National Academies Press: OpenBook
« Previous: 6 Conclusions and Recommendations
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2011. Understanding Earth's Deep Past: Lessons for Our Climate Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13111.
×

References

Abbot, D.S., and K.A. Emanuel, 2007. A tropical and subtropical land-sea-atmosphere drought oscillation mechanism. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 64: 4458-4466.

Abbot, D.S., and E. Tziperman, 2008. A high-latitude convective cloud feedback and equable climates. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 134: 165-185.

ACIA (Arctic Climate Impact Assessment), 2004. Impacts of a Warming Arctic: Arctic Climate Impact Assessment. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Available online at http://amap.no/acia/; accessed July 21, 2010.

Adams, D., M. Hurtgen, and B. Sageman, 2010. Volcanic activation of biogeochemical cascade regulates Oceanic Anoxic Event 2. Nature Geoscience 3: 201-204.

Adelson, J.M., G.R. Helz, and C.V. Miller, 2001. Reconstructing the rise of recent coastal anoxia; Molybdenum in Chesapeake Bay sediments. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 65: 237-252.

Affek, H.P., M. Bar-Matthews, A. Ayalon, A. Matthews, and J.M. Eiler, 2008. Glacial/ interglacial temperature variations in Soreq cave speleothems as recorded by “clumped isotope” thermometry. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 72: 5351-5360.

Algeo, T.J., R.A. Berner, J.B. Maynard, and S.E. Scheckler, 1995. Late Devonian oceanic anoxic events and biotic crises: “Rooted” in the evolution of vascular land plants? GSA Today 5: 45, 64-66.

Algeo, T.J., S.E. Scheckler, and J.B. Maynard, 2001. Effects of early vascular land plants on weathering processes and global chemical fluxes during the Middle and Late Devonian. Pp. 213-236 in P. Gensel and D. Edwards (eds.), Plants Invade the Land: Evolutionary and Environmental Perspectives. New York: Columbia University Press.

Algeo, T., Y. Shen, T. Zhang, T. Lyons, S. Bates, H. Rowe, H., and T.K.T. Nguyen, 2008. Association of 34S-depleted pyrite layers with negative carbonate δ13C excursions at the Permian-Triassic boundary: Evidence for upwelling of sulfidic deep-ocean water masses. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems 9: Q04025.

Algeo, T.J., L. Hinnov, J. Moser, J.B. Maynard, E. Elswick, K. Kuwahara, and H. Sano, 2010. Changes in productivity and redox conditions in the Panthalassic Ocean during the latest Permian. Geology 38:187-190.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2011. Understanding Earth's Deep Past: Lessons for Our Climate Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13111.
×

Allen, P.A., and J.L. Etienne, 2008. Sedimentary challenge to Snowball Earth. Nature Geoscience 1: 817-825.

Alley, N.F., and L.A. Frakes, 2003. First known Cretaceous glaciation: Livingston Tillite Member of the Cadna-owie Formation, South Australia. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences 50: 139-144.

Alley, R.B., J. Marotzke, W.D. Nordhaus, J.T. Overpeck, D.M. Peteet, R.A. Pielke, Jr., R.T. Pierrehumbert, P.B. Rhines, T.F. Stocker, L.D. Talley, and J.M. Wallace, 2003. Abrupt climate change. Science 299: 2005-2010.

Alley, R.B., P.U. Clark, P. Huybrechts, and I. Joughin, 2005. Ice sheet and sea level changes. Science 310: 456-460.

Alpert, P., D. Niyogi, R.A. Pielke, Sr., J.L. Eastman, Y.K. Xue, and S. Raman, 2006. Evidence for carbon dioxide and moisture interactions from the leaf cell up to global scales: Perspective on human-caused climate change. Global and Planetary Change 54: 202-208.

Anbar, A.D., and A.H. Knoll, 2002. Proterozoic ocean chemistry and evolution: A bioinorganic bridge? Science 297: 1137-1142.

Anderson, R.Y., 1982. A long geoclimatic record from the Permian. Journal of Geophysical Research 87: 7285-7294.

Archer, D., 2005. Fate of fossil fuel CO2 in geologic time. Journal of Geophysical Research 110: C09S05, 6 pp.

Archer, D., 2009. The Long Thaw: How Humans Are Changing the Next 100,000 Years of Earth’s Climate. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 180 pp.

Archer, D., H. Kheshgi, and E. Maier-Riemer, 1997. Multiple timescales for neutralization of fossil fuel CO2. Geophysical Research Letters 24: 405-408.

Archer, D., M. Eby, V. Brovkin, A. Ridgwell, L. Cao, U. Mikolajewicz, K. Caldeira, K. Matsumoto, G. Munhoven, A. Montenegro, and K. Tokos, 2009. Atmospheric lifetime of fossil fuel carbon dioxide. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences 37: 117-134.

Arnold, G.L., A.D. Anbar, J. Barling, and T.W. Lyons, 2004. Molybdenum isotope evidence for widespread anoxia in mid-Proterozoic oceans. Science 304: 87-90.

Arthur, M.A., H.C. Jenkyns, H.-J. Brumsack, and S.O. Schlanger, 1990. Stratigraphy, geochemistry, and paleoceanography of organic carbon-rich Cretaceous sequences. Pp. 75-119 in R.N. Ginsburg and B. Beaudoin (eds.), Cretaceous Resources, Events and Rhythms: Background and Plans for Research. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic.

Bains, S., R.M. Corfield, and R.D. Norris, 1999. Mechanisms of climate warming at the end of the Paleocene. Science 285: 724-727.

Baldocchi, D., F.M. Kelliher, T.A. Black, and P.G. Jarvis, 2000. Climate and vegetation controls on boreal zone energy exchange. Global Change Biology 6 (Suppl. 1): 69-83.

Bambach, R.K., 2006. Phanerozoic biodiversity mass extinctions. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences 34: 127-155.

Barclay, R.S., J.C. McElwain, and B.B. Sageman, 2010. Carbon sequestration activated by a volcanic CO2 pulse during Ocean Anoxic Event 2. Nature Geoscience 3: 205-208.

Barker, P.F., G.M. Filippelli, F. Florindo, E.E. Martin, and H.D. Scher, 2007. Onset and role of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography 54: 2388-2398.

Barrick, R.E., and M.J. Kohn, 2001. Comment: Multiple taxon–multiple locality approach to providing oxygen isotope evidence for warm-blooded theropod dinosaurs. Geology 29: 565-566.

Barron, E.J., 1987. Eocene equator-to-pole surface ocean temperatures: A significant climate problem? Paleoceanography 2: 729-739.

Barron, E.J., P.J. Fawcett, W.H. Peterson, D. Pollard, and S.L. Thompson, 1995. A “simulation” of mid-Cretaceous climate. Paleoceanography 10: 953-962.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2011. Understanding Earth's Deep Past: Lessons for Our Climate Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13111.
×

Basinger, J.F., D.R. Greenwood, and T. Sweda, 1994. Early Tertiary vegetation of Arctic Canada and its relevance to paleoclimatic interpretation. Pp. 175-198 in M.C. Boulter and H.C. Fisher (eds.), Cenozoic Plants and Climates of the Arctic. NATO ASI Series. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag.

Beckmann, B., S. Flogel, P. Hofmann, M. Schulz, and T. Wagner, 2005. Orbital forcing of Cretaceous river discharge in tropical Africa and ocean response. Nature 437: 241-244.

Beerbower, R., J.A. Boy, W.A. DiMichele, R.A. Gastaldo, R. Hook, N. Hotton, III, T.L. Phillips, S.E. Scheckler, and W.A. Shear, 1992. Paleozoic terrestrial ecosystems. Pp. 205-325 in A.K. Behrensmeyer, J.D. Damuth, W.A. DiMichele, R. Potts, H.-D. Sues, and S.L. Wing (eds.), Terrestrial Ecosystems Through Time: Evolutionary Paleoecology of Terrestrial Plants and Animals. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Beerling, D.J., M. Harfoot, B. Lomax, and J.A. Pyle, 2007. The stability of the stratospheric ozone layer during the end-Permian eruption of the Siberian Traps. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A 365: 1843-1866.

Beerling, D., R.A. Berner, F.T. Mackenzie, M.B. Harfoot, and J.A. Pyle, 2009. Methane and the CH4 related greenhouse effect over the past 400 million years. American Journal of Science 309: 97-113.

Benson, L., S. Lund, R. Negrini, B. Linsley, and M. Zic, 2003. Response of North American Great Lakes to Dansgaard-Oeschger oscillations. Quaternary Science Reviews 22: 2239-2251.

Benton, M.J., and R.J. Twitchett, 2003. How to kill (almost) all life: The end-Permian extinction event. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 18: 358-365.

Berger, A., M.F. Loutre, and M. Crucifix, 2003. The Earth’s climate in the next hundred thousand years (100 kyr). Surveys in Geophysics 24: 117-138.

Berner, R.A., 2004. The Phanerozoic Carbon Cycle: CO2 and O2. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. 160 pp.

Berner, R.A., 2006. GEOCARBSULF: A combined model for Phanerozoic atmospheric O2 and CO2. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 70: 5653-5664.

Berner, R.A., 2009. Phanerozoic atmospheric oxygen: New results using the GEOCARBSULF model. American Journal of Science 309: 603-606.

Berner, R.A., and Z. Kothavala, 2001. GEOCARB III: A revised model of atmospheric CO2 over Phanerozoic time. American Journal of Science 301: 182-204.

Bianchi, D., M. Zavatarelli, N. Pinardi, R. Capozzi, L. Capotondi, C. Corselli, and S. Masina, 2006. Simulations of ecosystem response during the sapropel S1 deposition event. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 235: 265-287.

Bice, K.L., D. Birgel, P.A. Meyers, K.A. Dahl, K.-U. Hinrichs, and R.D. Norris, 2006. A multiple proxy and model study of Cretaceous upper ocean temperatures and atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Paleoceanography 21: PA2002, 17 pp.

Bidigare, R.R., A. Fluegge, K.H. Freeman, K.L. Hanson, J.M. Hayes, D. Hollander, J.P. Jasper, L. King, E.A. Laws, J. Milder, F.J. Millero, R.D. Pancost, B.N. Popp, P.A. Steinberg, and S.G. Wakeham, 1997. Consistent fractionation of 13C in nature and in the laboratory: Growth rate effects in some haptophyte algae. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 11: 279-292.

Bijl, P.K., S. Schouten, A. Sluijs, G.-J. Reichart, J.C. Zachos, and H. Brinkhuis, 2009. Early Palaeogene temperature evolution of the southwest Pacific Ocean. Nature 461: 776-779.

Bishop, J.W., I.P. Montañez, E.L. Gulbranson, and P.L. Brenckle, 2009. The onset of mid-Carboniferous glacio-eustasy: Sedimentologic and diagenetic constraints, Arrow Canyon, Nevada. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 276: 217-243.

Blakey, R.C., 2008. Gondwana paleogeography from assembly to breakup: A 500 m.y. odyssey. Pp. 1-28 in C.R. Fielding, and J.L. Isbell (eds.), Resolving the Late Paleozoic Ice Age in Time and Space. Boulder, Colo.: Geological Society of America Special Paper 441.

Blisniuk, P.M., and L.A. Stern, 2005. Stable isotope paleoaltimetry: A critical review. American Journal of Science 305: 1033-1074.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2011. Understanding Earth's Deep Past: Lessons for Our Climate Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13111.
×

Boer, G.J., K. Hamilton, and W. Zhu, 2005. Climate sensitivity and climate change under strong forcing. Climate Dynamics 24: 685-700.

Bornemann, A., R.D. Norris, O. Friedrich, B. Beckmann, S. Schouten, J.S. Sinninghe Damsté, J. Vogel, P. Hofmann, and T. Wagner, 2008. Isotopic evidence for glaciation during the Cretaceous supergreenhouse. Science 319: 189-192.

Botkin, D.B., H. Saxe, M.B. Araújo, R. Betts, R.H.W. Bradshaw, T. Cedhagen, P. Chesson, T.P. Dawson, J.R. Etterson, D.P. Faith, S. Ferrier, A. Guisan, A.S. Hansen, D.W. Hilbert, C. Loehle, C. Margules, M. New, M.J. Sobel, and D.R.B. Stockwell, 2007. Forecasting the effects of global warming on biodiversity. Bioscience 57: 227-236.

Bottjer, D.J., M.E. Clapham, M.L. Fraiser, and C.M. Powers, 2008. Understanding mechanisms for the end-Permian mass extinction and the protracted Early Triassic aftermath and recovery. GSA Today 18: 4-10.

Boucher, O., and U. Lohmann, 1995. The sulfate-CCN-cloud albedo effect: A sensitivity study with two general circulation models. Tellus 47B: 281-300.

Bowen, G.J., D.J. Beerling, P.L. Koch, J.C. Zachos, and T.A. Quattlebaum, 2004. A humid climate state during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum. Nature 432: 495-499.

Breecker, D.O., Z.D Sharp, and L.D. McFadden, 2009. Seasonal bias in the formation and stable isotope composition of pedogenic carbonate in modern soils from central New Mexico, USA. Geological Society of America Bulletin 121: 630-640.

Brezinski, D.B., C.B. Cecil, V.W. Skema, and R. Stamm, 2008. Late Devonian glacial deposits from the eastern United States signal an end of the mid-Paleozoic warm period. Palaeogeography, Paleoclimatology, Palaecology 280: 143-151.

