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Race, Ethnicity, and Language Data: Standardization for Health Care Quality Improvement (2009)

Chapter: Appendix I: Subcommittee Template: Developing a National Standard Set of Spoken Language Categories and Coding

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix I: Subcommittee Template: Developing a National Standard Set of Spoken Language Categories and Coding." Institute of Medicine. 2009. Race, Ethnicity, and Language Data: Standardization for Health Care Quality Improvement. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12696.
×

Appendix I
Subcommittee Template: Developing a National Standard Set of Spoken Language Categories and Coding

The Subcommittee on Standardized Collection of Race/Ethnicity Data for Healthcare Quality Improvement recommends the collection of the variable spoken “language need” for each individual. Language need is to be assessed through two questions: the first is an individual’s personal assessment of his/her ability to speak English and then their preferred spoken language for a health-related encounter (Recommendation 4-1). Having this information for each individual allows its use to ensure the quality of services in subsequent encounters, in analysis of health care disparities, and in system-level planning (e.g., determining the need for interpreters and matching patients to language-concordant providers). The subcommittee defines limited English proficiency for health care purposes as someone who speaks English less than very well.

When data are shared from one entity to another (e.g., providers to health plan or health plans to states), standardization helps ensure that data can be combined for like categories. Unlike race and Hispanic ethnicity, there is no Office of Management and Budget (OMB) standard for language categories, thus the subcommittee recommends that the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) develop national standard lists of spoken and written languages and codes (Recommendation 6-1a) and that entities choose their categories from the national standard list (Recommendation 4-3) according to the needs of the population they serve or study (Recommendation 4-2). When a health care entity designs its collection instruments, whether paper or electronic, it may, because of space considerations, have to use a limited number of pre-selected response categories. Therefore, such a response list should always include an “Other, please specify: __” option to ensure collection of each person’s language need (Recommendation 4-2). Some electronic data collection systems are more sophisticated, and by using keystroke recognition can accommodate hundreds of languages.

DEVELOPMENT OF THE TEMPLATE

The subcommittee did not identify a single existing category list that it believed was ready to serve as a national standard set. To develop a template of spoken languages spoken in the United States, the subcommittee compiled the attached list to serve as a draft template of language names and coding possibilities. (An online searchable and sortable Excel version of the list is available at: www.iom.edu/datastandardization.) Census Bureau data on languages spoken at home was a logical place to start to compile lists of languages; the Census has compiled

Suggested Citation:"Appendix I: Subcommittee Template: Developing a National Standard Set of Spoken Language Categories and Coding." Institute of Medicine. 2009. Race, Ethnicity, and Language Data: Standardization for Health Care Quality Improvement. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12696.
×

approximately 530 language names corresponding to about 380 language codes.1 Some of these languages are nearing extinction. Another group, International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has established code sets for thousands of languages; the ISO language lists and particularly their coding focus on distinct languages with distinct codes, whereas the Census Bureau is more likely to give related languages the same code. The ISO codes have evolved from a first-generation two-letter coding system (ISO 639-1), to a three-letter system to accommodate additional languages primarily for bibliographic uses (ISO 639-2), to a set that now incorporates more three-letter codes to cover 6,000 known languages in the world (ISO 639-3). The ISO 639-3 codes are intended “to provide a comprehensive set of identifiers for all languages for use in a wide range of applications, including linguistics, lexicography and internationalization of information systems.”2

The subcommittee list began with the Census Bureau’s summary file 3 (SF3) technical documentation list of approximately 530 languages and 380 three digit numerical codes;3 these are presented in the first two columns. Names that are not in all caps are considered to have a relationship to an ALL CAPS language name and receive the same code.4 The Census Bureau could not confirm whether persons speaking the ALL CAPS languages would be understood by those with the same code; the online Excel file can be sorted by the code number to see which languages have overlapping codes. Additional language names, not on the Census list, were added to the Census names column based on previous surveys conducted by Hospital Research & Educational Trust (HRET) of a representative sample of hospitals and the National Association of Community Health Centers of a representative sample of health centers;5 requests to Language Line, an interpretation and translation service;6 and subcommittee collection of additional names from a handful of providers.7 The languages added to the initial Census list are indicated by an * next to the Census code number; the code number assigned was provided by Census Bureau staff to indicate how they would have coded the response; some remain uncoded.8 This resulted in approximately 650 total language names, of which approximately 300 were identified as being used in a health care context. A column was added to indicate categories for which the Modern Language Association reports there were responses in Census 2000;9 the subcommittee ran Census PUMS data but did not find any further languages since languages with smaller numbers of persons reporting the language were aggregated together.

Each language in the first column was then matched to different generations of ISO codes which are alphabetic rather than numeric codes. ISO 639-2 codes are maintained by the Library of Congress and are coded as two letters; the ISO 639-3 codes are three letter codes currently maintained by SIL International. ISO codes start with the most comprehensive set (ISO-639-3); after the codes, the language name under the ISO categorization scheme is listed.

The names of languages often have multiple possible spellings, even between the Census Bureau and ISO 639 language lists there are alternate spellings, and patients may provide an alternative spelling as well. The column,

1

U.S. Census Bureau. 2007. Census 2000 Summary File 3–Technical documentation. Appendix G language code list. Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau.

2

SIL International. 2009. Relationship between ISO 639-3 and the other parts of ISO 639. http://www.sil.org/iso639-3/relationship.asp (accessed July 20, 2009).

3

The Census Bureau included the notation n.e.c. next to a language name to means not elsewhere categorized. Some of the languages that may have fallen into these categories may now be listed in column A due to the additions the subcommittee made to the list of languages.

4

U.S. Census Bureau. 2002. Census 2000 summary file 3: Technical documentation. http://www.census.gov/prod/cen2000/doc/sf3.pdf (accessed August 3, 2009).

5

Hasnain-Wynia, R., J. Yonek, D. Pierce, R. Kang, and C. H. Greising. 2006. Hospital language services for patients with limited English proficiency: Results from a national survey. Chicago, IL: Health Research and Educational Trust (HRET)/AHA; National Association of Community Health Centers. 2008. Serving patients with limited English proficiency: Results of a community health center survey. Bethesda, MD: National Association of Community Health Centers and National Health Law Program.

6

Language Line Service. 2009. List of languages by Language Line Services. http://www.languageline.com/page/languages/ (accessed June 12, 2009).

7

Personal communications from Emilio Carrillo, New York Presbyterian Hospital, May 11, 2009; Alice Chen, San Francisco General Hospital, July 7, 2009; Maria Moreno and Traci Van, Sutter Health, July 22, 2009; Shiva Bidar-Sielaff, University of Wisconsin Health, May 11, 2009.

8

Personal communication, H. Shin, U.S. Census Bureau, July 13, 2009.

9

Modern Language Association. 2009. All languages reported to the U.S. Census in 2000. http://www.mla.org/map_data_langlist&mode=lang_tops (accessed May 26, 2009).

Suggested Citation:"Appendix I: Subcommittee Template: Developing a National Standard Set of Spoken Language Categories and Coding." Institute of Medicine. 2009. Race, Ethnicity, and Language Data: Standardization for Health Care Quality Improvement. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12696.
×

Other Names and Additional Information includes some of the alternate spellings and names the subcommittee encountered, but these should not be considered all of the alternative names. Languages might even be called slightly different names, such as Amish, Pennsylvania Dutch, or Pennsylvania German, or be quite different. This need not be a barrier to the list of choices developed locally as long as it is clear on a national standard list how to categorize the alternative spellings or names.

Since the Census language list included names that appeared in responses to earlier censuses, some languages were thought to be no longer in use. The American Indian and Alaska Native languages were reviewed to determine whether they were now considered extinct or nearly extinct by Ethnologue which tracks the world’s living languages. Ethnologue uses the term nearly extinct when “only a few elderly speakers are still living.”10 Notations are made of this status in the column titled, Other Names and Additional Information; approximately 80 of the 650 languages were identified as extinct or nearly extinct.

ADAPTATION OF THE TEMPLATE TO A NATIONAL STANDARD LIST

Arriving at the possible names for a national category list appears fairly straight forward; the accompanying list is likely to identify most that will be encountered. Changes in immigration patterns over time may result in additional names; thus, category and code lists will have to be maintained (Recommendation 6-1a). Deciding on which coding scheme to adopt is more challenging. In its incidental collection of information on languages, the subcommittee encountered more instances of use of the ISO coding scheme; however, the Census has data on languages spoken at home and the degree of limited English proficiency for many languages that entities use to learn about the populations in their service areas. The subcommittee believes that there are advantages to both the Census Bureau and ISO coding schemes for languages, and does not endorse one over the other. The subcommittee indicates the need for HHS to consult with the Census Bureau, the registration authorities for the ISO codes, and others that establish unique coding for interoperability, such as HL7.

