, Yu. A. Zverkov, S. G. Semenov, A. V. Chesnokov, and V A. D. Shisha 16 Selected Remediation Issues at the Russian Research Center— Kurchatov Institute 110 R. E. Gephart 17 Industrial Nuclear Explosion Sites in the Russian Federation: Recovery and Institutional Monitoring Problems 116 V. V. Kasatkin, Ye. N. Kamnev, and V. A. Ilyichev 18 Comments on Presentation on Industrial Nuclear Explosion Sites in the Russian Federation: Recovery and Institutional Monitoring Problems 121 D. J. Bradley 19 The Past, Present, and Future of the Facilities at Andreev Bay 127 A. P. Vasiliev 20 Environmental Remediation of Spent Nuclear Fuel and Radioactive Waste Temporary Storage Facilities in Gremikha Village: Challenges and Proposed Solutions 137  u. Ye. Gorlinsky, A. Yu. Kazennov, O. A. Nikolsky, V. A. Pavlov, Y B. S. Stepennov, and A. F. Usaty 21 Criteria for Environmental Rehabilitation of the Temporary Storage Site for Spent Nuclear Fuel and Radioactive Waste in Gremikha Village 152 Yu. Ye. Gorlinsky, V. A. Kutkov, and N. K. Shandala 22 Cleaning Up Sites Contaminated with Radioactive Materials: Coastal Maintenance Bases Andreev Bay and Gremikha 161 D. K. Rudolph Other Contributions 23 Criteria for Categorizing Territories at Russian Federal Atomic Energy Agency Enterprises Experiencing Chemical and Radioactive Contamination 179 S. N. Brykin, N. K. Shandala, N. S. Roznova, and A. V. Titov

 CONTENTS 24 Areas of the Russian Federation Affected by Radiation Contamination Due to the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Accident 191  . M. Vakulovsky, T. S. Borodina, A. A. Volokitin, V. M. Kim, S G. I. Petrenko, E. G. Tertyshnik, A. D. Uvarov, and V. N. Yakhryushin 25 The Experience of the Joint Environmental-Technological Scientific Research Center for Radioactive Waste Decontamination and Environmental Protection (MosNPO Radon) in Eliminating Radiation-Hazard Facilities and Rehabilitating Contaminated Sites 198 V. G. Safranov, V. A. Salikov, Yu. A. Pronin, and S. V. Mikheikin 26 Use of GIS Technology for Assessing Territories Contaminated with Radioactive Materials 206 A. N. Plate and A. V. Vesselovsky Appendixes A Workshop Agenda 213 B Titles of Additional Papers and Extended Abstracts Presented at the Workshop 218

Preface The National Academies and the Russian Academy of Sciences, with the support of the Russell Family Foundation and the International Science and Technology Center, organized an international workshop in Moscow on June 4-6, 2007, on Cleaning Up Sites Contaminated with Radioactive Materials. The emphasis was on sites in Russia, although experiences in cleaning up sites in the United States, Belarus, and Kazakhstan added an important dimension to the discussions. The purposes of the workshop were to exchange information on approaches and problems in addressing contaminated sites, to review recent progress and next steps in cleaning up some of the worst polluted sites in Russia, and to stimulate greater attention within Russia to the severity of the problems and the urgency in cleaning up a number of sites that are of concern to nearby populations and to the international community. More than 100 officials and specialists participated in the workshop. The Russian participants were from important organizations that have been playing key roles in site remediation activities. The specialists from the United States, Be- larus, and Kazakhstan also have had extensive experience in addressing closely related problems in their countries. The initial sessions of the workshop were devoted to general overviews of site remediation challenges in Russia and the United States. Subsequent Rus- sian presentations were directed to case studies of contaminated sites in Russia. xi

xii PREFACE American specialists responded to each of these presentations from their per- spectives and experiences in addressing similar problems. Other presentations highlighted persistent problems in the former Soviet Union (e.g., the aftermath of the Chernobyl accident) and opportunities offered by new technologies that can assist in cleanup activities (e.g., geographic information systems). Collectively, these presentations provide a strong basis for urging Russian organizations to devote greater resources to cleanup activities in the near term. In addition to the formal presentations set forth in this report, additional papers and extended abstracts on directly related topics were prepared by the participants and made available during the workshop. Identified in Appendix B, they may be obtained by contacting the authors directly at the indicated e-mail addresses. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The workshop and this publication were supported by a grant from the Rus- sell Family Foundation. Since 2002, the foundation has been a strong supporter of the joint activities of the National Academies and the Russian Academy of Sciences directed to reducing problems associated with radioactive waste. The International Science and Technology Center, which has supported many cleanup activities in the former Soviet Union for more than a decade, provided supple- mental funds for the workshop. The statements made in the enclosed papers are those of the individual au- thors and do not necessarily represent positions of the Russell Family Foundation, the National Academies, the Russian Academy of Sciences, or other organiza- tions where the authors are employed. This volume has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for quality. The review comments and draft manu- script remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of selected papers: Ann Clarke, ANC Associates; Keith Compton, Nuclear Regulatory Com- mission; Ken Czerwinski, University of Nevada, Las Vegas; Rodney Ewing, University of Michigan; Loren Habegger, Argonne National Laboratory; Milton Levenson, Bechtel International (Retired); and Bruce Napier, Pacific North West National Laboratory. Although the reviewers listed above have provided constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the content of the individual papers. Responsibility for the final content of the papers rests with the individual authors.

PREFACE xiii Special thanks are extended to Kelly Robbins for her translation of some of the Russian language papers into English and to Jan Dee Summers for editing the proceedings. Frank L. Parker, Chair National Research Council Committee on Cleaning Up of Radioactive Contamination: Russian Challenges and U.S. Experience Glenn E. Schweitzer, Director Office for Central Europe and Eurasia, National Research Council

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This publication features papers presented at the Workshop on Cleaning Up Sites Contaminated with Radioactive Materials, held in Moscow in June 2007. This activity was organized by the National Academies in cooperation with the Russian Academy of Sciences and with funding provided by the Russell Family Foundation. The workshop was designed to promote exchanges of information on specific contaminated sites in Russia and elsewhere and to stimulate greater attention to the severity of the problems and the urgent need to clean up sites of concern to the local and international communities.

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