Brinkhuis, H., S. Schouten, M.E. Collinson, A. Sluijs, J.S. Sinninghe Damsté, G.R. Dickens, M. Huber, T.M. Cronin, J. Onodera, K. Takahashi, J.P. Bujak, R. Stein, J. van der Burgh, J.S. Eldrett, I.C. Harding, A.F. Lotter, F. Sangiorgi, H. van Konijnenburg-van Cittert, J.W. de Leeuw, J. Matthiessen, J. Backman, K. Moran, and the Expedition 302 Scientists, 2006. Episodic fresh surface waters in the Eocene Arctic Ocean. Nature 441: 606-609.

Broecker, W.S., 1999. What if the conveyor were to shut down? Reflections on a possible outcome of the great global experiment. GSA Today 9: 1-7.

Brusatte, S.L., M.J. Benton, M. Ruta, and G.T. Lloyd, 2008. The first 50 Myr of dinosaur evolution: Macroevolutionary pattern and morphological disparity. Biology Letters 4: 733-736.

Buggisch, W., M.M. Joachimski, G. Sevastopulo, and J.R. Morrow, 2008. Mississippian δ13Ccarb and conodont apatite δ18O records—Their relation to the Late Palaeozoic glaciation. Palaeogeography, Paleoclimatology, Palaecology 268: 273-292.

Cadule, P., P. Friedlingstein, L. Bopp, S. Sitch, C.D. Jones, P. Ciais, S.L. Piao, and P. Peylin, 2010. Benchmarking coupled climate-carbon models against long-term atmospheric CO2 measurements. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 24: GB2016, 24 pp.

Caldeira, K., and Wickett, M.E., 2003. Anthropogenic carbon and ocean pH. Nature 425: 365.

Caldeira, K., A. K. Jain, and M.I. Hoffert, 2003. Climate sensitivity uncertainty and the need for energy without CO2 emission. Science 299: 2052-2054.

Came, R.E., J.M. Eiler, J. Veizer, K. Azmy, U. Brand, and C.R. Weidman, 2007. Coupling of surface temperatures and atmospheric CO2 concentrations during the Palaeozoic era. Nature 449: 198-201.

Came, R. E., D. W. Oppo, W. B. Curry, and J. Lynch-Stieglitz, 2008. Deglacial variability in the surface return flow of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. Paleoceanography 23: PA1217.

Cane, M.A., 1998. A role for the tropical Pacific. Science 282: 59-60.

Cane, M.A., 2005. The evolution of El Niño, past and future. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 230: 227-240.

Cao, M., and Woodward, F.I., 1998. Dynamic responses of terrestrial ecosystem carbon cycling to global climate change. Nature 393: 249-252.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2011. Understanding Earth's Deep Past: Lessons for Our Climate Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13111.
×

Capozzi, R., A. Negri, V. Picotti, E. Dinelli, S. Giunta, C. Morigi, P. Scotti, G. Lombi, and F. Marangoni, 2006. Mid-Pliocene warm climate and annual primary productivity peaks recorded in sapropel deposition. Climate Research 31: 137-144.

Carlson, A.E., A.N. LeGrande, D.W. Oppo, R.E. Came, G.A. Schmidt, F.S. Anslow, J.M. Licciardi, and E.A. Obbink, 2008. Rapid early Holocene deglaciation of the Laurentide ice sheet. Nature Geoscience 1: 620-624.

Cerling, T.E. 1991. Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere: Evidence from Cenozoic and Mesozoic paleosols. American Journal of Science 291: 377-400.

Cerling, T.E. 1992. Development of grasslands and savannas in East Africa during the Neogene. Paleogeography, Paleoclimatology, Paleoecology 97: 241-247.

Channell, J.E.T., H.W. Kozur, T. Sievers, R. Mock, R. Aubrecht, and M. Sykora, 2003. Carnian-Norian biomagnetostratigraphy at Silicka Brezova (Slovakia): Correlation to other Tethyan sections and to the Newark Basin. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 191: 65-109.

Chapin, F. S., III, M. Sturm, M.C. Serreze, J.P. McFadden, J.R. Key, A.H. Lloyd, A.D. McGuire, T.S. Rupp, A.H. Lynch, J.P. Schimel, J. Beringer, W.L. Chapman, H.E. Epstein, E.S. Euskirchen, L.D. Hinzman, G. Jia, C.-L. Ping, K.D. Tape, C.D.C. Thompson, D.A. Walker, and J.M. Welker, 2005. Role of land-surface changes in Arctic summer warming. Science 310: 657-660.

Chase, J.M., and M.A. Leibold, 2003. Ecological Niches: Linking Classical and Contemporary Approaches. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 216 pp.

Chase, T.N., R.A. Pielke, T.G.F. Kittel, R.R. Nemani, and S.W. Running, 2000. Simulated impacts of historical land cover changes on global climate. Climate Dynamics 16: 93-105.

Cherchi, A., S. Masina, and A. Navarra, 2008. Impact of extreme CO2 levels on tropical climate: A CGCM study. Climate Dynamics 31: 743-758.

Chikaraishi, Y., and H. Naraoka, 2003. Compound-specific δD-δ13C analyses of n-alkanes extracted from terrestrial and aquatic plants. Phytochemistry 63: 361-371.

Clapham, M.E., and N.P. James, 2007. Climate-driven biotic change in the marine Permian of eastern Australia during the aftermath of the late Paleozoic Ice Age. Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs 39: 354.

Clement, A.C., R. Seager, M.A. Cane, and S.E. Zebiak, 1996. An ocean dynamical thermostat. Journal of Climate 9: 2190-2196.

Clement, A.C., A.C. Baker, and J. Leloup, 2010. Climate change: Patterns of tropical warming. Nature Geoscience 3: 8-9.

Collins, M., 2005. El Niño- or La Niña-like climate change? Climate Dynamics 24: 89-104.

Cortese, G., R. Gersonde, C.-D. Hillenbrand, and G. Kuhn, 2004. Opal sedimentation shifts in the World Ocean over the last 15 Myr. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 224: 509-527.

Covey, C., 1991. Credit the oceans? Nature 352: 196-197.

Covey, C., and E. Barron, 1988. The role of ocean heat transport in climatic change. Earth-Science Reviews 24: 429-445.

Cox, P.M., R.A. Betts, C.D. Jones, S.A Spall, and I.J.Totterdell, 2000. Acceleration of global warming due to carbon-cycle feedbacks in a coupled climate model. Nature 408: 184-187.

Coxall, H.K. P.A. Wilson, H. Pälike, C.H. Lear, and J. Backman, 2005. Rapid stepwise onset of Antarctic glaciation and deeper calcite compensation in the Pacific Ocean. Nature 433: 53-57.

Cramer, B.S., and D.V. Kent, 2005. Bolide summer: The Paleocene/Eocene thermal maximum as a response to an extraterrestrial trigger. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 224: 144-166.

Crowley, T.J., and K.C. Burke (eds.), 1998. Tectonic Boundary Conditions for Climate Reconstructions. New York: Oxford University Press, 304 pp.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2011. Understanding Earth's Deep Past: Lessons for Our Climate Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13111.
×

Crowley, T.J., and J.C. Zachos, 2000. Comparison of zonal temperature profiles for past warm time periods. Pp. 50-76 in B.T. Huber, K.G. Macleod, and S.L. Wing (eds.), Warm Climate in Earth History. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 480 pp.

Cuffey, K.A., and S.J. Marshall, 2000. Substantial contributions to sea level rise during the last interglacial from the Greenland ice sheet. Nature 404: 591-594.

Das, S.B., I. Joughin, M.D. Behn, I.M. Howat, M.A. King, D. Lizarralde, and M.P. Bhatia, 2008. Fracture propagation to the base of the Greenland ice sheet during supraglacial lake drainage. Science 320: 778-781.

Davydov, V.I., J.L. Crowley, M.D. Schmitz, and V.I. Poletaev, 2010. High-precision U-Pb zircon age calibration of the global Carboniferous time scale and Milankovitch band cyclicity in the Donets Basin, eastern Ukraine. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems 11: Q0AA04, 22 pp.

Dawson, M.R., R.M. West, W. Langston, Jr., and J.H. Hutchison, 1976. Paleogene terrestrial vertebrates: Northernmost occurrence, Ellesmere Island, Canada. Science 192: 781-782.

De’ath, G., J.M. Lough, and K.E. Fabricius, 2009. Declining coral calcification on the Great Barrier Reef. Science 323: 116-119.

DeConto, R.M., and D. Pollard, 2003. Rapid Cenozoic glaciation of Antarctica induced by declining atmospheric CO2. Nature 421: 245-249.

DeConto, R.M., W.W. Hay, S.L. Thompson, and J. Bergengren, 1999. Late Cretaceous climate and vegetation interactions: Cold continental interior paradox. Pp. 391-406 in E. Barrera and C. Johnson (eds.), Evolution of the Cretaceous Ocean-Climate System. Special Papers 332. Boulder, Colo.: Geological Society of America.

DeConto, R., D. Pollard, P.A. Wilson, H. Pälike, C.H. Lear, and M. Pagani, 2008. Thresholds for Cenozoic bipolar glaciation. Nature 455: 652-656.

Deenen, M.H.L., M. Ruhl, N.R. Bonis, W. Krijgsman, W.M. Kuerschner, M. Reitsma, and M.J. van Bergen, 2010. A new chronology for the end-Triassic mass extinction. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 291: 113-125.

Dekens, P.S., D.W. Lea, D.K. Pak, and H.J. Spero, 2002. Core top calibration of Mg/Ca in tropical foraminifera: Refining paleotemperature estimation. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems 3: 1022, 29 pp.

Dekens, P.S., A.C. Ravelo, M.D. McCarthy, and C.A Edwards, 2008. A 5 million year comparison of Mg/Ca and alkenone paleothermometers. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 9: Q10001, 18 pp.

deMenocal, P.B., 1995. Plio-Pleistocene African climate. Science 270: 53-59.

Diaz, R.J., and R. Rosenberg, 2008. Spreading dead zones and consequences for marine ecosystems. Science 321: 926-929.

Dickens, G.R., J.R. O’Neil, D.K. Rea, and R.M. Owen, 1995. Dissociation of oceanic methane hydrate as a cause of the carbon isotope excursion at the end of the Paleocene. Paleoceanography 10: 965-971.

DiMichele, W.A., I.P. Montañez, C.J. Poulsen, and N.J. Tabor, 2009. Climate and vegetational regime shifts in the late Paleozoic ice age earth. Geobiology 7: 200-226.

Driese, S.G., L.C. Nordt, W. Lynn, C.A. Stiles, C.I. Mora, and L.P. Wilding, 2005. Distinguishing climate in the soil record using chemical trends in a vertisol climosequence form the Texas Coastal Prairie, and application to interpreting Paleozoic paleosols in the Appalachian Basin. Journal of Sedimentary Research 75: 340-353.

Duan, Y., S. Severmann, A.D. Anbar, T.W. Lyons, G.W. Gordon, and B.B. Sageman, 2010. Isotopic evidence for Fe cycling and repartitioning in ancient oxygen-deficient settings: Examples from black shales of the mid to late Devonian Appalachian basin. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 290: 244-253.

Dworkin, S.I., L. Nordt, and S. Atchley, 2005. Determining terrestrial paleotemperatures using the oxygen isotopic composition of pedogenic carbonate. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 237: 56-68.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2011. Understanding Earth's Deep Past: Lessons for Our Climate Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13111.
×

Eagle, R.A., E.A. Schauble, A.K. Tripati, T. Tutken, R.C. Hulbert, and J.M. Eiler, 2010. Body temperatures of modern and extinct vertebrates from 13C-18O bond abundances in bioapatite. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 107: 10377-10382.

Edmond, J.M., and Y. Huh, 2003. Non-steady state carbonate recycling and implications for the evolution of atmospheric PCO2. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 216: 125-139.

Eglinton, G., and R.J. Hamilton, 1967. Leaf epicuticular waxes. Science 156: 1322-1335.

Eglinton, T.I., and G. Eglinton, 2008. Molecular proxies for paleoclimatology. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 275: 1-16.

Ehlers, T.A., and C.J. Poulsen, 2009. Influence of Andean uplift on climate and paleoaltimetry estimates. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 281: 238-248.

Eiler, J.M., 2007. “Clumped-isotope” geochemistry—The study of naturally-occurring, multiply-substituted isotopologues. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 262: 309-327.

Ekart, D.D., T.E. Cerling, I.P. Montañez, and N.J. Tabor, 1999. A 400 million year carbon isotope record of pedogenic carbonate: Implications for paleoatmospheric carbon dioxide. American Journal of Science 299: 805-827.

Ekdahl, E.J., S.C. Fritz, P.A. Baker, C.A. Rigsby, and K. Coley, 2008. Holocene multidecadal- to millennial-scale hydrologic variability on the South American Altiplano. Holocene 18: 867-876.

Elderfield, H., and G. Ganssen, 2000. Past temperature and δ18O of surface ocean waters inferred from foraminiferal Mg/Ca ratios. Nature 405: 442-445.

Elliott, W.P., and J.K. Angell, 1997. Variations of cloudiness, precipitable water, and relative humidity over the United States: 1973-1993. Geophysical Research Letters 24: 41-44.

Elrick, M., and L.A. Hinnov, 2007. Millennial-scale paleoclimate cycles recorded in widespread Palaeozoic deeper water rhythmites of North America. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 243: 348-372.

Emeis, K.-C., and H. Weissert, 2009. Tethyan-Mediterranean organic carbon-rich sediments from Mesozoic black shales to sapropels. Sedimentology 56: 247-266.

Erbacher, J., B.T. Huber, R.D. Norris, and M. Markey, 2001. Increased thermohaline stratification as a possible cause for an ocean anoxic event in the Cretaceous period. Nature 409: 325-327.

Eriksson, K.A., and E.L. Simpson, 2000. Quantifying the oldest tidal record: The 3.2 Ga Moodies Group, Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa. Geology 28: 831-834.