If the Census coding approach were to be adopted, the subcommittee notes that the Census list of languages and codes would likely need some additional changes to be useful. The primary limitation of the Census Bureau coding scheme is that it uses the same code for multiple related languages, while the ISO list has unique codes for each language. To the extent that patients who are not English proficient need language assistance services in distinct languages in order to facilitate understanding during patient–provider interactions, a care provider’s ability to track specific languages would be enhanced by unique coding for distinct languages; this could happen by either expanding the Census codes or adopting the detail of the ISO codes. Currently, there is no specific Census code for English. Sign language, an important communication tool, is not a unique language response on the Census, and generally would code the person as speaking English. By contrast, ISO-639 has unique codes for 130 types of sign languages. For health care purposes, some entities have found a separate category noting which persons have speech loss has been useful to understand the communication needs of all patients. Further options for “declined,” “unavailable,” or “unknown” are also useful when data are being recorded to determine the portion of the service population from whom language data have been collected.

The subcommittee did not generate a list of written languages, but illustrates these needs with the experiences of Kaiser Permanente and Contra Costa Health Plans in appendixes G and H. (Contra Costa used ISO two-letter codes supplemented by their own local coding). The ISO codes represent both spoken and written language names; separate script codes apply to written languages, as well, to describe their lettering.11

10

 Ethnologue. Endangered languages. http://www.ethnologue.com/nearly_extinct.asp (accessed July 20, 2009).

11

 SIL International. 2009. Scope of denotation for language identifiers. http://www.sil.org/iso639-3/scope.asp (accessed July 20, 2009).

Suggested Citation:"Appendix I: Subcommittee Template: Developing a National Standard Set of Spoken Language Categories and Coding." Institute of Medicine. 2009. Race, Ethnicity, and Language Data: Standardization for Health Care Quality Improvement. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12696.
×

TABLE I-1 Subcommittee Template: Comparison of Spoken Language Categories and Coding

Census Language Namea

Census Codea

ISO 639-3 Individual languageb

ISO 639-2 Individual languageb

ISO 639-1 Individual languageb

ISO Language Nameb

Other Names and Additional Information

Reported in the Census 2000c

Kaiser Permanente Health Pland

Contra Costa Health Pland

HRET Hospital Surveyf

NACHC Survey of CHCsg

Language Line Useh

NY Presbyterian Hospitale

SFGHe

UWe

Sutter Healthe

Abkhazian

696*

abk

abk

ab

Abkhazian

 

 

x

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

x

ABNAKI

823

aaq, abe

 

 

Abnaki (Eastern, Western)

Eastern Abnaki - extinct

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ACHINESE

733

ace

ace

 

Achinese

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Acholi

785

ach

ach

 

Acoli

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ACHUMAWI

885

acv

 

 

Achumawi

Nearly extinct

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Acoma (same code as Laguna)

924

kjq

 

 

Western Keres (dialect-Acoma)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Afar

783*

aar

aar

aa

Afar

 

 

x

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

x

Afghani (coded same as Pashto)

657

prs (Dari Persian) pst (Central Pashto) pbt (Southern Pashto) pbu (Northern Pashto) haz (Hazaragi) uzb (Uzbek)

 

 

Afghan Languages are multiple (about 50% use Dari and about 35% Pashto; other major languages: Hazaragi, Uzbek Southern)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

AFRICAN, not further specified

799

 

 

 

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

AFRIKAANS

611

afr

afr

af

Afrikaans

 

x

x

x

 

 

x

 

 

 

x

Aguaceto

968

agu

 

 

Aguacateco

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

AHTENA

848

aht

 

 

Ahtena

Nearly extinct

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ainu

723

aib (China), ain (Japan)

ain (Japan)

 

Ainu

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Akan

796

aka (macro with 2 sub: fat (Fanti) and twi (Twi)

aka

ak

Akan

 

 

x

 

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

Aklan

743*

mlz (Malaynon)

 

 

Aklan language of Phillipines include: Malaynon and Akeanon

 

 

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

ALABAMA

915

akz

 

 

Alabama

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ALBANIAN

638

sqi (macro with 4 subs)

sqi / alb

sq

Albanian

 

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

 

 

x

ALEUT

800

ale

ale

 

ALEUT

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ALGONQUIAN

806

alq

 

 

Algonquin

Carolina Algonquin - extinct

x

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

AMERICAN INDIAN

966

 

 

 

American Indian

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

AMHARIC

780

amh

amh

am

Amharic

 

x

x

x

x

x

x

 

 

x

x

APACHE

862

 

apa (multiple other 639-3 codes)

 

Apache languages

 

x

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Suggested Citation:"Appendix I: Subcommittee Template: Developing a National Standard Set of Spoken Language Categories and Coding." Institute of Medicine. 2009. Race, Ethnicity, and Language Data: Standardization for Health Care Quality Improvement. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12696.
×

Census Language Namea

Census Codea

ISO 639-3 Individual languageb

ISO 639-2 Individual languageb

ISO 639-1 Individual languageb

ISO Language Nameb

Other Names and Additional Information

Reported in the Census 2000c

Kaiser Permanente Health Pland

Contra Costa Health Pland

HRET Hospital Surveyf

NACHC Survey of CHCsg

Language Line Useh

NY Presbyterian Hospitale

SFGHe

UWe

Sutter Healthe

ARABIC

777

ara (macro with 30 sublanguages)

ara

ar

Arabic

 

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

Arabic Morocan

777*

ary

 

 

Arabic, Moroccan

 

 

 

 

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

Arabic Yemen

777*

ayh (Hadrami) ayn (Sanaani) acq (Ta’izzi-Adeni)

 

 

Arabic Yemen (multiple possibilities)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

x

 

 

 

Aramaic (see below Chaldean with same code)

779

aii (Assyrian Neo-Aramaic) jpa (Aramaic, Jewish Palestine) sam (Aramaic Samaritan) cld (Chaldean Neo Aramaic)

 

 

Numerous languages with Aramaic in name

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

x

ARAPAHO

807

arp

arp

 

Arapaho

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ARAWAKIAN

974

arw

arw

 

Arawak

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ARIKARA

934

ari

 

 

Arikara

Nearly extinct

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Arkansas

914

qua

 

 

Quapaw

 

x

x

x

 

 

x

x

 

 

x

ARMENIAN

655

hye

hye / arm

hy

Armenian

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ashanti (see Twi which has same code)

796

 

 

 

The Ashanti language is Twi (see below)

Asante

 

 

 

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

Asian Indian

662

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ASSAMESE

672

asm

asm

as

Assamese

 

x

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Assiniboine

907

asb

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Assyrian

779

aii

 

 

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic

 

 

x

x

 

 

x

 

 

 

x

ATHAPASCAN

847

 

ath (collective)

 

Athapascan languages

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ATSINA

808

ats

 

 

Gros Ventre

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ATSUGEWI

886

atw

 

 

Atsugewi

Nearly extinct

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Austrian

607

bar

 

 

Bavarian

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

AYMARA

973

aym (macro with 2 sublanguages: Central and Southern)

aym

ay

Aymara

 

x

x

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

AZERBAIJANI

690

aze (macro with 2 subs: North and South)

aze

az

Azerbaijani

Azeri

x

 

x

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

AZTECAN

956

azc (639-5)

 

 

Uto-Aztecan

 

x

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bahasa (same code as Malay)

739

msa (macro) zim (Malay individual language)

msa/may (macro)

Ms (macro)

 

Bahasa Kehangsaan (Indonesia) Bahasa Malaysian (Malaysia)

 

 

 

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

BALINESE

734

ban

ban

 

Balinese

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Suggested Citation:"Appendix I: Subcommittee Template: Developing a National Standard Set of Spoken Language Categories and Coding." Institute of Medicine. 2009. Race, Ethnicity, and Language Data: Standardization for Health Care Quality Improvement. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12696.
×

Census Language Namea

Census Codea

ISO 639-3 Individual languageb

ISO 639-2 Individual languageb

ISO 639-1 Individual languageb

ISO Language Nameb

Other Names and Additional Information

Reported in the Census 2000c

Kaiser Permanente Health Pland

Contra Costa Health Pland

HRET Hospital Surveyf

NACHC Survey of CHCsg

Language Line Useh

NY Presbyterian Hospitale

SFGHe

UWe

Sutter Healthe

BALOCHI

659

bal (macro with 3 subs: Eastern, Southern, Western)

 

bal

Baluchi

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bambara

793*

bam

bam

bm

Bambara

 

 

 

 

 

 

x

x

 

 

 

Banjuni (see Swahili)

uncoded; code same as Swahili)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

Bannock

941

pao

 

 

Northern Paiute

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

BANTU

792

 

bnt

 

Bantu (other)

 

x

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bari

786

bfa

 

 

Bari

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bashkir

688*

bak

bak

ba

Bashkir

 

 

x

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

x

BASQUE

697

eus

eus / baq

eu

Basque

 

x

x

x

 

 

x

 

 

 

x

Bassa

796*

bsq

 

 

Bassa

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

x

 

Behdini

658*

kmr

 

 

Behdini's code (bdf) was retired from use and suggest kmr Northern Kurdish

 

 

 

 

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

Bembe

792

bmb

 

 

Bembe

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

BENGALI

664

ben

ben

bn

Bengali

 

x

x

x

x

 

x

x

 

x

x

BERBER

781

 

ber (collective)

 

Berber (other)

 

x

 

 

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

Bhili

669

bhb

 

 

Bhili

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bhojpuri

668*

bho

bho

 

Bhojpuri

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

x

 

 

 

BIELORUSSIAN

640

bel

bel

be

Belarusian

Belorussian

x

 

x

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

BIHARI

668

 

bih

bh

Bihari

 

x

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

BIKOL

747

bik (macro with 5 subs)

bik

 

Bikol

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

BISAYAN (has separate code from Cebuano)

743

bsb (Brunei) bsy (Sabah)

 

 

Bisayan (Cebuano is a subset of Bisayan)

 

x

 

 

x

x

x

 

 

 

 

Bislama

604*

bis

bis

bi

Bislama

 

 

x

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

x

BLACKFOOT

809

bla

bla

 

Siksika

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bosnian

649

bos

bos

bs

Bosnian

 

 

x

x

x

x

x

 

x

x

 

BRAHUI

699

brh

 

 

Brahui

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

BRETON

634

bre

bre

br

Breton

 

x

x

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

x

BUGINESE

730

bug

bug

 

Buginese

 

x

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

BULGARIAN

647

bul

bul

bg

Bulgarian

 

x

x

 

x

 

x

 

 

 

x

BURMESE

717

mya

mya / bur

my

Burmese

 

x

x

x

x

 

x

 

 

 

x

BURUSHASKI

707

bsk

 

 

Burushaski

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bushman

790

xuu

 

 

Kxoe

Khoe

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CADDO

935

cad

cad

 

Caddo

Kado, Caddoe; Nearly extinct

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cahto

861

ktw

 

 

Kato

Extinct

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CAHUILLA

949

chl

 

 

Cahuilla

Nearly extinct

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CAJUN

624

frc

 

 

Cajun, French

 

x

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Suggested Citation:"Appendix I: Subcommittee Template: Developing a National Standard Set of Spoken Language Categories and Coding." Institute of Medicine. 2009. Race, Ethnicity, and Language Data: Standardization for Health Care Quality Improvement. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12696.
×

Census Language Namea

Census Codea

ISO 639-3 Individual languageb

ISO 639-2 Individual languageb

ISO 639-1 Individual languageb

ISO Language Nameb

Other Names and Additional Information

Reported in the Census 2000c

Kaiser Permanente Health Pland

Contra Costa Health Pland

HRET Hospital Surveyf

NACHC Survey of CHCsg

Language Line Useh

NY Presbyterian Hospitale

SFGHe

UWe

Sutter Healthe

Cambodian (same code as Khmer)

726

 

 

 

Cambodian (see Khmer)

 

 

x

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Canjobal

968

knj

 

 

Kanjobal, Western

 

 

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

CANTONESE

711

yue (sub of Chinese)

 

 

Cantonese

 

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

Carib

974

car (Caribe) crb (Carib Island)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CAROLINIAN

751

cal

 

 

Carolinian

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CATALONIAN

626

cat

cat

ca

Catalan

 

x

x

x

 

 

x

 

 

 

x

CAUCASIAN

696

 

cau

 

Caucasian (other)

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CAYUGA

929

cay

 

 

Cayuga

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cebuano

744

ceb

ceb

 

Cebuano

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

x

CHADIC

782

shu (Chadian Arabic)

 

 

Chadian Arabic

Many languages belong to Chadic group and are used beyond borders of Chad; in Chad itself Chadic Arabic is a common language

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chaldean

779

cld

 

 

Chaldean Neo-Aramaic

Chaldean dialects

 

 

x

x

 

x

 

 

 

 

CHAM

735

cjm (Eastern), cja (Western)

 

 

Cham (Eastern, Western)

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAMORRO

752

cha

cha

ch

Chamorro

 

x

x

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

x

Chaochow; Chao-Chou; Chaozhou (code differs from Min Nan)

708

 

 

 

Chaochow; Chao-Chou; Chaozhou (see Min Nan-same ISO code)

 

 

x

 

 

 

x

 

 

 

x

CHASTA COSTA

859

 

 

 

Chasta Costa

extinct

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHEMEHUEVI

943

 

 

 

Ute-Southern Paiute (see below)

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHEROKEE

933

chr

chr

 

Cherokee

 

x

x

 

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

CHETEMACHA

921

ctm

 

 

Chitimacha

Extinct

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHEYENNE

810

chy

chy

 

Cheyenne

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHIBCHAN

975

chb

chb

 

Chibcha

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chickasaw

916

cic

 

 

Chickasaw

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHINESE

708

zho (macro with 13 subs:including cmn Mandarin)

zho / chi

zh

Chinese

 

x

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

x

Chinese Wu, Shanghainese

715*

wuu

 

 

Chinese, Wu, Shanghainese

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

x

Chinook

883

chh

 

 

Chinook

Nearly extinct

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHINOOK JARGON

965

chn

chn

 

Chinook Jargon

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chippewa

819

ciw

 

 

Chippewa

Chippewah; Chipewyan

 

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

Suggested Citation:"Appendix I: Subcommittee Template: Developing a National Standard Set of Spoken Language Categories and Coding." Institute of Medicine. 2009. Race, Ethnicity, and Language Data: Standardization for Health Care Quality Improvement. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12696.
×

Census Language Namea

Census Codea

ISO 639-3 Individual languageb

ISO 639-2 Individual languageb

ISO 639-1 Individual languageb

ISO Language Nameb

Other Names and Additional Information

Reported in the Census 2000c

Kaiser Permanente Health Pland

Contra Costa Health Pland

HRET Hospital Surveyf

NACHC Survey of CHCsg

Language Line Useh

NY Presbyterian Hospitale

SFGHe

UWe

Sutter Healthe

CHIRICAHUA

978

apm

 

 

Mescalero-Chiricahua Apache

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHIWERE

908

 

 

 

 

Nearly extinct

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHOCTAW

916

cho

cho

 

Choctaw

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHUMASH

901

 

 

 

retired code for Chumash

Extinct

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chuukese

761

chk

chk

 

Chuukese

 

 

x

 

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

CHUVASH

684

chv

chv

cv

Chuvash

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Circassian (same code as Caucasian)

696

 

 

 

Circassian (see Caucasian languages)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CLALLUM

835

clm

 

 

Clallam

Klallam; Nearly extinct

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

COAST MIWOK

870

csi

 

 

Miwok, Coast

Extinct

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

COCOMARICOPA

892

mrc

 

 

Maricopa

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cocopah (see Delta River Yuman)

896

coc

 

 

Cocopa

Delta River Yuman

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

COEUR D’ALENE

836

crd

 

 

Coeur d’Alene

Nearly extinct

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

COLUMBIA

837

col

 

 

Columbia-Wenatchi

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Colville

841

oka

 

 

Okanagan-Colville

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

COMANCHE

938

com

 

 

Comanche

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Concow

868

mjd

 

 

Northwest Maidu

Konkau; Nearly extinct

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Coorgi

698

kfa

 

 

Kodava

Coorge,Kurja, Khurgi, Kadagi

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Corsican

619*

cos

cos

co

Corsican

 

 

x

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

x

Coushatta

919

cku

 

 

Koasati

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

COWLITZ

838

cow

 

 

Cowlitz

Extinct

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CREE

811

cre (macro with 6 sublanguages)

cre

cr

Cree

 

x

 

 

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

Creek

920

mus

mus

 

Creek

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Creole

623*

many codes to match different types of creole

 

 

Creole (many choices)

 

 

 

 

 

x

 

x

 

 

 

CROATIAN

650

hrv

hrv / scr

hr

Croatian

 

x

x

x

 

 

x

 

 

 

x

CROW

904

cro

 

 

Crow

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cuna

975

kvn (Border Kuna) cuk (San Blas Kuna)

 

 