Erwin, D.H., 2006. Dates and rates: Temporal resolution in the deep time stratigraphic record. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences 34: 569-590.

Fairchild, I.A., and M.J. Kennedy, 2007. Neoproterozoic glaciation in the Earth system. Journal of the Geological Society 164: 895-921.

Fedorov, A.V., Dekens, P.S., McCarthy, M., Ravelo, A.C., deMenocal, P.B., Barreiro, M., Pacanowski, R.C., and Philander, S.G., 2006. The Pliocene paradox (mechanisms for a permanent El Niño). Science 312: 1485-1489.

Federov, A.V., C.M. Brierley, and K. Emanuel, 2010. Tropical cyclones and permanent El Niño in the Early Pliocene Epoch. Nature 463: 1066-1070.

Feldman, H.R., A.W. Archer, E.P. Kvale, C.R. Cunningham, C.G. Maples, and R.R. West, 1993. A tidal model of carboniferous Konservat-Lagerstaetten formation. Palaios 8: 485-498.

Ferguson, J.E., G.M. Henderson, M. Kucera, and R.E.M. Rickaby, 2008. Systematic change of foraminiferal Mg/Ca ratios across a strong salinity gradient. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 265: 153-166.

Fielding, C.R., T.D. Frank, L.P. Birgenheier, M.C. Rygel, A.T. Jones, and J. Roberts, 2008. Stratigraphic imprint of the late Palaeozoic Ice Age in eastern Australia: A record of alternating glacial and nonglacial climate regime. Journal of the Geological Society 165: 129-140.

Fine, M., and D. Tchenov, 2007. Scleractinian coral species survive and recover from decalcification. Science 315: 1811.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2011. Understanding Earth's Deep Past: Lessons for Our Climate Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13111.
×

Fletcher, B.J., D.J. Beerling, S.J. Brentnall, and D.L. Royer, 2005. Fossil bryophytes as recorders of ancient CO2 levels: Experimental evidence and a Cretaceous case study. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 19: GB3012, 13 pp.

Fletcher, B.J., S.J. Brentnall, C.W. Anderson, R.A. Berner, and D.J. Beerling, 2008. Atmospheric carbon dioxide linked with Mesozoic and early Cenozoic climate change. Nature Geoscience 1: 43-48.

Floegel, S., and T. Wagner, 2006. Insolation-control on the Late Cretaceous hydrological cycle and tropical African climate—Global climate modelling linked to marine climate records. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 235: 288-304.

Flower, B.P., and J.P. Kennett, 1995. Middle Miocene deepwater paleoceanography in the southwest Pacific: Relations with East Antarctic ice sheet development. Paleoceanography 10: 1095-1112.

Forest, C.E., 2007. Paleoaltimetry; A review of thermodynamic methods. Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry 66: 173-193.

Foster, G.L., 2008. Seawater pH, pCO2 and [CO32–] variations in the Caribbean Sea over the last 130 kyr: A boron isotope and B/Ca study of planktic foraminifera. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 271: 254-266.

Franks, P.J., and D.J. Beerling, 2009. Maximum leaf conductance driven by CO2 effects on stomatal size and density over geologic time. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 106: 10343-10347.

Freeman, K.H., and J.M. Hayes, 1992. Fractionation of carbon isotopes by phytoplankton and estimates of ancient CO2 levels. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 6: 185-198.

Freeman, K.H., and M. Pagani, 2005. Alkenone-based estimates of past CO2 levels: A consideration of their utility based on an analysis of uncertainties. Pp. 55-78 in J. Ehleringer, T. Cerling, and D. Dearing (eds.), A History of Atmospheric CO2 and Its Implications for Plants, Animals, and Ecosystems. New York: Springer Science.

Fricke, H.C., and S.L. Wing, 2004. Oxygen isotope and paleobotanical estimates of temperature and δ18O-latitude gradients over North America during the early Eocene. American Journal of Science 304: 612-635.

Fricke, H.C., W.C. Clyde, J.R. O’Neil, and P.D. Gingerich, 1998. Evidence for rapid climate change in North America during the latest Paleocene Thermal Maximum: Oxygen isotope compositions of biogenic phosphate from the Bighorn Basin (Wyoming). Earth and Planetary Science Letters 160: 193-208.

Friedlingstein, P., P. Cox, R. Betts, L. Bopp, W. von Bloh, V. Brovkin, P. Cadule, S. Doney, M. Eby, I. Fung, G. Bala, J. John, C. Jones, F. Joos, T. Kato, M. Kawamiya, W. Knorr, K. Lindsay, H. D. Matthews, T. Raddatz, P. Rayner, C. Reick, E. Roeckner, K.-G. Schnitzler, R. Schnur, K. Strassmann, A. J. Weaver, C. Yoshikawa, and N. Zeng, 2006. Climate-carbon cycle feedback analysis: Results from the C4MPI model intercomparison. Journal of Climate 19: 3337-3353.

Furin, S., N. Preto, M. Rigo, G. Roghi, P. Gianolla. J.L. Crowley, and S.A. Bowring, 2006. High-precision U-Pb zircon age from the Triassic of Italy: Implications for the Triassic time scale and the Carnian origin of calcareous nannoplankton and dinosaurs. Geology 34: 1009-1012.

Gale, A.S., J. Hardenbol, B. Hathway, W.J. Kennedy, J.R. Young, and V. Phansalkar, 2002. Global correlation of Cenomanian (Upper Cretaceous) sequences: Evidence for Milankovitch control on sea level. Geology 30: 291-294.

Gale, A.S., S. Voigt, B.B. Sageman, and W.J. Kennedy, 2008. Eustatic sea-level record for the Cenomanian (Late Cretaceous)—Extension to the Western Interior Basin, USA. Geology 35(11): 859-862.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2011. Understanding Earth's Deep Past: Lessons for Our Climate Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13111.
×

Galeotti, S., G. Rusciadelli, M. Sprovieri, L. Lanci, A. Gaudio, and S. Pekar, 2009. Sea-level control on facies architecture in the Cenomanian-Coniacian Apulian margin (Western Tethys): A record of glacio-eustatic fluctuations during the Cretaceous greenhouse? Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 276: 196-205.

Galeotti, S., S. Krishnan, M. Pagani, L. Lanci, A. Gaudio, J.C. Zachos, S. Monechi, G. Morelli, and L. Lourens, 2010. Orbital chronology of Early Eocene hyperthermals from the Contessa Road section, central Italy. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 290: 192-200.

Gallego-Torres, D., F. Martinez-Ruiz, A. Paytan, F.J. Jimenez-Espejo, and M. Ortega-Huertas, 2007. Pliocene-Holocene evolution of depositional conditions in the eastern Mediterranean: Role of anoxia vs. productivity at time of sapropel deposition. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 246: 424-439.

Gensel, P.G., and H.N. Andrews, 1987. The evolution of early land plants. American Scientist 75: 478-489.

Ghosh, P., C.N. Garzione, and J.M. Eiler, 2006. Rapid uplift of the altiplano revealed through 13C-18O bonds in paleosol carbonates. Science 311: 511-515.

Gillespie, A.R., S.C. Porter, and B.F. Atwater (eds.), 2004. The Quaternary Period in the United States. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 584 pp.

Gladwell, M., 2000. The Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 279 pp.

Gooday, A.J., F. Jorissen, L.A. Levin, J.J. Middelburg, S.W.A. Naqvi, N.N. Rabalais, M. Scranton, and J. Zhang, 2009. Historical records of coastal eutrophication-induced hypoxia. Biogeosciences 6: 1707-1745.

Gordon, G.W., T.W. Lyons, G.L. Arnold, J. Roe, B.B. Sageman, and A.D. Anbar, 2009. When do black shales tell molybdenum isotope tales? Geology 37: 535-538.

Greenwood, D.R., and S.L. Wing, 1995. Eocene continental climates and latitudinal temperature gradients. Geology 23: 1044-1048.

Grice, K., C. Cao, G.D. Love, M.E. Böttcher, R.J. Twitchett, E. Grosjean, R.E. Summons, S.C. Turgeon, W. Dunning, and Y. Jin, 2005. Photic zone euxinia during the Permian-Triassic superanoxic event. Science 307: 706-709.

Grossman, E.L., T.E. Yancey, T.E. Jones, P. Bruckschen, B. Chuvashov, S.J. Mazzullo, and H.-S. Mii, 2008. Glaciation, aridification, and carbon sequestration in the Permo-Carboniferous: The isotopic record from low latitudes. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 268: 222-233.

Grotzinger, J.P., and A.H. Knoll, 1995. Anomalous carbonate precipitates: Is the Precambrian the key to the Permian? Palaios 10: 578-596.

Gussone, N., B. Hönisch, A. Heuser, A. Eisenhauer, M. Spindler, and C. Hemleben, 2009. A critical evaluation of calcium isotope ratios in tests of planktonic foraminifers. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 73: 7241-7255.

Hansen, J.E., and M. Sato, 2001. Trends of measured climate forcing agents. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 98: 14778-14783.

Hansen, J., M. Sato, P. Kharecha, D. Beerling, R. Berner, V. Masson-Delmotte, M. Pagani, M. Raymo, D.L. Royer, and J.C. Zachos, 2008. Target atmospheric CO2: Where should humanity aim? Open Atmospheric Science Journal 2: 217-231.

Haq, B.U., and S.R. Schutter, 2008. A chronology of Paleozoic sea-level changes. Science 322: 64-68.

Hartmann, D.L., and M.L. Michelsen, 1993. Large-scale effects on the regulation of tropical sea surface temperature. Journal of Climate 6: 2049-2062.

Hassan, R., R. Scholes, and N. Ash, 2005. Ecosystems and Human Well-Being: Current State and Trends. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Series Vol. 1. Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 948 pp.

Haug, G.H., D. Günther, L.C. Peterson, D.M. Sigman, K.A. Hughen, and B. Aeschlimann, 2003. Climate and the collapse of Maya civilization. Science 299: 1731-1735.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2011. Understanding Earth's Deep Past: Lessons for Our Climate Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13111.
×

Haug, G.H., A. Ganopolski, D.M. Sigman, A. Rosell-Mele, G.E.A. Swann, R. Tiedemann, S.L. Jaccard, J. Bollmann, M.A. Maslin, M.J. Leng, and G. Eglinton, 2004. North Pacific seasonality and the glaciation of North America 2.7 million years ago. Nature 433: 821-825.

Hay, W.W., 2008. Evolving ideas about the Cretaceous climate and ocean circulation. Cretaceous Research 29: 725-753.

Hay, W.W., 2010. Can humans force a return to a “Cretaceous” climate? Sedimentary Geology 235: 5-26.

Hay, W.W., and DeConto, R.M., 1999. Comparison of modern and Late Cretaceous meridional energy transport and oceanology. Pp. 283-300 in E. Barrera and C.C. Johnson (eds.), Evolution of the Cretaceous Ocean-Climate System. Special Papers 332. Boulder, Colo.: Geological Society of America.

Hayes, J.M., H. Strauss, and A.J. Kaufman, 1999. The abundance of 13C in marine organic matter and isotopic fractionation in the global biogeochemical cycle of carbon during the past 800 Ma. Chemical Geology 161: 103-125.

Haywood, A.M., M.A. Chandler, P.J. Valdes, U. Salzmann, D.J. Lunt, and H.J. Dowsett, 2009. Comparisons of mid-Pliocene climate predictions produced by the HadAM3 and GCMAM3 General Circulation Models. Global and Planetary Change 66: 208-224.

Head, J.J., J.I. Bloch, A.K. Hastings, J.R. Bourque, E.A. Cadena, F.A. Herrera, P.D. Polly, and C.A. Jaramillo, 2009. Giant boid snake from the Palaeocene neotropics reveals hotter past equatorial temperatures. Nature 457: 715-717.

Hegerl, G.C., T.J. Crowley, W.T. Hyde, and D.J. Frame, 2006. Climate sensitivity constrained by temperature reconstructions over the past seven centuries. Nature 440: 1029-1032.

Held, I.M., and B.J. Soden, 2006. Robust responses of the hydrological cycle to global warming. Journal of Climate, 19: 5686-5699.

Helliker, B.R., and S.L. Richter, 2008. Subtropical to boreal convergence of tree-leaf temperatures. Nature 454: 511-514.

Henderiks, J., and M. Pagani, 2007. Refining ancient carbon dioxide estimates: Significance of coccolithophore cell size for alkenone-based pCO2 records. Paleoceanography 22: PA3202, 12 pp.

Hennessy, K.J., J.M. Gregory, and J.F.B. Mitchell, 1997. Changes in daily precipitation under enhanced greenhouse conditions. Climate Dynamics 13: 667-680.

Henriksson, A.S., M. Sarnthein, G. Eglinton, and J. Poynter, 2000. Dimethylsulfide production variations over the past 200 k.y. in the equatorial Atlantic: A first estimate. Geology 28: 499-502.

Hermoso, M., F. Minoletti, L. Le Callonnec, H.C. Jenkyns, S.P. Hesselbo, R.E.M. Rickaby, M. Renard, M. de Rafélis, and L. Emmanuel, 2009. Global and local forcing of early Toarcian seawater chemistry: A comparative study of different paleoceanographic settings (Paris and Lusitanian basins). Paleoceanography 24: PA4208.

Hesselbo, S.P., D.R. Gröcke, H.C. Jenkyns, C.J. Bjerrum, P. Farrimond, H.S. Morgans Bell, O.R. Green, 2000. Massive dissociation of gas hydrate during a Jurassic oceanic anoxic event. Nature 406: 392-395.

Hesselbo, S.P., H.C. Jenkyns, L.V. Duarte, and L.C.V. Oliveira, 2007. Carbon-isotope record of the Early Jurassic (Toarcian) Oceanic Anoxic Event from fossil wood and marine carbonate (Lusitanian basin, Portugal). Earth and Planetary Science Letters 253: 455-470.