Border Kuna San Blas Kuna

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CUPENO

950

cup

 

 

Cupeno

Extinct

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CUSHITE

783

cus (collective)

 

 

Cushitic (other)

 

x

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CZECH

642

ces

ces / cze

cs

Czech

 

x

x

x

x

 

x

 

 

 

x

DAKOTA

907

dak

dak

 

Dakota

 

x

x

 

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

DANISH

615

dan

dan

da

Danish

 

x

x

x

x

 

x

 

 

 

 

Suggested Citation:"Appendix I: Subcommittee Template: Developing a National Standard Set of Spoken Language Categories and Coding." Institute of Medicine. 2009. Race, Ethnicity, and Language Data: Standardization for Health Care Quality Improvement. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12696.
×

Census Language Namea

Census Codea

ISO 639-3 Individual languageb

ISO 639-2 Individual languageb

ISO 639-1 Individual languageb

ISO Language Nameb

Other Names and Additional Information

Reported in the Census 2000c

Kaiser Permanente Health Pland

Contra Costa Health Pland

HRET Hospital Surveyf

NACHC Survey of CHCsg

Language Line Useh

NY Presbyterian Hospitale

SFGHe

UWe

Sutter Healthe

Dari

656

prs (gbz for Dari Zoroastrian)

 

 

Dari Persian

 

 

x

 

x

 

x

 

 

 

 

DELAWARE

812

del (macro with 2 subs)

del

 

Delaware

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

DELTA RIVER YUMAN

896

coc

 

 

Cocopa

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

DIEGUENO

895

dih

 

 

Kumiai, Northern Diegueno

Ipai

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dinka

784

din (macro with 5 sub)

din

 

Dinka

 

 

x

x

x

 

x

 

 

 

 

DRAVIDIAN

698

 

dra (collective)

 

Dravidian (other)

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

DUTCH

610

nld

nld/dut

nl

Dutch

Flemish

x

x

x

x

 

x

 

 

x

x

Dyula

793*

dyu

dyu

 

Dyula

Diula

 

 

 

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

EFIK

797

efi

efi

 

Efik

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

English

 

eng

eng

en

English

 

x

x

x

x

 

 

 

x

 

x

English Creoles Belize, Guyanese

601

 

cpe

 

English-based Creoles

English Creoles Belize, Guyanese

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Eosture

uncoded

uncoded

 

 

Eosture

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

x

 

 

 

ESKIMO

802

 

 

 

Numerous possibilities

 

x

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

x

ESTONIAN

680

est (macro with 2 subs)

est

et

Estonian

 

x

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ethiopian

780*

 

 

 

Ethiopian

See Amharic, Tigrigna

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

x

 

x

Ewe

796

ewe

ewe

ee

Ewe

 

 

 

 

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

EYAK

865

ewk

 

 

Eyak

Nearly extinct

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fanti

796

fat (sub of Akan)

fat

 

Fanti

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

FAROESE

618

fao

fao

fo

Faroese

 

x

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Farsi

656

prs (same code as Dari Persian)

 

 

Farsi Eastern Persian

Farsi Persian

 

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

FIJIAN

771

fij

fij

fj

Fijian

 

x

x

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Filipino

742

fil

fil

 

Filipino

 

 

x

 

x

 

 

 

 

x

 

FINNISH

679

fin

fin

fi

Finnish

 

x

x

x

x

 

x

 

 

x

 

Flemish

610

nld (same as Dutch)

nld/dut

nl

Flemish

 

 

x

x

 

 

x

 

 

 

x

Foo Chow (see FUCHOW)

713*

 

 

 

see Min Dong

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

x

 

 

 

FOOTHILL NORTH YOKUTS (distinguished from Tachi-Valley Yokuts)

876

yok

 

 

Yokuts (single code; also includes Tachi-Valley Yokuts)

Nearly extinct

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

FORMOSAN (same code as Taiwanese)

714

multiple languages such as dru (Rukai) sai (Saisiyat) tay (Tayal) tsy (Tsou)

 

 

Formosan

 

x

x

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Suggested Citation:"Appendix I: Subcommittee Template: Developing a National Standard Set of Spoken Language Categories and Coding." Institute of Medicine. 2009. Race, Ethnicity, and Language Data: Standardization for Health Care Quality Improvement. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12696.
×

Census Language Namea

Census Codea

ISO 639-3 Individual languageb

ISO 639-2 Individual languageb

ISO 639-1 Individual languageb

ISO Language Nameb

Other Names and Additional Information

Reported in the Census 2000c

Kaiser Permanente Health Pland

Contra Costa Health Pland

HRET Hospital Surveyf

NACHC Survey of CHCsg

Language Line Useh

NY Presbyterian Hospitale

SFGHe

UWe

Sutter Healthe

FOX (see Meskawkie)

813

sac

 

 

Fox

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

FRENCH

620

fra

fra/fre

fr

French

 

x

x

x

x

x

x

 

x

x

x

French Canadian (see FRENCH)

620*

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

FRENCH CREE

816

multiple Cree languages

 

 

French Cree (see Michif)

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

FRENCH CREOLE

623

cpf

 

 

French-based Creoles and Pidgin (other)

 

x

x

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

FRISIAN

612

frr frs fry frr Northern; frs Eastern; fry Western

frr (No.) frs (East) fry West

fy (Western)

Frisian

 

x

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

FUCHOW

713

cdo

 

 

Min Dong Chinese

Fuzhou; Foochow, Min Dong; Foochownese

x

x

 

x

x

 

 

 

 

 

Fukianese (see Min Nan)

714*

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fukien (see Min Nan)

714

 

 

 

Fukienese (see Min Nan)

Fukien; Fukianese

 

x

x

 

x

x

x

 

 

 

FULANI

794

ful (macro with 9 sub languages)

ful

ff

Fulah (also Fula)

 

X

x

x

 

 

x

x

 

x

 

Fur

789

fvr

 

 

Fur

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ga

796

gaa

gaa

 

Ga

 

 

 

 

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

Gaddang

uncoded

gdk

 

 

Gadang

 

 

 

 

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

Garifuna

974

cab

 

 

Garifuna

Caribe

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Georgian

696

kat

kat/geo

ka

Georgian

 

 

x

x

 

 

x

 

 

 

x

GERMAN

607

deu

deu/ger

de

German

 

x

x

x

x

x

x

 

x

x

x

Ghani (multiple languages coded the same)

796*

 

 

 

multiple languages (see specific codes: Ga, Ibo, Igbo, Krahn, Kru, Twi, Ashanti, Bassa, Akan, Ewe, Fanti)

Ghanian

 

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

GILBERTESE

753

gil

gil

 

Gilbertese

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

GONDI

700

gon (macro with 2 subs)

gon

 

Gondi

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

GORONTALO

749

gor

gor

 

Gorontalo

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

GREEK

637

ell

ell/gre

el

Greek

 

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

 

x

Greenlandic

615*

kal

kal

kl

Greenlandic

 

 

x

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

x

Gros Ventre

808

ats

 

 

Gros Ventre

Nearly extinct

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Guamanian (see Chamorro, same code)

752

cha

cha

ch

Chammoro

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Guarani

976

grn (macro language with 5 subs)

grn

gn

Guarani

 

 

x

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

x

Guatemalan

968

multiple lanugages

 

 

Guatemalean

 

 

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

GUJARATHI

667

guj

guj

gu

Gujarati

 

x

x

x

x

 

x

x

 

x

x

Suggested Citation:"Appendix I: Subcommittee Template: Developing a National Standard Set of Spoken Language Categories and Coding." Institute of Medicine. 2009. Race, Ethnicity, and Language Data: Standardization for Health Care Quality Improvement. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12696.
×

Census Language Namea

Census Codea

ISO 639-3 Individual languageb

ISO 639-2 Individual languageb

ISO 639-1 Individual languageb

ISO Language Nameb

Other Names and Additional Information

Reported in the Census 2000c

Kaiser Permanente Health Pland

Contra Costa Health Pland

HRET Hospital Surveyf

NACHC Survey of CHCsg

Language Line Useh

NY Presbyterian Hospitale

SFGHe

UWe

Sutter Healthe

GULLAH

605

gul

 

 

Sea Island Creole English

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

GUR

795

gur

 

 

Farefare

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gwichin (see Kuchin)

852

gwi

gwi

 

Gwich’in

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

HAIDA

846

hai

hai

 

Haida

Northern Haida - nearly extinct

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Haitian Creole

623

hat

hat

 

Haitian, Haitian Creoleht

 

 

x

x

x

 

x

 

 

 

x

HAKKA

709

hak (sub of Chinese)

 

 

Hakka Chinese

 

x

x

x

 

 

x

 

 

 

x

HAN

849

haa

 

 

Han

Nearly extinct

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hausa

782

hau

hau

ha

Hausa

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

HAVASUPAI

898

yuf

 

 

Havasupai-Walapai-Yavapai

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

HAWAIIAN

776

haw

haw

 

Hawaiian

 

x

 

x

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

Hawaiian Pidgin

603

hwc

 

 

Hawaiian Creole

 

x

x

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

x

HEBREW

778

heb

heb

he

Hebrew

 

x

x

x

x

 

x

x

 

x

x

HICHITA

918

 

 

 

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

HIDATSA

905

hid

 

 

Hidatsa

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

HINDI

663

hin

hin

hi

Hindi

 

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

Hindi Fijian

663/671

hif

 

 

Hindi Fiji

 

 

 

 

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

Hindko

663*

hno (Hindko, Northern) hnd (Hindko, Southern)

 

 

Hindko

 

 

 

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

Hmong

722

hmn (Macro with 24 subs)

hmn

 

Hmong

 

x

(2 types) xx

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ho Chunk

909

win

 

 

Ho-Chunk

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hokkien (same code as Fukien and Min Nan)

714

 

 

 

Hokkien (see Min Nan)

Fukien, Southern Min from Fukian

 

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

HOPI

948

hop

 

 

Hopi

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hopi-Tewa (see Tewa)

962

tew

 

 

Tewa (USA)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hualapai

899

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Huichole

957

hch

 

 

Huichol

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hunanese

 

hsn

 

 

Xiang Chinese

Xiang, Hunan, Hsiang

 

 

 

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

HUNGARIAN

682

hun

hun

hu

Hungarian

 

x

x

x

x

 

x

x

 

x

x

HUPA

860

hup

hup

 

Hupa

Nearly extinct

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Huron (see Wyandot)

932

 

 

 

 

Extinct

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ibanag

742*

ibg

 

 

Ibanag

 

 

 

 

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

Ibibio

797

ibb

 

 

Ibibio

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ibo (also see Igbo)

796

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

x

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

ICELANDIC

617

isl

isl/ice

is

Icelandic

 

x

 

x

 

 

x

 

 

 

x

Igbo

796

ibo

ibo

ig

Igbo

Ibo

 

x

 

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

Igorot

746

multiple languages

 

 

Igorot

Igorot ethnic groups in Phillipines

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ILOCANO

746

ilo

ilo

 

Iloko

Ilokano

x

x

x

x

 

x

 

x

 

x

Suggested Citation:"Appendix I: Subcommittee Template: Developing a National Standard Set of Spoken Language Categories and Coding." Institute of Medicine. 2009. Race, Ethnicity, and Language Data: Standardization for Health Care Quality Improvement. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12696.
×

Census Language Namea

Census Codea

ISO 639-3 Individual languageb

ISO 639-2 Individual languageb

ISO 639-1 Individual languageb

ISO Language Nameb

Other Names and Additional Information

Reported in the Census 2000c

Kaiser Permanente Health Pland

Contra Costa Health Pland

HRET Hospital Surveyf

NACHC Survey of CHCsg

Language Line Useh

NY Presbyterian Hospitale

SFGHe

UWe

Sutter Healthe

Ilongo

743

Ilk

 

 

Ilongot

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

India languages

662*

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

x

INDIA, nec

662

 

 

 

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

x

 

 

Indigenous Central American

uncoded

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

Indigenous Mexican

625*

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

INDONESIAN

732

ind

ind

id

Indonesian

 

x

x

x

x

x

x

 

 

x

x

INGALIT

850

 

 

 

 

Nearly extinct

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Inupiaq

803

ipk

ipk

ik

Inupiaq

 

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

INUPIK

803

 

 

 

(see Inupiaq)

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Iowa

908

iow

 

 

Iowa-Ota

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Iranian, other

656*

 

 

 

Iranian, other

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

x

IRISH GAELIC

635

gle

gle

ga

Irish

 

x

x

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

x

IROQUOIS

925

iro

 

 

Iroquoian languages

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Isleta (see Tiwa)

960

 

 

 

(see Tiwa)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ITALIAN

619

ita

ita

it

Italian

 

x

x

x

x

 

x

x

x

x

x

Jakartanese

uncoded

 

 

 

Jakartanese

 

 

 

 

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

JAMAICAN CREOLE

601

jam

 

 

Jamaican Creole English

 

x

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

JAPANESE

723

jpn

jpn

ja

Japanese

 

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

JAVANESE

736

jav

jav

jv

Javanese

 

x

 

x

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

JICARILLA

977

apj

 

 

Jicarilla Apache

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

KACHIN

719

kac

kac

 

Kachin

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

KALISPEL

981

fla

 

 

Kalispel-Pend d’Oreille

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

KAN, HSIANG

710

hsn

 

 

Xiang Chinese

Xiang, Hunan, Hsiang

x

 

 

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

Kanalese

uncoded

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

Kanjobal/Kanjoval (see Conjobal)

968*

kgb for Kanjobal; knj for Kanjobal Western

 

 

Kanjobal

 

 

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

KANNADA

702

kan

kan

kn

Kannada

 

x

x

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

x

KANSA

910

ksk

 

 

Kansa

Nearly extinct

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

KARACHAY

688

krc

krc

 

Karachay-Balkar

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

KARAKALPAK

685

kaa

kaa

 

Kara-Kalpak

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

KAREN

718

 

kar (16 other specific Karen language codes)

 

Karen Languages

 

x

 

 

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

KAROK

887

kyh

 

 

Karok

Nearly extinct

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

KASHMIRI

673

kas

kas

ks

Kashmiri

 

x

x

x

x

x

KASHUBIAN

643

csb

csb

 

Kashubian

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

KAWAIISU

944

xaw

 

 

Kawaiisu

Nearly extinct

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

KAZAKH

686

kaz

kaz

kk

Kazakh

 

x

 

x

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

Suggested Citation:"Appendix I: Subcommittee Template: Developing a National Standard Set of Spoken Language Categories and Coding." Institute of Medicine. 2009. Race, Ethnicity, and Language Data: Standardization for Health Care Quality Improvement. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12696.
×

Census Language Namea

Census Codea

ISO 639-3 Individual languageb

ISO 639-2 Individual languageb

ISO 639-1 Individual languageb

ISO Language Nameb

Other Names and Additional Information

Reported in the Census 2000c

Kaiser Permanente Health Pland

Contra Costa Health Pland

HRET Hospital Surveyf

NACHC Survey of CHCsg

Language Line Useh

NY Presbyterian Hospitale

SFGHe

UWe

Sutter Healthe

KERES

924

kee (Keres Eastern) kjq (Keres Western)

 

 

Keres

 

x

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Keresan

924

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Khmer

726

khm (Central Khmer) kxm (Northern Khmer)

khm

km

Khmer, Central and Northern)

 

 

x

x

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

KHOISAN

790

 

khi (collective language)

 

Khoisan (Other)

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

KICKAPOO

814

kic

 

 

Kickapoo

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Kikuyu

792

kik

kik

ki

Kikuyu

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Kinyarwanda

792

kin

kin

rw

Kinyarwanda

 

 

x

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

x

KIOWA

863

kio

 

 

Kiowa

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

KIOWA-APACHE

980

apk

 

 

Kiowa Apache

Nearly extinct

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

KIRGHIZ

687

kir

kir

ky

Kirghiz

 

x

 

x

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

Kirundi

792*

run

run

rn

Rundi

 

 

x

x

 

 

x

 

 

 

x

KLAMATH

880

kla

 

 

Klamath-Modoc

Nearly extinct

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

KOASATI

919

cku

 

 

Koasati

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Konkani

666

kok (macro with 2 subs) kmn (Konkani as an individual language)

 

 

Konkani

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

x

KOREAN

724

kor

kor

ko

Korean

 

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

Kosovan

uncoded

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

Kosraean (see Kusaiean)

754

kos

kos

 

Kosraean

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

KOYUKON

851

koy

 

 

Koyukon

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Kpelle

793

kpe (macro with 2 subs)

kpe

 

Kpelle

 

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Krahn

796*

kqo (Eastern Krahn) krw (Western Krahn)

 

 

Krahn

 

 

 

 

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

KRIO

602

kri

 

 

Krio

 

x

 

 

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

KRU, IBO, YORUBA

796

kro (collective)

 

 

Kru languages

 

x

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

KUCHIN (see Gwichin)

852

 

 

 

 

Kutchin; Athabaschan language

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

KURDISH

658

kur (macro with 3 subs) kmr (Northern Kurdish)

kur

ku

Kurdish

 

x

x

x

x

 

x

 

 

 

 

Kurmanji

658

kmr

 