Hickey, L.J., R.M. West, M.R. Dawson, and D.K. Choi, 1983. Arctic terrestrial biota: Paleomagnetic evidence of age disparity with mid-northern latitudes during the Late Cretaceous and Early Tertiary. Science 221: 1153-1156.

Higgins, J.A., and D.P. Schrag, 2006. Beyond methane: Towards a theory for the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 245: 523-537.

Hinnov, L.A., and J.G. Ogg, 2007. Cyclostratigraphy and the astronomical time scale. Stratigraphy 4: 239-251.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2011. Understanding Earth's Deep Past: Lessons for Our Climate Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13111.
×

Hochuli, P.A., A.P. Menegatti, H. Weissert, A. Riva, E. Erba, and I. Premoli Silva, 1999. Episodes of high productivity and cooling in the early Aptian Alpine Tethys. Geology 27: 657-660.

Hodell, D.A., M. Brenner, and J.H. Curtis, 2005. Terminal Classic drought in the northern Maya lowlands inferred from multiple sediment cores in Lake Chichancanab (Mexico). Quaternary Science Reviews 24: 1413-1427.

Hoegh-Guldberg, O., 1999. Climate change, coral bleaching and the future of the world’s coral reefs. Marine and Freshwater Research 50: 839-866.

Hoegh-Guldberg, O., P.J. Mumby, A.J. Hooten, R.S. Steneck, P. Greenfield, E. Gomez, C.D. Harvell, P.F. Sale, A.J. Edwards, K. Caldeira, N. Knowlton, C.M. Eakin, R. Iglesias-Prieto, N. Muthiga, R.H. Bradbury, A. Dubi, and M.E. Hatziolos, 2007. Coral reefs under rapid climate change and ocean acidification. Science 14: 1737-1742.

Hoffman, P.F., and D.P. Schrag, 2002. The snowball Earth hypothesis: Testing the limits of global change. Terra Nova 14: 129-155.

Hoffman, P.F., J.A. Kaufman, and G.P. Halverson, 1998. Comings and goings of global glaciations on a Neoproterozoic carbonate platform in Namibia. GSA Today 8: 1-9.

Holbourn, A., W. Kuhnt, M. Schulz, J.-A. Flores, and N. Anderson, 2007. Orbitally-paced climate evolution during the middle Miocene Monterey carbon-isotope excursion. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 261: 534-550.

Holmden, C., R.A. Creaser, K. Muehlenbachs, S.A. Leslie, and S.M. Bergström, 1998. Isotopic evidence for geochemical decoupling between ancient epeiric seas and bordering oceans: Implications for secular curves. Geology 26: 567-570.

Hoogakker, B.A.A., G.P. Klinkhammer, H. Elderfield, E.J. Rohling, and C. Hayward, 2009. Mg/Ca paleothermometry in high salinity environments. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 284: 583-589.

Horton, D.E., and C.J. Poulsen, 2009. Paradox of late Paleozoic glacioeustasy. Geology 37: 715-718.

Horton, D.E., C.J. Poulsen, and D. Pollard, 2007. Orbital and CO2 forcing of late Paleozoic continental ice sheets. Geophysical Research Letters 34: L19708.

Horton, D.E., C.J. Poulsen, and D. Pollard, 2010. Influence of high-latitude vegetation feedbacks on late Palaeozoic glacial cycles. Nature Geoscience 3: 572-577.

Hotinski, R.M., K.L. Bice, L.R. Kump, R.G. Najjar, and M.A. Arthur, 2001. Ocean stagnation and end-Permian anoxia. Geology 29: 7-10.

Huber, B.T., 2002. Deep-sea paleotemperature record of extreme warmth during the Cretaceous. Geology 30: 123-126.

Huber, M., 2008. A hotter greenhouse? Science 321: 353-354.

Huber, M., 2009. Climate change: Snakes tell a torrid tale. Nature 457: 669-671.

Huber, M., and R. Caballero, 2003. Eocene El Niño: Evidence for robust tropical dynamics in the “hothouse.” Science 299: 877-881.

Huber, B.T., D.A. Hodell, and C.P. Hamilton, 1995. Middle-late Cretaceous climate of the southern high latitudes—Stable isotopic evidence for minimal equator-to-pole thermal gradients. Geological Society of America Bulletin 107: 1164-1191.

Immenhauser, A., T.F. Nägler, T. Steuber, and D. Hippler, 2005. A critical assessment of mollusk 18O/16O, Mg/Ca, and 44Ca/40Ca ratios as proxies of Cretaceous seawater temperature seasonality. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 215: 221-237.

IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change), 1995. Climate Change 1995: IPCC Second Assessment. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change), 2001. Climate Change 1995: IPCC Third Assessment. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2011. Understanding Earth's Deep Past: Lessons for Our Climate Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13111.
×

IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change), 2007. Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis; Summary for Policymakers: Contribution of Working Group 1 to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor, and H.L. Miller (eds.). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 996 pp.

Isozaki, Y., 1997. Permo-Triassic boundary superanoxia and stratified superocean: Records from lost deep sea. Science 276: 235-238.

Ivany, L.C, B.H. Wilkinson, K.C. Lohmann, E.R. Johnson, B.J. McElroy, and G.J. Cohen, 2004. Intra-annual isotopic variation in Venericardia bivalves: Implications for early Eocene temperature, seasonality, and salinity on the U.S. Gulf Coast. Journal of Sedimentary Research 74: 7-19.

Jackson, J.B.C., M.X. Kirby, W.H. Berger, K.A. Bjorndal, L.W. Botsford, B.J. Bourque, R.H. Bradbury, R. Cooke, J. Erlandson, J.A. Estes, T.P. Hughes, S. Kidwell, C.B. Lange, H.S. Henihan, J.M. Pandolfi, C.H. Peterson, R.S. Steneck, M.J. Tegner, and R.R. Warner, 2001. Historical overfishing and the recent collapse of coastal ecosystems. Science 293: 629-638.

Jahren, A.H., and L.S.L. Sternberg, 2002. Eocene meridional weather patterns reflected in the oxygen isotopes of Arctic fossil wood. GSA Today 12: 4-9.

Jahren, A.H., and L.S.L. Sternberg, 2003. Humidity estimate for the middle Eocene Arctic rain forest. Geology 31: 463-466.

Jahren, A.H., and L.S.L. Sternberg, 2008. Annual patterns within tree rings of the Arctic middle Eocene (ca. 45 Ma): Isotopic signatures of precipitation, relative humidity, and deciduousness. Geology 36: 99-102.

Jahren, A.H., N.C. Arens, G. Sarmiento, J. Guerrero, and R. Amundson, 2001. Terrestrial record of methane hydrate dissociation in the Early Cretaceous. Geology 29: 159-162.

Jahren, A.H., M.C. Byrne, H.V. Graham, L.S.L. Sternberg, and R.E. Summons, 2009. The environmental water of the middle Eocene Arctic: Evidence from δD, δ18O and δ13C within specific compounds. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 271: 96-103.

Jenkyns, H.C., 1988. The Early Toarcian (Jurassic) anoxic event: Stratigraphic, sedimentary, and geochemical evidence. American Journal of Science 288: 101-151.

Jenkyns, H.C., A. Matthews, H. Tsikos, and Y. Erel, 2007. Nitrate reduction, sulfate reduction, and sedimentary iron isotope evolution during the Cenomanian-Turonian oceanic anoxic event. Paleoceanography 22: PA3208, 17 pp.

Joachimski, M.M., P.H. von Bitter, and W. Buggisch, 2006. Constraints on Pennsylvannian glacioeustatic sea-level changes using oxygen isotopes of conodont apatite. Geology 34: 277-280.

Johnson, K.R., and B. Ellis, 2002. A tropical rainforest in Colorado 1.4 million years after the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. Science 296: 2379-2383.

Joughin, I., S.B. Das, M.A. King, B.E. Smith, I.M. Howat, and T. Moon, 2008. Seasonal speedup on the western flank of the Greenland ice sheet. Science 320: 781-784.

Jovane, L., M. Sprovieri, F. Florindo, G. Acton, R. Coccioni, B. Dall’Antonia, and J. Dinarès-Turell, 2007. Eocene-Oligocene paleoceanographic changes in the stratotype section, Massignano, Italy: Clues from rock magnetism and stable isotopes. Journal of Geophysical Research 112: B11101, 16 pp.

Kah, L.C., T.W. Lyons, and T.D. Frank, 2004. Low marine sulphate and protracted oxygenation of the Proterozoic biosphere. Nature 431: 834-838.

Katz, M.E., K.G. Miller, J.D. Wright, B.S. Wade, J.V. Browning, B.S. Cramer, and Y. Rosenthal, 2008. Stepwise transition from the Eocene greenhouse to the Oligocene icehouse. Nature Geoscience 1: 329-334.

Kearsey, T., R.J. Twitchett, G.D. Price, and S.T. Grimes, 2008. Isotope excursions and palaeotemperature estimates from the Permian/Triassic Boundary in the Southern Alps (Italy). Paleogeography, Paleclimatology, Paleoecology 279: 29-40.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2011. Understanding Earth's Deep Past: Lessons for Our Climate Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13111.
×

Keeling, R.F., A. Körtzinger, and N. Gruber, 2010. Ocean deoxygenation in a warming world. Annual Review of Marine Science 2: 199-229.

Kendall, B., R.A. Creaser, C.R. Calver, T.D. Raub, and D.A.D. Evans, 2009. Correlation of Sturtian diamictite successions in southern Australia and northwestern Tasmania by Re-Os black shale geochronology and the ambiguity of “Sturtian”-type diamictite-cap carbonate pairs as chronostratigraphic marker horizons. Precambrian Research 172: 301-310.

Kennedy, M.J., B. Runnegar, A.R. Prave, K.-H. Hoffmann, and M.A. Arthur, 1998. Two or four Neoproterozoic glaciations? Geology 26: 1059-1063.

Kennedy, M.J., N. Christie-Blick, and L.E. Sohl, 2001. Are Proterozoic cap carbonates and isotopic excursions a record of gas hydrate destabilization following Earth’s coldest intervals? Geology 29: 443-446.

Kennedy, M.J., D.D. Mrofka, and C.C. von der Borch, 2009. Snowball Earth termination by destabilization of equatorial permafrost methane clathrate. Nature 453: 642-645.

Kennett, J.P., and L.D. Stott, 1991. Abrupt deep-sea warming, paleoceanographic changes and benthic extinctions at the end of the Paleocene. Nature 353: 225-229.

Kennett, J.P., and L.D. Stott, 1995. Terminal Paleocene mass extinction in the deep sea: Association with global warming. Pp. 94-107 in Effects of Past Global Change on Life. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

Kent, D.V., and G. Muttoni, 2008. Equatorial convergence of India and early Cenozoic climate trends. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 105: 16065-16070.

Kent, D.V., and P.E. Olsen, 1999. Astronomically tuned geomagnetic polarity time scale for the Late Triassic. Journal of Geophysical Research 104: 12831-12841.

Kent, D.V., P.E. Olsen, and W.K. Witte, 1995. Late Triassic-Early Jurassic geomagnetic polarity and paleolatitudes from drill cores in the Newark Rift Basin (Eastern North America). Journal of Geophysical Research 100: 14965-14998.

Kiehl, J.T., and C.A. Shields, 2005. Climate simulation of the latest Permian: Implications for mass extinction. Geology 9: 757-760.

Kienast, M., S.S. Kienast, S.E. Calvert, T.I. Eglinton, G. Mollenhauer, R. François, and A. Mix, 2006. Eastern Pacific cooling and Atlantic overturning circulation during the last deglaciation. Nature 443: 846-849.

Kiessling, W., and C. Simpson, 2010. On the potential for ocean acidification to be a general cause of ancient reef crises. Global Change Biology 17: 56-67.

Kiessling, W., E. Flügel, and J. Golonka, 1999. Paleoreef maps: Evaluation of a comprehensive database on Phanerozoic reefs. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin 83: 1552-1587.

Kim, S.-J., T.J. Crowley, D.J. Erickson, B. Govindaswamy, P.B. Duffy, and B.Y. Lee, 2008. High-resolution climate simulations of the Last Glacial Maximum. Climate Dynamics 31: 1-16.

Kleypas, J.A., J.W. McManus, and L.A.B. Menez, 1999. Environmental limits to coral reef development: Where do we draw the line? American Zoologist 39: 146-159.

Kneller, M., and D. Peteet, 1999. Late-glacial to early Holocene climate changes from a Central Appalachian pollen and macrofossil record. Quaternary Research 51: 133-147.

Knoll, A.H., R.K. Bambach, D.E. Canfield, and J.P. Grotzinger, 1996. Comparative Earth history and Late Permian mass extinction. Science 273: 452-457.

Knutti, R., and G.C. Hegerl, 2008. The equilibrium sensitivity of the Earth’s temperature to radiation changes. Nature Geoscience 1: 735-743.

Kobashi, R., E.L. Grossman, T.E. Yancey, and D.T. Dockery, 2001. Reevaluation of conflicting Eocene tropical temperature estimates: Molluskan oxygen isotope evidence for warm low latitudes. Geology 29: 983-986.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2011. Understanding Earth's Deep Past: Lessons for Our Climate Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13111.
×

Koch, P.L., W.C. Clyde, R.P. Hepple, M.L. Fogel, S.L. Wing, and J.C. Zachos, 2003. Carbon and oxygen isotope records from paleosols spanning the Paleocene-Eocene boundary, Bighorn Basin, Wyoming. Pp. 49-64 in S.L. Wing, P.D. Gingerich, B. Schmitz, and E. Thomas (eds.), Causes and Consequences of Globally Warm Climates in the Early Paleogene. Special Papers 369. Boulder, Colo.: Geological Society of America.