 

 

Kurdi

 

 

x

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

KURUKH

705

kru

kru

 

Kurukh

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

KUSAIEAN (see Kosraean)

754

 

 

 

Kusaiean

 

x

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

KUTENAI

828

kut

kut

 

Kutenai

Nearly extinct

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Suggested Citation:"Appendix I: Subcommittee Template: Developing a National Standard Set of Spoken Language Categories and Coding." Institute of Medicine. 2009. Race, Ethnicity, and Language Data: Standardization for Health Care Quality Improvement. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12696.
×

Census Language Namea

Census Codea

ISO 639-3 Individual languageb

ISO 639-2 Individual languageb

ISO 639-1 Individual languageb

ISO Language Nameb

Other Names and Additional Information

Reported in the Census 2000c

Kaiser Permanente Health Pland

Contra Costa Health Pland

HRET Hospital Surveyf

NACHC Survey of CHCsg

Language Line Useh

NY Presbyterian Hospitale

SFGHe

UWe

Sutter Healthe

KWAKIUTL

830

kwk

 

 

Kwakiutl

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LADINO

627

lad

lad

 

Ladino

 

x

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Laguna (same code as Acoma)

924

kjq

 

 

Western Keres (dialect-Laguna)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lakota

907

lkt

 

 

Lakota

 

 

 

 

 

x

x

 

 

 

 

LANGUAGE SPECIFIED, NOT LISTED

983-998

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LAOTIAN

725

lao

lao

lo

Lao

 

x

x

x

x

x

x

 

x

x

x

LAPP

681

smn

smn

 

Inari Sami

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Latin

coded as English

lat

lat

la

Latin

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

x

Latvian (see Lettish)

654

lav

lav

lv

Latvian

 

 

x

x

 

 

x

 

 

 

x

Lebanese

777*

apc

 

 

Northern Levantine Arabic

 

 

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

x

Lenape

812

 

 

 

 

extinct

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LETTISH (see Latvian)

654

 

 

 

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lingala

792*

lin

lin

ln

Lingala

 

 

x

x

 

 

x

 

 

 

x

LITHUANIAN

653

lit

lit

lt

Lithuanian

 

x

x

x

 

x

x

x

 

 

x

LOWER CHEHALIS

833

cea

 

 

Lower Chehalis

Extinct

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Luganda

792

lug

lug

lg

Ganda

 

 

 

 

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

LUISENO

951

lui

lui

 

Luiseno

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lummi

839

str

 

 

See Salish, North Straits

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Luo

785

luo (Kenya and Tanzania) luw (Cameroon)

luo

 

Luo

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LUSATIAN

644

xls

 

 

Lusitanian

 

x

 

 

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

Lusoga

792*

xog

 

 

Soga

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LUXEMBOURGIAN

613

ltz

ltz

lb

Luxemburgish

Luxembourgeois

x

 

 

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

Maay

703*

ymm

 

 

Maay

 

 

 

x

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

MACEDONIAN

648

mkd

mkd/mac

mk

Macedonian

 

x

x

x

x

 

x

x

 

 

x

MADURESE

737

mad

mad

 

Madurese

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Maidu (see Mountain Maidu)

867

nmu (Northeast) vmv (Valley)

 

 

Northeast Maidu; Valley Maidu

Northeast Maidu-nearly extinct; Valley Maidu - extinct

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MAKAH

829

myh

 

 

Makah

Extinct

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MALAGASY

738

mlg (macro with 10 sub languages)

mlg

mg

Malagasy

 

x

 

x

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

MALAY

739

msa (macro with 13 subs)

 

ms

Malay

 

x

x

x

x

 

x

 

 

 

x

MALAYALAM

703

mal

mal

ml

Malayalam

 

x

x

x

 

 

x

x

 

 

x

Maldivian

677

div

div

dv

Maldivian

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Maltese

777*

mlt

mlt

mt

Maltese

 

 

 

x

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

Mam

968

mam

 

 

Mam

 

 

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

MANDAN

906

mhq

 

 

Mandan

Nearly extinct

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Suggested Citation:"Appendix I: Subcommittee Template: Developing a National Standard Set of Spoken Language Categories and Coding." Institute of Medicine. 2009. Race, Ethnicity, and Language Data: Standardization for Health Care Quality Improvement. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12696.
×

Census Language Namea

Census Codea

ISO 639-3 Individual languageb

ISO 639-2 Individual languageb

ISO 639-1 Individual languageb

ISO Language Nameb

Other Names and Additional Information

Reported in the Census 2000c

Kaiser Permanente Health Pland

Contra Costa Health Pland

HRET Hospital Surveyf

NACHC Survey of CHCsg

Language Line Useh

NY Presbyterian Hospitale

SFGHe

UWe

Sutter Healthe

MANDARIN

712

cmn

 

 

Mandarin Chinese

 

x

x

 

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

MANDE

793

 

 

 

 

 

x

x

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mandingo

793

man (macro with 7 subs: e.g., mnk Mandinka)

man

 

Mandingo

Mandigo; Mandinka

 

 

 

x

 

x

x

 

x

 

MAORI

774

mri (Maori) rar (Maori Cook Islands)

mri/mao rar

mi

Maori

 

x

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MAPUCHE

970

arn

arn

 

Mapuche

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MARATHI

666

mar

mar

mr

Marathi

 

x

x

x

 

 

x

 

 

 

x

MARQUESAN

772

mrq (Marquesan North) mqm (Marquesan South)

 

 

Marquesan

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MARSHALLESE

755

mah

mah

mh

Marshallese

 

x

x

x

x

 

x

 

 

 

x

Masai

786

mas

mas

 

Masai

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Maya

968

yua

 

 

Yucateca

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MAYAN LANGUAGES

968

 

myn (collective)

 

Mayan Languages

 

x

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MBUM AND RELATED

798

mdd

 

 

Mbum

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MELANESIAN

765

 

 

 

Melanesian

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mende

793

men

men

 

Mende (Sierra Leone)

 

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mende

793

sim

 

 

Mende (Papua New Guinea)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MENOMINI

815

mez

 

 

Menominee

Nearly extinct

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mescalero Apache

978

apm

 

 

Mescalero-Chiricahua Apache

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mesquakie

813

sac

 

 

Mesquaki

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mexican

625*

 

 

 

Mexican

 

 

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mexicano

956

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MIAMI

817

mia

 

 

Miami

Extinct

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MIAO, HMONG

722

7 different subs of Hmong (hmn) 20 specific Miao named languages

 

 

Miao, Hmong

 

 

 

 

x

x

x

 

x

x

x

MIAO-YAO, MIEN

721

 

 

 

Miao-Yao, Mien

 

x

x

 

x

x

x

 

x

 

x

Miccosukee

917

mik

 

 

Mikasuki

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MICMAC

818

mic

mic

 

Micmic

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MICRONESIAN

750

 

 

 

 

 

x

x

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mien

721

ium

 

 

lu Mien

Yiu Mien, Ban Yao

 

x

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MIKASUKI

917

mik

 

 

Mikasuki

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Suggested Citation:"Appendix I: Subcommittee Template: Developing a National Standard Set of Spoken Language Categories and Coding." Institute of Medicine. 2009. Race, Ethnicity, and Language Data: Standardization for Health Care Quality Improvement. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12696.
×

Census Language Namea

Census Codea

ISO 639-3 Individual languageb

ISO 639-2 Individual languageb

ISO 639-1 Individual languageb

ISO Language Nameb

Other Names and Additional Information

Reported in the Census 2000c

Kaiser Permanente Health Pland

Contra Costa Health Pland

HRET Hospital Surveyf

NACHC Survey of CHCsg

Language Line Useh

NY Presbyterian Hospitale

SFGHe

UWe

Sutter Healthe

Min (the 708 code differenciates from Min Nan)

708

mnp Min Bei Chinese cdo Min Dong Chinese nan Min Nan Chinese czo Min Zhong Chinese

 

 

Min dialects

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Min Nan

714

nan (sub of Chinese with dialects without codes: Hokkien

 

 

Min Nan

Minnan, including Taiwanese,

 

 

 

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

Mina

uncoded

hna

 

 

Mina (Cameroon)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mina

uncoded

myi

 

 

Mina (India)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MINANGKABAU

740

min

min

 

Minangkabau

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

x

Mirpuri

665

 

 

 

Mirpuri

 

 

 

 

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

Miskito (see MISUMALPAN)

967

miq

cai (central American Indian collective code)

 

Miskito

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MISUMALPAN (see Miskito)

967

 

 

 

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mitchif (see French Cree)

816

crg

 

 

Michif

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Miwok

872

 

 

 

 