Kominz, M.A., 1984. Oceanic ridge volume and sea-level change—an error analysis. American Association of Petroleum Geologist Memoirs 36: 109-127.

Kominz, M.A., and S.F. Pekar. 2001. Oligocene eustasy from two-dimensional sequence stratigraphic backstripping. Geological Society of America Bulletin 113: 291-314.

Kopp, R.E., T. Raub, D. Schumann, H. Vali, A.V. Smirnov, and J.L. Kirschvink, 2007. Magneto-fossil spike during the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum: Ferromagnetic resonance, rock magnetic, and electron microscopy evidence from Ancora, New Jersey, United States. Palaeoceanography 22: PA4103, 7 pp.

Korte, C., H.W. Kozur, and J. Veizer, 2005. δ13C and δ18O values of Triassic brachiopods and carbonate rocks as proxies for coeval seawater and palaeotemperature. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 226: 287-306.

Korty, R.L., K.A. Emanuel, and J.R. Scott, 2008. Tropical cyclone–induced-upper ocean mixing and climate: Application to equable climates. Journal of Climate 21: 638-654.

Kowalski, E.A., and D.L. Dilcher, 2003. Warmer paleotemperatures for terrestrial ecosystems. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 100: 167-170.

Kozdon, R., D.C. Kelly, N.T. Kita, and J.W. Valley, 2009. The “cool tropic paradox”: Reassessing aberrant δ 18O in foraminifera by SIMS. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta Supplement 73: A693

Kraus, M.J., and S. Riggins, 2007. Transient drying during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM): Analysis of paleosols in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 245: 444-461.

Kuiper, K.F., A. Deino, F.J. Hilgen, W. Krijgsman, P.R. Renne, and J.R. Wijbrans, 2008. Synchronizing rock clocks of Earth history. Science 320: 500-504.

Kump, L.R., 2002. Reducing uncertainty about carbon dioxide as a climate driver. Nature 419: 188-190.

Kump, L.R., 2009. Tipping pointedly cooler. Science 323: 1175-1176.

Kump, L.R., and D. Pollard, 2008. Amplification of Cretaceous warmth by biological cloud feedbacks. Science 320: 195.

Kump, L.R., A. Pavlov, and M.A. Arthur, 2005. Massive release of hydrogen sulfide to the surface ocean and atmosphere during intervals of ocean anoxia. Geology 33: 397-400.

Kump, L.R., T.J. Bralower, and A. Ridgewell, 2009. Ocean acidification in deep time. Oceanography 22: 94-107.

Kürschner, W.M., Z. Kvaček, and D.L. Dilcher, 2008. The impact of Miocene atmospheric carbon dioxide fluctuations on climate and the evolution of terrestrial ecosystems. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 105: 449-453.

Kurtz, A.C., L.R. Kump, M.A. Arthur, J.C. Zachos, and A. Paytan, 2003. Early Cenozoic decoupling of the global carbon and sulfur cycles. Paleoceanography 18: 1090, 14 pp.

Langebroek, P.M., A. Paul, and M. Schulz, 2008. Constraining atmospheric CO2 content during the Middle Miocene Antarctic glaciation using an ice sheet-climate model. Climate of the Past Discussions 4: 859-895.

Laskar, J., P. Robutel, F. Joutel, M. Gastineau, A.C.M. Correia, and B. Levrard, 2004. A long-term numerical solution for the insolation quantities of the Earth. Astronomy and Astrophysics 428: 261-285.

Lazarus, D.B., B. Kotrc, G. Wulf, and D.N. Schmidt, 2009. Radiolarians decreased silicification as an evolutionary response to reduced Cenozoic ocean silica availability. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 106: 9333-9338.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2011. Understanding Earth's Deep Past: Lessons for Our Climate Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13111.
×

Lea, D.W., 2004. The 100,000-yr cycle in tropical SST, greenhouse forcing, and climate sensitivity. Journal of Climate 17: 2170-2179.

Lea, D.W., T.A. Mashiotta, and H.J. Spero, 1999. Controls on magnesium and strontium uptake in planktonic foraminifera determined by live culturing. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 63: 2369-2379.

Lea, D.W., D.K. Pak, and H.J. Spero, 2000. Climate impact of Late Quaternary equatorial Pacific sea surface temperature variations. Science 289: 1719-1724.

Lear, C.H., H. Elderfield, and P.A. Wilson, 2000. Cenozoic deep-sea temperatures and global ice volumes from Mg/Ca in benthic foraminiferal calcite. Science, 287: 269-272.

Lear, C.H., Y. Rosenthal, and N. Slowey, 2002. Benthic foraminiferal Mg/Ca-paleothermometry: A revised core-top calibration. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 66(19): 3375-3387.

Lear, C.H., T.R. Bailey, P.N. Pearson, H.K. Coxall, and Y. Rosenthal, 2008. Cooling and ice growth across the Eocene-Oligocene transition. Geology 36: 251-254.

Leckie, R.M., T.J. Bralower, and R. Cashman, 2002. Oceanic anoxic events and plankton evolution: Biotic response to tectonic forcing during the mid-Cretaceous. Paleoceanography 17: 1041, 29 pp.

Lenton, T.M., H. Held, E. Kriegler, J.W. Hall, W. Lucht, S. Rahmstorf, and H.J. Schellnhuber, 2008. Tipping elements in the Earth’s climate system. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 105: 1786-1793.

Lippert, P.C., and Zachos, J.C., 2007. A biogenic origin for anomalous fine-grained magnetic material at the Paleocene-Eocene boundary at Wilson Lake, New Jersey. Paleoceanography, 22: PA4104, 8 pp.

Liu, W., and Y. Huang, 2005. Compound-specific D/H ratios and molecular distributions of higher plant leaf waxes as novel paleoenvironmental indicators in the Chinese Loess Plateau. Organic Geochemistry 36: 851-860.

Liu, Z., B.L. Otto-Bliesner, F. He, E.C. Brady, R. Tomas, P.U. Clark, A.E. Carlson, J. Lynch-Stieglitz, W. Curry, E. Brook, D. Erickson, R. Jacob, J. Kutzbach, and J. Cheng, 2009a. Transient simulations of last deglaciation with a new mechanism for Bølling-Allerød warming. Science 325: 310-314.

Liu, Z., M. Pagani, D. Zinniker, R. DeConto, M. Huber, H. Brinkhuis, S.R. Shah, R.M. Leckie, and A. Pearson, 2009b. Global cooling during the Eocene-Oligocene climate transition. Science 323: 1187-1190.

Liu, X., F. Huang, P. Kong, A. Aimin, X. Li, and Y. Ju, 2010. History of ice sheet elevation in East Antarctica: Paleoclimatic implications. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 290: 281-288.

Loope, D.B., C.M. Rowe, and R.M. Joeckel, 2001. Annual monsoon rains recorded by Jurassic dunes. Nature 412: 64-66.

Loope, D.B., M.B. Steiner, C.M. Rowe, and N. Lancaster, 2004. Tropical westerlies over Pangaean sand seas. Sedimentology 51: 315-322.

Lowenstein, T.K., and R.V. Demicco, 2006. Elevated Eocene atmospheric CO2 and its subsequent decline. Science 313: 1928-1928.

Lu, J., G.A. Vecchi, and T. Reichler, 2007. Expansion of the Hadley cell under global warming. Geophysical Research Letters 34: L14808, 5 pp.

Ludvigson, G.A., L.A. Gonzalez, R.A. Metzger, B.J. Witzke, R.L. Brenner, A.P. Murillo, and T.S. White, 1998. Meteoric sphaerosiderite lines and their use for paleohydrology and paleoclimatology. Geology 26: 1039-1042.

Lunt, D.J., G.L. Foster, A.M. Haywood, and E.J. Stone, 2008. Late Pliocene Greenland glaciation controlled by a decline in atmospheric CO2 levels. Nature 454: 1102-1105.

Lyons, T.W., A.D. Anbar, S. Severmann, C. Scott, and B.C. Gill, 2009. Tracking Euxinia in the ancient ocean: A multiproxy perspective and proterozoic case study. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences 37: 507-534.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2011. Understanding Earth's Deep Past: Lessons for Our Climate Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13111.
×

Macdonald, F.A., M.D. Schmitz, J.L. Crowley, C.F. Roots, D.S. Jones, A.C. Maloof, J.V. Strauss, P.A. Cohen, D.T. Johnston, and D.P. Schrag, 2010. Calibrating the Cryogenian. Science 327: 1241–1243.

McArthur, J.M., T.J. Algeo, B. van de Schootbrugge, Q. Li, and R.J. Howarth, 2008a. Basinal restriction, black shales, Re-Os dating, and the Early Toarcian (Jurassic) oceanic anoxic event. Paleoceanography 23: PA4217, 22 pp.

McArthur, J.M., A.S. Cohen, A.L. Coe, D.B. Kemp, R.J. Bailey, and D.G. Smith, 2008b. Discussion on the Late Palaeocene-Early Eocene and Toarcian (Early Jurassic) carbon isotope excursions: A comparison of their time scales, associated environmental change, causes and consequences. Journal of the Geological Society 165: 875-880.

McElwain, J.C., 2004. Climate-independent paleoaltimetry using stomatal density in fossil leaves as a proxy for CO2 partial pressure. Geology 32: 1017-1020.

McElwain, J.C., and W.G. Chaloner, 1995. Stomatal density and index of fossil plants track atmospheric carbon dioxide in the Palaeozoic. Annals of Botany 76: 389-395.

McElwain, J.C., and D.M. Haworth, 2009. The stomatal-CO2 proxy: Limitations and advances. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta Supplement 73: A856-A856.

McElwain, J.C., J. Wade-Murphy, and S.P. Hesselbo, 2005. Changes in carbon dioxide during an oceanic anoxic event linked to intrusion into Gondwana coals. Nature 435: 479-482.

Makarieva, A.M., V.G. Gorshkov, and B.L. Li, 2009. Re-calibrating the snake palaeothermometer. Nature 460: E2-E3.

Malakoff, D., 1998. Death by suffocation in the Gulf of Mexico. Science 281: 190-192.

Marchitto, T.M., W.B Curry, and D.W. Oppo, 2000. Zinc concentrations in benthic foraminifera reflect seawater chemistry. Paleoceanography 15: 299-306.

Markwick, P., 1998. Fossil crocodilians as indicators of Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic climates: Implications for using paleontological data in reconstructing palaeoclimate. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 137: 207-271.

Markwick, P.J., 2007. The palaeogeographic and paleoclimatic significance of climate proxies for data-model comparisons. Pp. 251-312 in M. Williams, A.M. Haywood, F.J. Gregory, and D.N. Schmidt (eds.), Deep-Time Perspectives on Climate Change: Marrying the Signal from Computer Models and Biological Proxies. London: The Micropaleontological Society, Special Publications and The Geological Society.

Marland, G., T.A. Boden, and R.J. Andres, 2002. Global, regional, and national CO2 emissions. Trends: A Compendium of Data on Global Change. Available online at http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov/trends/trends.htm; accessed July 22, 2010.

Marland, G., R.A. Pielke, Sr., M. Apps, R. Avissar, R.A. Betts, K.J. Davis, P. Frumhoff, S.T. Jackson, L. Joyce, P. Kauppi, K.G. MacDicken, R. Neilson, J.O. Niles, D.S. Niyogi, R.J. Norby, N. Pena, N. Sampson, and Y. Xue, 2003. The climatic implications of land surface change and carbon management, and the implications for climate-change mitigation policy. Climate Policy 3: 149-157.

Martrat, B., J.O. Grimalt, N.J. Shackleton, L. de Abreu, M.A. Hutterli, and T.F. Stocker, 2007. Four climate cycles of recurring deep and surface water destabilizations on the Iberian Margin. Science 317: 502-507.

Menegatti, P., H. Weissert, R.S. Brown, R.V. Tyson, P. Farrimoud, A. Strasser, and M. Caron, 1998. High-resolution δ13C stratigraphy through the early Aptian “Livello Selli” of the Alpine Tethys. Paleoceanography 13: 530-545.

Meyer, K.M., L.R. Kump, and A. Ridgwell, 2008. Biogeochemical controls on photic-zone euxinia during the end-Permian mass extinction. Geology 36: 747-750.

Meyers, S.R., B.B. Sageman, and T.W. Lyons, 2005. Organic carbon burial rate and the molybdenum proxy: Theoretical framework and application to Cenomanian-Turonian oceanic anoxic event 2. Paleoceanography 20: PA2002, 19 pp.

Miller, K.G., 2009. Broken greenhouse windows. Nature Geoscience 2: 465-466.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2011. Understanding Earth's Deep Past: Lessons for Our Climate Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13111.
×

Miller, K.G., P.J. Sugarman, J.V. Browning, M.A. Kominz, J.C. Hernandez, R.K. Olsson, J.D. Wright, M.D. Feigenson, and W. Van Sickel, 2003. Late Cretaceous chronology of large, rapid sea-level changes: Glacioeustasy during the greenhouse world. Geology 31: 585-588.

Miller, K.G., P.J. Sugarman, J.V. Browning, M.A. Kominz, R.K. Olsson, M.D. Feigenson, and J.C. Hernandez, 2004. Upper Cretaceous sequences and sea level history, New Jersey Coastal Plain. Geological Society of America Bulletin 116: 368-393.

Miller, K.G., M.A. Kominz, J.V. Browning, J.D. Wright, G.S. Mountain, M.E. Katz, P.J. Sugarman, B.S. Cramer, N. Christie-Blick, and S.F. Pekar, 2005. The Phanerozoic record of global sea-level change. Science 310: 1293-1298.

Miller, G.H., R.B. Alley, J. Brigham-Grette, J.J. Fitzpatrick, L. Polyak, M.C. Serreze, and J.W.C. White, 2010. Arctic amplification: Can the past constrain the future? Quaternary Science Reviews 29: 1779-1790.

Montañez, I.P., N.J. Tabor, D. Niemeier, W.A. DiMichele, T.D. Frank, C.R. Fielding, J.L. Isbell, L.P. Birgenheier, and M.C. Rygel, 2007. CO2-forced climate and vegetation instability during Late Paleozoic deglaciation. Science 315: 87-91.

Montoya-Pino, C., S. Weyer, A.D. Anbar, J. Pross, W. Oschmann, B. van de Schootbrugge, and H.W. Arz, 2010. Global enhancement of ocean anoxia during Oceanic Anoxic Event 2: A quantitative approach using U isotopes. Geology 38: 315-318.

Moore, E.A. and A.C. Kurtz, 2008. Black carbon in Paleocene-Eocene boundary sediments: A test of biomass combustion as the PETM trigger. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 267:147-152.

Morley, R.J., 2000. Origin and Evolution of Tropical Rain Forests. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 378 pp.

Moucha, R., A.M. Forte, J.X. Mitrovica, D.B. Rowley, S. Quéré, N.A. Simmons, and S.P. Grand, 2008. Dynamic topography and long-term sea-level variations: There is no such thing as a stable continental platform. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 271: 101-108.

Mourik, A.A., J.F. Bijkerk, A. Cascella, S.K. Hüsing, F.J. Hilgen, L.J. Lourens, and E. Turco, 2010. Astronomical tuning of the La Vedova High Cliff section (Ancona, Italy)—Implications of the Middle Miocene climate transition for Mediterranean sapropel formation. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 297: 249-261.

Muttoni, G., C. Carcano, E. Garzanti, M. Ghielmi, A. Piccin, R. Pini, S. Rogledi, and D. Sciunnach, 2003. Onset of major Pleistocene glaciations in the Alps. Geology 31: 989-992.

Myers, N., and A.H. Knoll, 2001. The biotic crisis and the future of evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 98: 5389-5392.

Nägler, T.F., A. Eisenhauer, A. Müller, C. Hemleben, and J. Kramers, 2000. The δ44Catemperature calibration on fossil and cultured Globigerinoides sacculifer: New tool for reconstruction of past sea surface temperatures. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems 1: 2000GC000091.

Naish, T., R. Powell, R. Levy, G. Wilson, R. Scherer, F. Talarico, L. Krissek, F. Niessen, M. Pompilio, T. Wilson, L. Carter, R. DeConto, P. Huybers, R. McKay, D. Pollard, J. Ross, D. Winter, P. Barrett, G. Browne, R. Cody, E. Cowan, J. Crampton, G. Dunbar, N. Dunbar, F. Florindo, C. Gebhardt, I. Graham, M. Hannah, D. Hansaraj, D. Harwood, D. Helling, S. Henrys, L. Hinnov, G. Kuhn, P. Kyle, A. Läufer, P. Maffioli, D. Magens, K. Mandernack, W. McIntosh, C. Millan, R. Morin, C. Ohneiser, T. Paulsen, D. Persico, I. Raine, J. Reed, C. Riesselman, L. Sagnotti, D. Schmitt, C. Sjunneskog, P. Strong, M. Taviani, S. Vogel, T. Wilch, and T. Williams, 2009. Obliquity-paced Pliocene West Antarctic ice sheet oscillations. Nature 458: 322-328.

Nicolo, M.J., G.R. Dickens, C.J. Hollis, and J.C. Zachos, 2007. Multiple early Eocene hyperthermals: Their sedimentary expression on the New Zealand continental margin and in the deep sea. Geology 35: 699-702.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2011. Understanding Earth's Deep Past: Lessons for Our Climate Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13111.
×

Niyogi, D., and Y. Xue, 2006. Soil moisture regulates the biological response of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations in a coupled atmosphere biosphere model. Global and Planetary Change 54: 94-108.

Norris, R.D., and U. Röhl, 1999. Carbon cycling and chronology of climate warming during the Palaeocene/Eocene transition. Nature 401: 775-778.

Norris, R.D., K.L. Bice, E.A. Magno, and P.A. Wilson, 2002. Jiggling the tropical thermostat in the Cretaceous hothouse. Geology 30: 299-302.

NRC (National Research Council), 1995. Effects of Past Global Change on Life. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 272 pp.

NRC (National Research Council), 2001. Grand Challenges in Environmental Sciences. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 106 pp.

NRC (National Research Council), 2002. Abrupt Climate Change: Inevitable Surprises. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 244 pp.

NRC (National Research Council), 2010. Understanding Climate’s Influence on Human Evolution. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press, 128 pp.

Olsen, P.E., 1986. A 40-million-year lake record of Early Mesozoic orbital climatic forcing. Science 234: 842-848.

Olsen, P.E., and D.V. Kent, 1996. Milankovitch climate forcing in the tropics of Pangea during the Late Triassic. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 122: 1-26.

Olsen, P.E., and D.V. Kent, 1999. Long-period Milankovitch cycles from the Late Triassic and Early Jurassic of eastern North America and their implications for the calibration of the early Mesozoic time scale and the long-term behavior of the planets. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London A 357: 1761-1787.

Olsen, P.E., D.V. Kent, B. Cornet, W.K. Witte, and R.W. Schlische, 1996. High-resolution stratigraphy of the Newark Rift Basin (Early Mesozoic, Eastern North America). Geological Society of America Bulletin, 108: 40-77.

Olsen, P.E., C. Koeberl, H. Huber, A. Montanari, S.J. Fowell, M. Et Touhami, and D.V. Kent, 2002. Continental Triassic-Jurassic boundary in central Pangea: Recent progress and discussion of an Ir anomaly. Geological Society of America Special Papers 356: 505-522.

Olsen, P.E., D.V. Kent, M. Et-Touhami, and J.H. Puffer, 2003. Cyclo-, magneto-, and biostratigraphic constraints on the duration of the CAMP event and its relationship to the Triassic-Jurassic boundary. Pp. 7-32 in W.E. Hames, J.G. McHone, P.R. Renne, and C. Ruppel (eds.), The Central Atlantic Magmatic Province: Insights From Fragments of Pangea. Geophysical Monograph Series 136. Washington, D.C.: American Geophysical Union.

Olsen, P.E., D.V. Kent, and H. Whiteside, 2010. Implications of the Newark Supergroup-based astrochronology and geomagnetic polarity time scale (Newark-APTS) for the tempo and mode of the early diversification of the Dinosauria. Earth and Environmental Science Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 101: 201-229.

Oster, J.L., I.P. Montañez, W.D. Sharp, and K.M. Cooper, 2009. Late Pleistocene California droughts during deglaciation and Arctic warming. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 288: 434-443.

Otto-Bliesner, B.L., J. Marshall, J.T. Overpeck, G.H. Miller, A. Hu, and CAPE Last Interglacial Project members, 2006. Simulating Arctic climate warmth and icefield retreat in the last interglaciation. Science 311: 1751-1753.

Overpeck, J.T., T. Webb III, and I.C. Prentice, 1985. Quantitative interpretation of fossil pollen spectra: Dissimilarity coefficients and the method of modern analogs. Quaternary Research 23: 87-108.

Pagani, M., K.H. Freeman, and M.A. Arthur, 1999. Late Miocene atmospheric CO2 concentrations and the expansion of C4 grasses. Science 285: 876-879.

Pagani, M., J.C. Zachos, K.H. Freeman, B. Tipple, and S. Bohaty, 2005. Marked decline in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations during the Paleogene. Science 309: 600-603.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2011. Understanding Earth's Deep Past: Lessons for Our Climate Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13111.
×

Pagani, M., N. Pedentchouk, M. Huber, A. Sluijs, S. Schouten, H. Brinkhuis, J.S. Sinninghe Damsté, G.R. Dickens, Expedition 302 Scientists, and J. Backman, S. Clemens, T. Cronin, F. Eynaud, J. Gattacceca, M. Jakobsson, R. Jordan, M. Kaminski, J. King, N. Koc, N.C. Martinez, D. McInroy, T.C. Moore, Jr., K. Moran, M. O’Regan, J. Onodera, H. Pälike, B. Rea, D. Rio, T. Sakamoto, D.C. Smith, K.E.K. St. John, I. Suto, N. Suzuki, K. Takahashi, M. Watanabe and M. Yamamoto for Expedition 302 scientists, 2006. Arctic hydrology during global warming at the Palaeocene/Eocene Thermal Maximum. Nature 442: 671-675.

Pagani, M., Z. Liu, J. LaRiviere, and A.C. Ravelo, 2010. High Earth-system climate sensitivity determined from Pliocene carbon dioxide concentrations. Nature Geoscience 3: 27-30.

Pälike, H., J. Laskar, and N.J. Shackleton, 2004. Geologic constraints on the chaotic diffusion of the solar system. Geology 32: 929-932.

Pälike, H., J. Frazier, and J.C. Zachos, 2006a. Extended orbitally forced palaeoclimatic records from the equatorial Atlantic Ceara Rise. Quaternary Science Reviews 25: 3138-3149.

Pälike, H., R.D. Norris, J.O. Herrle, P.A. Wilson, H.K. Coxall, C.H. Lear, N.J. Shackleton, A.K. Tripati, and B.S. Wade, 2006b. The heartbeat of the Oligocene climate system. Science 314: 1894-1898.

Panchuk, K.M., C. Holmden, and S.A. Leslie, 2006. Local controls on carbon cycling in the Ordovician midcontinent region of North America with implications for carbon isotope secular curves. Journal of Sedimentary Research 76: 200-211.

Panchuk, K., A. Ridgwell, and L.R. Kump, 2008. Sedimentary response to Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum carbon release: A model-data comparison. Geology 36: 315-318.

Pancost, R.D., D.S. Steart, L. Handley, M.E. Collinson, J.J. Hooker, A.C. Scott, N.V. Grassineau, and I.J. Glasspool, 2007. Increased terrestrial methane cycling at the Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum. Nature 449: 332-335.

Parmesan, C., and G. Yohe, 2003. A globally coherent fingerprint of climate change impacts across natural systems. Nature 421: 37-42.

Parrish, J.T., 1998. Interpreting Pre-Quaternary Climate from the Geologic Record. New York: Columbia University Press, 348 pp.

Parsons, B., and J.G. Sclater, 1977. An analysis of the variation of the ocean floor bathymetry and heat flow with age. Journal of Geophysical Research 82: 803-827.

Passey, B.H., N.E. Levin, T.E. Cerling, F.H. Brown, and J.M. Eiler, 2010. High temperature environments of human evolution in East Africa based on bond ordering in paleosol carbonates. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 107: 11245-11249.

Payne, J.L., D.J. Lehrmann, J. Wei, M.J. Orchard, D.P. Schrag, and A.H. Knoll, 2004. Large perturbations of the carbon cycle during recovery from the End-Permian extinction. Science 305: 506-509.

Pearson, P.N., and M.R. Palmer, 2000. Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations over the past 60 million years. Nature 406: 695-699.

Pearson, P.N., P.W. Ditchfield, J. Singano, K.G. Harcourt-Brown, C.J. Nicholas, R.K. Olsson, N.J. Shackleton, and M.A. Hall, 2001. Warm tropical sea surface temperatures in the Late Cretaceous and Eocene epochs. Nature 413: 481-487.

Pearson, P.N., B.E. van Dongen, C.J. Nicholas, R.D. Pancost, S. Schouten, J.M. Singano, and B.S. Wade, 2007. Stable warm tropical climate through the Eocene epoch. Geology 35: 211-214.

Pearson, P.N., I.K. McMillan, B.S. Wade, J.T. Dunkley, H.K. Coxall, P.R. Bown, and C.H. Lear, 2008. Extinction and environmental change across the Eocene-Oligocene boundary in Tanzania. Geology 36: 179-182.

Pearson, P.N., G.L. Foster, and B.S. Wade, 2009. Atmospheric carbon dioxide through the Eocene-Oligocene climate transition. Nature 461: 1110-1113.

Pedentchouk, N., W. Sumner, B. Tipple, and M. Pagani, 2008. δ13C and δD compositions of n-alkanes from modern angiosperms and conifers: An experimental set up in central Washington State, USA. Organic Geochemistry 39: 1066-1071.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2011. Understanding Earth's Deep Past: Lessons for Our Climate Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13111.
×

Peppe, D.J., D.L. Royer, P. Wilf, and E.A. Kowalski, 2010. Quantification of large uncertainties in fossil leaf paleoaltimetry. Tectonics 29: TC3015, 14 pp.

Peteet, D., 2000. Sensitivity and rapidity of vegetational response to abrupt climate change. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 97: 1359-1361.

Peteet, D.M., and D.H. Mann, 1994. Late-glacial vegetation, tephra, and climatic history of southwestern Kodiak Island, Alaska. Ecoscience 1: 255-267.

Peyser, C.E. and C.J. Poulsen, 2008. Controls on permo-carboniferous precipitation over tropical Pangaea: A GCM sensitivity study. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 268: 181-192.

Pielke, R.A., Sr., G. Marland, R.A. Betts, T.N. Chase, J.L. Eastman, J.O. Niles, D. Niyogi, and S.W. Running, 2002. The influence of land-use change and landscape dynamics on the climate system—Relevance to climate change policy beyond the radiative effects of greenhouse gases. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A 360: 1705-1719.

Pierrehumbert, R.T., 1995. Thermostats, radiator fins and local runaway greenhouse. Journal of Atmospheric Sciences 52: 1784-1806.

Pierrehumbert, R.T., 2002. The hydrologic cycle in deep-time climate problems. Nature 419: 191-198.