Central Sierra Miwok, Northern Sierra Miwok, Lake Miwok - nearly extinct; Bay Miwok - extinct

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mixtec

971

52 separate individual languages with no macro or collective category

 

 

Mixtec (Mixteco, Mixtex, Mexico)

 

 

x

xx 2 types

x

x

x

x

 

 

 

Miytero

uncoded

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

Modoc (see Klamath Modoc)

880

kla

 

 

Klamath-Modoc

Nearly extinct

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MOHAVE

893

mov

 

 

Mohave

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MOHAWK

926

moh

moh

 

Mohawk

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MOKILESE

756

mkj

 

 

Mokilese

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Moldovan (Romanian dialect)

631*

ron

ron/rum

ro

Moldovan (Romanian dialect)

 

 

x

x

x

 

x

 

 

 

x

MOLUCCAN

731

max (Northern Maluku) alo Larike-Wakasilu

 

 

Maluku

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MONGOLIAN

694

mon (macro with 2 subs)

mon

mn

Mongolian

 

x

x

x

x

 

x

 

 

 

 

Suggested Citation:"Appendix I: Subcommittee Template: Developing a National Standard Set of Spoken Language Categories and Coding." Institute of Medicine. 2009. Race, Ethnicity, and Language Data: Standardization for Health Care Quality Improvement. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12696.
×

Census Language Namea

Census Codea

ISO 639-3 Individual languageb

ISO 639-2 Individual languageb

ISO 639-1 Individual languageb

ISO Language Nameb

Other Names and Additional Information

Reported in the Census 2000c

Kaiser Permanente Health Pland

Contra Costa Health Pland

HRET Hospital Surveyf

NACHC Survey of CHCsg

Language Line Useh

NY Presbyterian Hospitale

SFGHe

UWe

Sutter Healthe

MON-KHMER, CAMBODIAN

726

 

mkh (collective)

 

Mon-Khmer Other)

 

x

x

 

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

MONO

939

 

 

 

 

Nearly extinct

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Montenegrin

651*

srp

 

 

Serbian

South Slavic

 

 

 

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

Mordvin

683

myv

myv

 

Erzya

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MORTLOCKESE

757

mrl

 

 

Mortlockese

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MOUNTAIN MAIDU (see Maidu)

867

 

 

 

(see Northeast Maidu)

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Muckleshoot (see Puget Sound Salish)

842

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MUNDA

706

unx (Munda as individual language)

mun (collective)

 

Munda

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MUONG

729

mtq

 

 

Muong

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MUSKOGEE (see Creek)

920

mus

 

 

Creek (Muskogee)

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Nahuatl

956

28 individual languages with codes

nah (collective)

 

Nahuatl

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Native American Indian

966*

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

NAURUAN

758

nau

nau

na

Nauru

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

x

NAVAHO

864

nav

nav

nv

Navaho/Navaj o

 

 

 

x

x

 

x

 

 

 

 

Navajo

864

nav

nav

nv

Navajo

 

x

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ndebele

792

nde (North) nbl (South)

nde (North) nbl (South)

nd (North) nr (South)

Ndebele

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Neapolitan

uncoded

nap

nap

 

Neapolitan

 

 

 

 

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

NEPALI

674

nep

nep

ne

Nepali

Nepalese

x

x

x

x

 

x

 

 

x

x

NEZ PERCE

881

nez

 

 

Nez Perce

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Nigerian

796

mzk (Mabile) fuv (Fulfulde)

 

 

Nigerian

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Nigerian Pidgin English

796/604*

pcm

 

 

Nigerian Pidgin

 

 

 

 

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

NILO-HAMITIC (see other languages coded 786)

786

 

 

 

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

NILO-SAHARAN

789

 

ssa (collective)

 

Nilo-Saharan (Other)

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

NILOTIC (see other languages coded 785)

785

 

 

 

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Nisqualli (see Puget Sound Salish)

842

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

NIUEAN

769

niu

niu

 

Niuean

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

NOMLAKI

873

wit

 

 

Wintu

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

NOOTKA

831-832

noo

 

 

Nootka

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

x

NOOTSACK

840

 

 

 

 

Extinct

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

x

NORTHERN PAIUTE

941

pao

 

 

Northern Paiute

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Suggested Citation:"Appendix I: Subcommittee Template: Developing a National Standard Set of Spoken Language Categories and Coding." Institute of Medicine. 2009. Race, Ethnicity, and Language Data: Standardization for Health Care Quality Improvement. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12696.
×

Census Language Namea

Census Codea

ISO 639-3 Individual languageb

ISO 639-2 Individual languageb

ISO 639-1 Individual languageb

ISO Language Nameb

Other Names and Additional Information

Reported in the Census 2000c

Kaiser Permanente Health Pland

Contra Costa Health Pland

HRET Hospital Surveyf

NACHC Survey of CHCsg

Language Line Useh

NY Presbyterian Hospitale

SFGHe

UWe

Sutter Healthe

NORTHWEST MAIDU (see Concow)

869

 

 

 

 

Nearly extinct

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

NORWEGIAN

616

nor (macro with 2 subs)

nor

no

Norwegian

 

x

x

x

x

 

x

 

 

x

x

Norwegian Bokmal

616

nob

nob

nb

Norwegian Bokmal

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

x

Norwegian Nynorsk

616

nno

nno

nn

Norwegian Nynorsk

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

x

NOT REPORTED

999

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

NUBIAN

787

 

nub (collective)

 

Nubian Languages

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Nuer

785

nus

 

 

Nuer

 

 

 

x

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

NUKUORO

775

nkr

 

 

Nukuoro

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Occitan

621*

oci

oci

oc

Occitan

 

 

x

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

x

Oglala

907

 

 

 

see Lakota

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

OJIBWA

819

oji (macro with 7 subs)

oji

oj

Ojibwa

Ojibway

x

 

 

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

OKANOGAN

841

oka

 

 

Okanagan

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

OMAHA

911

oma

 

 

Omaha-Ponca

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ONEIDA

927

one

 

 

Oneida

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ONONDAGA

928

ono

 

 

Onondaga

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ORIYA

670

ori

ori

or

Oriya

 

x

x

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

x

Oromo

783

orm (macro with 4 subs)

orm

om

Oromo

 

 

x

x

x

 

x

 

 

 

 

OSAGE

912

osa

osa

 

Osage

Nearly extinct

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

OSSETE

661

oss

oss

os

Ossetian, Ossetic

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Otham

954*

stp

 

 

possibly Tephuan, Southeastern

 

 

 

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

Other African languages

composite

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

Other and unspecified languages

999

 

 

 

 

Miscellaneous

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

x

OTHER ATHAPASCAN-EYAK LANGUAGES

861

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Other Indic languages

composite

 

 

 

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Other Indo-European languages

composite

 

 

 

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Other language

composite

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

x

x

x

Other Native North American languages

composite

 

 

 

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Other Slavic languages

composite

 

 

 

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Other specified languages

 

 

 

 

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Suggested Citation:"Appendix I: Subcommittee Template: Developing a National Standard Set of Spoken Language Categories and Coding." Institute of Medicine. 2009. Race, Ethnicity, and Language Data: Standardization for Health Care Quality Improvement. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12696.
×

Census Language Namea

Census Codea

ISO 639-3 Individual languageb

ISO 639-2 Individual languageb

ISO 639-1 Individual languageb

ISO Language Nameb

Other Names and Additional Information

Reported in the Census 2000c

Kaiser Permanente Health Pland

Contra Costa Health Pland

HRET Hospital Surveyf

NACHC Survey of CHCsg

Language Line Useh

NY Presbyterian Hospitale

SFGHe

UWe

Sutter Healthe

Other West Germanic languages

composite

 

 

 

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

OTO-MANGUEN

971

 

oto (collective)

 

Oto-Manguen

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Otomi

971

otm (Eastern Highland) ots (Estado de Mexico), otz Ixtenco , ote Mezquital), otq (Queretano), ott (Temoaya), otx (Texcatepec), otl (Tilapa)

oto (collective)

 

Otomi (9 individual languages)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

OTTAWA

820

otw

 

 

Ottawa

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PACHUCO

628

 

 

 

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

PACIFIC GULF YUPIK

801

ems

 

 

Pacific Gulf Yupik (see Yupik for other languages)

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pahari

665*

kfx (Kulla) pfz (Mahasu) phr (Potwari)

 

 

Pahari

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PAIUTE

940

pao

 

 

Northerrn Paiute (see Ute-Southern Paiute below)

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PAKISTAN, nec

676

 

 

 

 

 

x

 

 

x

x

 

x

 

 

 

PALAU

759

pau

pau

 

Paluan

 

x

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Paleo-siberian

804*

 