Plint, A.G., and M.A. Kreitner, 2007. Extensive, thin sequences spanning Cretaceous foredeep suggest high-frequency eustatic control: Late Cenomanian, Western Canada foreland basin. Geology 35: 735-738.

Polissar, P.J., K.H. Freeman, D.B. Rowley, F.A. McInerney, and B.S. Currie, 2009. Paleoaltimetry of the Tibetan Plateau from D/H ratios of lipid biomarkers. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 287: 64-76.

Pollard, D., and R.M. DeConto, 2005. Hysteresis in Cenozoic Antarctic ice-sheet variations. Global and Planetary Change 45: 9-21.

Poulsen, C.J., D. Pollard, I. Montañez, and D. Rowley, 2007a. Late Paleozoic tropical climate response to Gondwanan deglaciation. Geology 35: 771-774.

Poulsen, C.J., D. Pollard, and T.S. White, 2007b. General circulation model simulation of the δ18O content of continental precipitation in the middle Cretaceous: A model-proxy comparison. Geology 35: 199-202.

Poulsen, C.J., T.A. Ehlers, and N. Insel, 2010. Onset of convective rainfall during gradual Late Miocene rise of the Central Andes. Science 328: 490-493.

Prochnow, S.J., L.C. Nordt, S.C. Atchley, and M.R. Hudec, 2006. Multi-proxy paleosol evidence for middle and late Triassic climate trends in eastern Utah. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 232: 53–72.

Quade, J., C. Garzione, and J. Eiler, 2007. Paleoelevation reconstruction using pedogenic carbonates. Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry 66: 53-87.

Rabalais, N.N., R.E. Turner, R.J. Díaz, and D. Justic, 2009. Global change and eutrophication of coastal waters. ICES Journal of Marine Science 66: 1528-1537.

Ramanathan, V., and W.D. Collins, 1991. Thermodynamic regulation of ocean warming by cirrus clouds deduced from observations of the 1987 El Niño. Nature 351: 27-32.

Ramezani, J., M.D. Schmitz, V.I. Davydov, S.A. Bowring, W.S. Snyder, and C.J. Northrup, 2007. High-precision U-Pb zircon age constraints on the Carboniferous-Permian boundary in the southern Urals stratotype. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 256: 244-257.

Rasbury, E.T., and J.M. Cole, 2009. Directly dating geologic events: U-Pb dating of carbonates. Reviews of Geophysics 47: 545-548.

Ravelo, A.C., and M.W. Wara, 2004. The role of the tropical oceans on global climate during a warm period and a major climate transition. Oceanography 17: 32-41.

Ravelo, A.C., P.S. Dekens, and M. McCarthy, 2006. Evidence for El Niño-like conditions during the Pliocene. GSA Today 16: 4-11.

Ravizza, G., and K.K. Turekian, 1989. Application of the 187Re-187Os system to black shale geochronometry. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 53: 3257-3262.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2011. Understanding Earth's Deep Past: Lessons for Our Climate Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13111.
×

Raymo, M.E., 1994. The initiation of northern hemisphere glaciations. Paleoceanography 9: 399-404.

Raynolds, R.G., and K.R. Johnson, 2002. Drilling of the Kiowa Core, Elbert County, Colorado. Rocky Mountain Geology 37: 105-109.

Reichow, M.K., M.S. Pringle, A.I. Al’Mukhamedov, M.B. Allen, V.L. Andreichev, M.M. Buslov, C.E. Davies, G.S. Fedoseev, J.G. Fitton, S. Inger, A.Ya. Medvedev, C. Mitchell, V.N. Puchkov, I.Yu. Safonova, R.A. Scott, and A.D. Saunders, 2009. The timing and extent of the eruption of the Siberian Traps large igneous province: Implications for the end-Permian environmental crisis. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 277: 9-20.

Retallack, G.J., 2005. Pedogenic carbonate proxies for amount and seasonality of precipitation in paleosols. Geology 33: 333-336.

Revelle, R., and H.E. Suess, 1957. Carbon dioxide exchange between atmosphere and ocean and the question of an increase of atmospheric CO2 during the past decades. Tellus Series B: Chemical and Physical Meteorology 9: 18-27.

Ridgwell, A.J., A.J. Watson, and D.E. Archer, 2002. Modeling the response of the oceanic Si inventory to perturbation, and consequences for atmospheric CO2. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 16: 1071, 25 pp.

Ridgwell, A.J., M.J. Kennedy, and K. Caldeira, 2003. Carbonate deposition, climate stability, and neoproterozoic ice ages. Science 302: 859-862.

Rind, D., and M. Chandler, 1991. Increased ocean heat transports and warmer climate. Journal of Geophysical Research 96: 7437-7461.

Rind, D., R. Goldberg, J. Hansen, C. Rosenzweig, and R. Ruedy, 1990. Potential evapotranspiration and the likelihood of future drought. Journal of Geophysical Research 95: 9983-10004.

Roche, D.M., Y. Donnadieu, E. Pucéat, and D. Paillard, 2006. Effect of changes in δ18O content of the surface ocean on estimated sea surface temperatures in past warm climate. Paleoceanography 21: PA2023, 7 pp.

Röhl, U., T. Westerhold, T.J. Bralower, and J.C. Zachos, 2007. On the duration of the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM). Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems 8: Q12002, 13 pp.

Rohling, E.J., E.C. Hopmans, and J.S. Sinninghe Damsté, 2006. Water column dynamics during the last interglacial anoxic event in the Mediterranean (sapropel S5). Paleoceanography 21: PA2018, 8 pp.

Rohling, E.J., K. Grant, C. Hemleben, M. Siddal, B.A.A. Hoogakker, M. Bolshaw, and M. Kucera, 2008. High rates of sea-level rise during the last interglacial period. Nature Geoscience 1: 38-42.

Rohling, E.J., K. Grant, M. Bolshaw, A.P. Roberts, M. Siddal, Ch. Hemleben, and M. Kucera, 2009. Antarctic temperature and global sea level closely coupled over the past five glacial cycles. Nature Geoscience 2: 500-504.

Rosenzweig, C., D. Karoly, M. Vicarelli, P. Neofotis, Q. Wu, G. Casassa, A. Menzel, T.L. Root, N. Estrella, B. Seguin, P. Tryjanowski, C. Liu, S. Rawlins, and A. Imeson, 2008. Attributing physical and biological impacts to anthropogenic climate change. Nature 453: 353-358.

Rowley, D.B., 2002. Rate of plate creation and destruction: 180 Ma to present. Geological Society of America Bulletin 114: 927-933.

Rowley, D.B., and B.S. Currie, 2006. Palaeo-altimetry of the late Eocene to Miocene Lunpola basin, central Tibet. Nature 439: 677-681.

Royer, D.L., R.A. Berner, and D.J. Beerling, 2001a. Phanerozoic atmospheric CO2 change: Evaluating geochemical and paleobiological approaches. Earth-Science Reviews 54: 349-392.

Royer, D.L., S.L. Wing, D.J. Beerling, D.W. Jolley, P.L. Koch, L.J. Hickey, and R.A. Berner, 2001b. Paleobotanical evidence for near present-day levels of atmospheric CO2 during part of the Tertiary. Science 292: 2310-2313.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2011. Understanding Earth's Deep Past: Lessons for Our Climate Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13111.
×

Royer, D.L., P. Wilf, D.A. Janesko. E.A. Kowalski, and D.L. Dilcher, 2005. Correlations of climate and plant ecology to leaf size and shape: Potential proxies for the fossil record. American Journal of Botany 92: 1141-1151.

Royer, D.L., R.A. Berner, and J. Park, 2007. Climate sensitivity constrained by CO2 concentrations over the past 420 million years. Nature 446: 530-532.

Ruddiman, W.F., 2007. Earth’s Climate: Past and Future (2nd edition). New York: W.H Freeman and Co., 388 pp.

Ruhl, M., M.H.L. Deenen, H.A. Abels, N.R. Bonis, W. Krijgsman, and W.M. Kürschner, 2010. Astronomical constraints on the duration of the early Jurassic Hettangian stage and recovery rates following the end-Triassic mass extinction (St. Audrie’s Bay/East Quantoxhead, UK). Earth and Planetary Science Letters 295: 262-276.

Russell, A.D., S. Emerson., A.C. Mix, and L.C. Peterson, 1996. The use of foraminiferal U/Ca as an indicator of changes in seawater U content. Paleoceanography 11: 649-663.

Russell, A.D., B. Honisch, H.J. Spero, and D. Lea, 2004. Effects of seawater carbonate ion concentration and temperature on shell U, Mg, and Sr in cultured planktonic foraminifera. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 68: 4347-4361.

Rygel, M.C., C.R. Fielding, T.D. Frank, and L.P. Birgenheier, 2008. The magnitude of late Paleozoic glacioeustatic fluctuations: A synthesis. Journal of Sedimentary Research 78: 500-511.

Sachse, D., J. Radke, and G. Gleixner, 2006. δD values of individual n-alkanes from terrestrial plants along a climatic gradient—Implications for the sedimentary biomarker record. Organic Geochemistry 37: 469-483.

Sageman, B.B., A.E. Murphy, J.P. Werne, C.A. Ver Straeten, D.J. Hollander, and T.W. Lyons, 2003. A tale of shales: The relative roles of production, decomposition, and dilution in the accumulation of organic-rich strata, Middle-Upper Devonian, Appalachian basin. Chemical Geology 195: 229-273.

Sageman, B.B., S.R. Meyers, and M.A. Arthur, 2006. Orbital timescale for the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary stratotype and OAE II, central Colorado, USA. Geology 34: 125-128.

Sahagian, D., and A. Proussevitch, 2007. Paleoelevation measurement on the basis of vesicular basalts. Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry 66: 195-213.

Sanyal, A., N.G. Hemming, W.S. Broecker, and G.N. Hanson, 1997. Changes in pH in the eastern equatorial Pacific across stage 5-6 boundary based on boron isotopes in foraminifera. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 11: 125-133.

Scheibner, C., and R.P. Speijer, 2008. Decline of coral reefs during late Paleocene to early Eocene global warming. eEarth 3: 19-26.

Schimmelmann, A., M.D. Lewan, and R.P. Wintsch, 1999. D/H isotope ratios of kerogen, bitumen, oil, and water in hydrous pyrolysis of source rocks containing kerogen types I, II, IIS, and III. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 63: 3751-3766.

Schimmelmann, A., A.L. Sessions, and M. Mastalerz, 2006. Hydrogen isotopic (D/H) composition of organic matter during diagenesis and thermal maturation. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences 34: 501-533.

Schiøler, P., J. Andersjerg, O.R. Clausen, G. Dam, K. Dybkjær, L. Hamberg, C. HeilmannClausen, E.P. Johannessen, L.E. Kristensen, I. Prince, and J.A. Rasmussen, 2007. Lithostratigraphy of the Palaeogene-Lower Neogene succession of the Danish North Sea. Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland Bulletin 12, 77 pp.

Schmidt, M.W., H.J. Spero, and D.W. Lea, 2004. Links between salinity variation in the Caribbean and North Atlantic thermohaline circulation. Nature 428: 160-163.

Schmitz, B., and V. Pujalte, 2007. Abrupt increase in seasonal extreme precipitation at the Paleocene-Eocene boundary. Geology 35: 215-218.

Scholle, P.A., and M.A. Arthur, 1980. Carbon isotope fluctuations in Cretaceous pelagic lime-stones: Potential stratigraphic and petroleum exploration tools. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin 64: 67-87.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2011. Understanding Earth's Deep Past: Lessons for Our Climate Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13111.
×

Schouten, S., E.C. Hopmans, E. Schefuß, and J.S. Sinninghe Damsté, 2002. Distributional variations in marine crenarchaeotal membrane lipids: A new tool for reconstructing ancient sea water temperatures? Earth and Planetary Science Letters 204: 265-274.

Schouten, S., A. Forster, F.E. Panoto, and J.S. Sinninghe Damsté, 2007. Towards calibration of the TEX86 palaeothermometer for tropical sea surface temperatures in ancient greenhouse worlds. Organic Geochemistry 38: 1537-1546.

Schrag, D.P., D.J. DePaolo, and F.M. Richter, 1995. Reconstructing past sea surface temperatures: Correcting for diagenesis of bulk marine carbonate. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 59: 2265-2278.

Schroeder, P.A., and N.D. Melear, 1999. Stable carbon isotope signatures preserved in authigenic gibbsite from a forested granitic-regolith: Panola Mt., Georgia, USA. Geoderma 91: 261-279.

Schult, I., J. Feichter, and W.F. Cooke, 1997. Effect of black carbon and sulfate aerosols on the Global Radiation Budget. Journal of Geophysical Research 102: 30107-30117.

Schumann, D., T.D. Raub, R.E. Kopp, J.-L. Guerquin-Kern, T.-D. Wu, I. Rouiller, A.V. Smirnov, S.K. Sears, U. Lücken, S.M. Tikoo, R. Hesse, J.L. Kirschvink, and H. Vali, 2008. Gigantism in unique biogenic magnetite at the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 105: 17648-17653.

Scotese, C.R., 2004. A continental drift flipbook. Journal of Geology 112: 729-741.

Seki, O., G.L. Foster, D.N. Schmidt, A. Mackensen, K. Kawamura, and R.D. Pancost, 2010. Alkenone and boron-based Pliocene pCO2 records. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 292: 201-211.

Selby, D., and R.A. Creaser, 2005. Direct radiometric dating of the Devonian-Mississippian time-scale boundary using the Re-Os black shale geochronometer. Geology 33: 545-548.

Selden, P.A., 2001. Terrestrialization of animals. Pp 71-73 in D.E.G. Briggs and P.R. Crowther (eds.), Palaeobiology II. Oxford: Blackwell Science.