 

 

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PAMPANGAN

748

pam

pam

 

Pampanga

 

x

x

 

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

PANAMINT

947

par

 

 

 

Nearly extinct

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PANGASINAN

745

pag

 

pag

Pangasinan

 

x

 

 

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

PANJABI

665

pan

pan

pa

Panjabi

 

x

x

x

 

x

x

 

 

 

x

Papago

954

ood

 

 

see Tohon O’odham

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PAPIA MENTAE

630

pap

pap

 

Papiamento

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PASHTO

657

pst (Central) pbt (Southern) pbu (Northern)

 

 

Pashto

 

x

x

x

 

 

x

 

 

 

x

PASSAMAQUODDY

821

pqm

 

 

Malecite-Passamaquod dy

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PATOIS

622

gcf (Guadeloupean Creole French), jam (Jamaican Creole), gcr (Guianese Creole French)

 

 

Patois (several options)

 

x

x

 

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

Suggested Citation:"Appendix I: Subcommittee Template: Developing a National Standard Set of Spoken Language Categories and Coding." Institute of Medicine. 2009. Race, Ethnicity, and Language Data: Standardization for Health Care Quality Improvement. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12696.
×

Census Language Namea

Census Codea

ISO 639-3 Individual languageb

ISO 639-2 Individual languageb

ISO 639-1 Individual languageb

ISO Language Nameb

Other Names and Additional Information

Reported in the Census 2000c

Kaiser Permanente Health Pland

Contra Costa Health Pland

HRET Hospital Surveyf

NACHC Survey of CHCsg

Language Line Useh

NY Presbyterian Hospitale

SFGHe

UWe

Sutter Healthe

PATWIN (dialect of Wintu but Wintu has different code)

874

 

 

 

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PAWNEE

936

paw

 

 

Pawnee

Nearly extinct

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PENNSYLVANIA DUTCH

608

pdc

 

 

Pennsylvania German

Pennsylvania Dutch, Amish, Amish-German

x

x

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

PENOBSCOT

822

 

 

 

 

Extinct

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PERSIAN

656

fas (macro with 2 subs: prs Dari Persian and pes Western Persian)

 

fa

Persian

 

x

 

 

x

 

 

 

x

 

 

Phillipine Other

742

 

 

 

Phillipine Other

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

x

PICURIS (see Taos and separate code for Tiwa)

959

 

 

 

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PIDGIN

604

cpi (Pidgin English, Chinese), wes (Pidgin Cameroon), pcm (Pidgin, Nigerian), tvy (Pidgin Timor), dep (Pidgin Delaware)

 

 

multiple types of Pidgin

Delaware Pidgin - extinct

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PIMA

954

pia

 

 

Pima Bajo

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pit River (see Achumawi)

885

 

 

 

(see Achumawi)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PLAINS MIWOK

871

pmw

 

 

Plains Miwok

Nearly extinct

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

POLISH

645

pol

pol

pl

Polish

 

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

POLYNESIAN

766

 

 

 

Polynesian

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

POMO

888

pmm (Pomo)

 

 

 

Central Pomo, Southeasten Pomo, Southern Pomo - nearly extinct; Eastern Pomo, Northeastern Pomo, Northern - extinct

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PONAPEAN

760

pon

pon

 

Pohnpeian

 

x

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PONCA (see Omaha but different code)

913

oma

 

 

Omaha-Ponca (both languages given same code)

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PORTUGUESE

629

por

por

pt

Portuguese

 

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

Portuguese Creole

629

 

cpp

 

Portuguese-based Creoles and Pidgins (other)

 

 

 

 

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

POTAWATOMI

824

pot

 

 

Potawatomi

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Suggested Citation:"Appendix I: Subcommittee Template: Developing a National Standard Set of Spoken Language Categories and Coding." Institute of Medicine. 2009. Race, Ethnicity, and Language Data: Standardization for Health Care Quality Improvement. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12696.
×

Census Language Namea

Census Codea

ISO 639-3 Individual languageb

ISO 639-2 Individual languageb

ISO 639-1 Individual languageb

ISO Language Nameb

Other Names and Additional Information

Reported in the Census 2000c

Kaiser Permanente Health Pland

Contra Costa Health Pland

HRET Hospital Surveyf

NACHC Survey of CHCsg

Language Line Useh

NY Presbyterian Hospitale

SFGHe

UWe

Sutter Healthe

PROVENCAL

621

frp

 

 

Franco-Provencal

 

x

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PUGET SOUND SALISH

842

slh (South Puget Sound) str (Straits)

 

 

PUGET SOUND SALISH, Southern

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pular

794

fuf

 

 

Pular

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

x

 

Punjabi

665

pan

pan

pa

Punjabi

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pushto

656

pus (macro with 3 sub Pashto languages)

pus

ps

Pushto

 

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Puyallup (see Puget Sound Salish)

842

 

 

 

(See Puget Sound Salish, Southern)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

QUAPAW

914

qua

 

 

Quapaw

Nearly extinct

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Quechan

894

yum

 

 

Quechan

 

x

x

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

x

QUECHUA

972

que (macro with 44 subs of Quechua or Quichua)

que

qu

Quechua

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Quiche

968

quc

 

 

Quiche

 

 

 

 

x

 

x

 

 

 

 

Quileute

830

qui

 

 

Quileute

Quileute; Nearly extinct

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

QUINAULT

843

qun

 

 

Quinault

Extinct

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

RAJASTHANI

669

raj (macro with 6 subs)

raj

 

Rajasthani

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

RAROTONGAN

773

rar

rar

 

Rarotongan

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

RHAETO-ROMANIC

632

 

 

rm

Rhaeto-Romanic

 

x

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Romanian

631

ron

ron/rum

ro

Romanian (See below)

Romanian

x

 

x

x

x

x

x

 

 

x

Romansch

632

roh

roh

rm

Romansch

Romance; Romany;Romansch

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

x

ROMANY

678

rom (macro with 7 subs of Romany or Romani)

 

 

Romany see above too

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

RUMANIAN

631

ron

ron/rum

ro

Romanian

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

RUSSIAN

639

rus

rus

ru

Russian

 

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

SAHAPTIAN (close to Nez Perce and Klamath)

882

 

 

 

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SAHARAN

788

 

 

 

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SAINT LAWRENCE ISLAND YUPIK

804

ess

 

 

Central Siberian Yupik

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SALISH

839

slh (South Puget Sound) str (Straits)

 

 

SALISH

SALISH; Straits Salish - nearly extinct

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SAMOAN

767

smo

smo

sm

Samoan

 

x

x

x

x

x

x

 

x

 

x

Suggested Citation:"Appendix I: Subcommittee Template: Developing a National Standard Set of Spoken Language Categories and Coding." Institute of Medicine. 2009. Race, Ethnicity, and Language Data: Standardization for Health Care Quality Improvement. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/12696.
×

Census Language Namea

Census Codea

ISO 639-3 Individual languageb

ISO 639-2 Individual languageb

ISO 639-1 Individual languageb

ISO Language Nameb

Other Names and Additional Information

Reported in the Census 2000c

Kaiser Permanente Health Pland

Contra Costa Health Pland

HRET Hospital Surveyf

NACHC Survey of CHCsg

Language Line Useh

NY Presbyterian Hospitale

SFGHe

UWe

Sutter Healthe

Samoyed (see other Uralic languages)

683

 

 

 

multiple languages (Uralic and Samoyed roots like Enets, Forest enf and Enets, Tundra enh)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SAN CARLOS

979

apw

 

 

Apache, Western (differs from other Apache codes)

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

San Carlos Apache (different code than Apache)

979

apw

 

 

Apache, Western (differs from other Apache codes)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

San Juan

962

poe (S.J. Atzingo Popoloca), mjc (S.J. Colorado Mixtec), zab (S.J. Guelavia Zapoteca), xtz (S. J. Teita Mixtec)

 

 

San Juan (multiple languages)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SANDIA (different code than Isleta)

961

 

 

 

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sango

798*

sag

sag

sg

Sango

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

x

Sanskrit

662

san

san

sa

Sanskrit

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

x

Santa Clara (dialect of Tewa)

962

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SANTIAM

878

kyl

 

 

Kalapuya

Nearly extinct

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SARAMACCA

606

srm

 

 

Saramaccan

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Scandinavian languages

composite

 

 

 

Scandinavian languages

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SCOTTIC GAELIC

636

sco (Scots) gla (Scottish Gaelic

sco gla

gd (Scottish Gaelic)

Scots; Scottic Gaelic;

Scotish; Scottic Gaelic;

x

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

x

SEBUANO

744

ceb

ceb

 

Cebuano

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Seminole

920