Sepkoski, J.J., Jr., 1996. Patterns of Phanerozoic extinction: A perspective from global data bases. Pp. 35-51 in O.H. Walliser (ed.). Global Events and Event Stratigraphy in the Phanerozoic. Berlin: Springer.

Sereno, P.C., 1999. The evolution of dinosaurs. Science 284: 2137-2147.

Sewall, J.O., and L.C. Sloan, 2006. Come a little bit closer: A high-resolution climate study of the early Paleogene Laramide foreland. Geology 34:81-84.

Shackleton, N.J., 1987. Oxygen isotopes, ice volume and sea level. Quaternary Science Reviews 6: 183-190.

Shackleton, N., and A. Boersma, 1981. The climate of the Eocene ocean. Journal of the Geological Society of London 138: 153-157.

Shackleton, N.J., M.A. Hall, and D. Pate, 1995. Pliocene stable isotope stratigraphy of Site 846. Pp. 337-351 in N.G. Pisias, L.A. Mayer, T.R. Janecek, A. Palmer-Julson, and T.H. van Andel (eds.), Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results, Volume 138. College Station, Tex.: Ocean Drilling Program.

Shaffer, G., S.M. Olsen, and J.O.P Pedersen, 2009. Long-term oxygen depletion in response to carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuels. Nature Geoscience 2: 105-109.

Sheehan, P.M., 2001. History of marine biodiversity. Geological Journal 36: 231-249.

Sheldon, N.D., 2009. Non-marine records of climate change across the Eocene-Oligocene transition. Pp. 241-248 in C. Koeberl and A. Montanari (eds.), The Late Eocene Earth—Hothouse, Icehouse, and Impacts. Special Papers 452. Boulder, Colo.: Geological Society of America.

Sheldon, N.D., and N.J. Tabor, 2009. Quantitative paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic reconstruction using paleosols. Earth-Science Reviews 95: 1-52.

Sheldon, N.D., G.J. Retallack, and S. Tanaka, 2002. Geochemical climofunctions from North American soils and application to paleosols across the Eocene-Oligocene boundary in Oregon. Journal of Geology 110: 687-696.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2011. Understanding Earth's Deep Past: Lessons for Our Climate Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13111.
×

Shevenell, A.E., J.P. Kennett, and D.W. Lea, 2004. Middle Miocene Southern Ocean cooling and Antarctic cryosphere expansion. Science 305: 1766-1770.

Shu, D.-G., H.-L. Luo, S. Conway Morris, X.-L. Zhang, S.-X. Hu, L. Chen, J. Han, Y. Li, and L.-Z. Chen, 1999. Lower Cambrian vertebrates from South China. Nature 402: 42-46.

Shukla, J., and Y. Mintz, 1982. Influence of land-surface evapotranspiration on the Earth’s climate. Science 215: 1498-1501.

Shukla, S.P., M.A. Chandler, J. Jonas, L.E. Sohl, K. Mankoff, and H. Dowsett, 2009. Impact of a permanent El Niño (El Padre) and Indian Ocean dipole in warm Pliocene climates. Paleoceanography 24: PA2221. doi:10.1029/2008PA001682.

Siegenthaler, U., T.F. Stocker, E. Monnin, D. Lüthi, J. Schwander, B. Stauffer, D. Raynaud, J.-M. Barnola, H. Fischer, V. Masson-Delmotte, and J. Jouzel, 2005. Stable carbon cycle-climate relationship during the late Pleistocene. Science 310: 1313-1317.

Sigman, D.M., and E.A. Boyle, 2000. Glacial/interglacial variations in atmospheric carbon dioxide. Nature 407: 859-869.

Sinha, A., K.G. Cannariato, L.D. Stott, H.-C. Li, C.-F. You, H. Cheng, R.L. Edwards, and I.B. Singh, 2005. Variability of Southwest Indian summer monsoon precipitation during the Bølling-Ållerød. Geology 33: 813-816.

Slingo, J., K. Bates, N. Nikiforakis, M. Piggott, M. Roberts, L. Shaffrey, I. Stevens, P.L. Vidale, and H. Weller, 2009. Developing the next-generation climate system models: Challenges and achievements. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A 367: 815-831.

Sloan, L.C., and Pollard, D., 1998. Polar stratospheric clouds: A high latitude winter warming mechanism in an ancient greenhouse world. Geophysical Research Letters 25: 3517-3520.

Sluijs, A., S. Schouten, M. Pagani, M. Woltering, H. Brinkhuis, J.S. Sinninghe Damsté, G.R. Dickens, M. Huber, G.-J. Reichart, R. Stein, J. Matthiessen, L.J. Lourens, N. Pedentchouk, J. Backman, and K. Moran, 2006. Subtropical Arctic Ocean temperatures during the Palaeocene/Eocene thermal maximum. Nature 441: 610-613.

Smith, F.A., and K.H. Freeman, 2006. Influence of physiology and climate on δD of leaf wax n-alkanes from C3 and C4 grasses. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 70: 1172-1187.

Sniderman, J.M.K., 2009. Biased reptilian palaeothermometer? Nature 460: E1-E2.

Soreghan, G.S., M.J. Soreghan, C.J. Poulsen, R.A. Young, C.F. Eble, D.E. Sweet, and O.C. Davogustto, 2008. Anomalous cold in the Pangaean tropics. Geology 36: 659-662.

Spero, H.J., J. Bijma, D.W. Lea, and B.E. Bemis, 1997. Effect of seawater carbonate concentration on foraminiferal carbon and oxygen isotopes. Nature 390: 497-500.

Spicer, R.A., A. Ahlberg, A.B. Herman, C.-C. Hofmann, M. Raikevich, P.J. Valdes, and P.J. Markwick, 2008. The Late Cretaceous continental interior of Siberia: A challenge for climate models. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 267: 228-235.

Spivack, A.J., and C.-F. You, 1997. Boron isotopic geochemistry of carbonates and pore waters, Ocean Drilling Program Site 851. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 152: 113-122.

Sriver, R.L., and M. Huber, 2007. Observational evidence for an ocean heat pump induced by tropical cyclones. Nature 447: 577-580.

Stanford, J.D., E.J. Rohling, S.E. Hunter, A.P. Roberts, S.O. Rasmussen, E. Bard, J. McManus, and R.G. Fairbanks, 2006. Timing of meltwater pulse 1a and climate responses to meltwater injections. Paleoceanography 21: PA4103, 9 pp.

Stap, L., A. Sluijs, E. Thomas, and L. Lourens, 2009. Patterns and magnitude of deep sea carbonate dissolution during Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 and H2, Walvis Ridge, southeastern Atlantic Ocean, Paleoceanography 24: PA1211.

Stein, C.A., and S. Stein, 1992. A model for the global variation in oceanic depth and heat flow with lithospheric age. Nature 359: 123-129.

Stein, C.A., and S. Stein, 1997. Estimation of lateral hydrothermal flow distance from spatial variations in oceanic heat flow. Geophysical Research Letters 24: 2323-2326.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2011. Understanding Earth's Deep Past: Lessons for Our Climate Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13111.
×

Stern L.A., C. Page Chamberlain, R.C. Reynolds, and G.D. Johnson, 1997. Oxygen isotope evidence of climate change from pedogenic clay minerals in the Himalayan molasse. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 61: 731-744.

Sternberg, L.S.L., 1988. D/H ratios of environmental water recorded by D/H ratios of plant lipids. Nature 333: 59-61.

Stiles, C.A., C.I. Mora, and S.G. Driese, 2001. Pedogenic iron-manganese nodules in vertisols: A new proxy for paleoprecipitation? Geology 29: 943-946.

Stoll, H.M., and D.P. Schrag, 1996. Evidence for glacial control of rapid sea level changes in the Early Cretaceous. Science 272: 1771-1774.

Stoll, H.M., and D.P. Schrag, 2000. High-resolution stable isotope records from the Upper Cretaceous rocks of Italy and Spain: Glacial episodes in a greenhouse planet? Geological Society of America Bulletin 112: 308-319.

Storey, M., R.A. Duncan, and C.C. Swisher, III, 2007. Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum and the opening of the Northeast Atlantic. Science 316: 587-589.

Stramma, L., G.C. Johnson, J. Sprintall, and V. Mohrholz, 2008. Expanding oxygen-minimum zones in the tropical oceans. Science 320: 655-658.

Strasser, A., F.J. Hilgen, and P.H. Heckel, 2006. Cyclostratigraphy—Concepts, definitions, and applications. Newsletters on Stratigraphy 42: 75-114.

Sun, D.-Z., and Z. Liu, 1996. Dynamic ocean-atmosphere coupling: A thermostat for the tropics. Science 272: 1148-1150.

Svensen, H., S. Planke, A. Malthe-Sørenssen, B. Jamtveit, R. Myklebust, T. Rasmussen, and S.R. Sebastian, 2004. Release of methane from a volcanic basin as a mechanism for initial Eocene global warming. Nature 429: 542-545.

Svensen, H., S. Planke, L. Chevallier, A. Malthe-Sørenssen, F. Corfu, and B. Jamtvelt, 2007. Hydrothermal venting of greenhouse gases triggering Early Jurassic global warming. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 256: 554-566.

Svensen, H., S. Planke, A.G. Polozov, N. Schmidbauer, F. Corfu, Y.Y. Podladchikov, and B. Jamtveit, 2009. Siberian gas venting and the end-Permian environmental crisis. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 277: 490-500.

Tabor, N.J., 2007. Permo-Pennsylvanian palaeotemperatures from Fe-Oxide and phyllosilicate δ18O values. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 253: 159-171.

Tabor, N.J., and I.P. Montañez, 2005. Oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions of Permian pedogenic phyllosilicates: Development of modern surface domain arrays and implications for paleotemperature reconstructions. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 223: 127-146.

Tabor, N.J., and C.J. Yapp C.J., 2005. Incremental vacuum dehydration-decarbonation experiments on a natural gibbsite (α-Al(OH3)): CO2 abundance and δ13C values. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 69: 519-527.

Tabor, N.J., I.P. Montañez, and R.J. Southard, 2002. Mineralogical and stable isotopic analysis of pedogenic proxies in Permo-Pennsylvanian paleosols: Implications for paleoclimate & paleoatmospheric circulation. Geochemica et Cosmochimica Acta 66: 3093-3107.

Tauxe, L., and D.V. Kent, 2004. A simplified statistical model for the geomagnetic field and the detection of shallow bias in paleomagnetic inclinations: Was the ancient magnetic field dipolar? Pp. 101-115 in J.E.T. Channell, D.V. Kent, W. Lowrie, and J. Meert (eds.), Timescales of the Paleomagnetic Field. AGU Geophysical Monograph 145.

Taylor, K.C., G.W. Lamorey, G.A. Doyle, R.B. Alley, P.M. Grootes, P.A. Mayewski, J.W.C. White, and L.K. Barlow, 1993. The flickering switch of late Pleistocene climate change. Nature 361: 432-436.

Tejada, M.L.G., J.J. Mahoney, C.R. Neal, R.A. Duncan, and M.G. Petterson, 2002. Basement geochemistry and geochronology of Central Malaita, Solomon Islands, with implications for the origin and evolution of the Ontong Java Plateau. Journal of Petrology 43: 449-484.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2011. Understanding Earth's Deep Past: Lessons for Our Climate Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13111.
×

Thomas, E., 2007. Cenozoic mass extinctions in the deep sea: What perturbs the largest habitat on Earth. Pp. 1–23 in S. Monechi, R. Coccioni, and M.R. Rampino, (eds.), Large Ecosystem Perturbations: Causes and Consequences. Special Papers 424. Boulder, Colo.: Geological Society of America.

Thomas, E., and N.J. Shackleton, 1996. The Paleocene-Eocene benthic foraminiferal extinction and stable isotope anomalies. Pp. 401–441 in R.W.O’B. Knox, R.M. Corfield, and R.E. Dunay (eds.), Correlation of the Early Paleogene in Northwest Europe. Geological Society of London, Special Publication 101.

Thomas, E., J. C. Zachos, and T. J. Bralower, 2000. Deep-sea environments on a warm Earth: Latest Paleocene-early Eocene. Pp.132-160 in B. Huber, K. MacLeod, and S. Wing (eds.), Warm Climates in Earth History. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Thompson, W.G., and S.L. Goldstein, 2005. Open-system coral ages reveal persistent suborbital sea-level cycles. Science 308: 401- 404.

Thrasher, B.L., and L.C. Sloan, 2009. Carbon dioxide and the early Eocene climate of western North America. Geology 37(9): 807-810.

Tong, J.A., Y. You, R.D. Müller, and M. Seton, 2009. Climate model sensitivity to atmospheric CO2 concentrations for the middle Miocene. Global and Planetary Change 67: 129-140.

Tripati, A.K., R.A. Eagle, N. Thiagarajan, A.C. Gagnon, H. Bauch, P.R. Halloran, and J.M. Eiler, 2010. 13C-18O isotope signatures and “clumped isotope” thermometry in foraminifera and coccoliths. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 74: 5697-5717.

Trotter, J.A., I.S. Williams, C.R. Barnes, C. Lecuyer, and R.S. Nicoll, 2008. Did cooling oceans trigger Ordovician biodiversification? Evidence from conodont thermometry. Science 321: 550-554.

Tsandev, I., and C.P. Slomp, 2009. Modeling phosphorus cycling and carbon burial during Cretaceous Oceanic Anoxic Events. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 286: 71-79.

Turgeon, S.C., and R.A. Creaser, 2008. Cretaceous oceanic anoxic event 2 triggered by a massive magmatic episode. Nature 454: 323-326.

Ufnar, D.F., L.A. Gonzalez, G.A. Ludvigson, R.L. Brenner, and B.J. Witzke, 2002. The mid-Cretaceous water bearer: Isotope mass balance quantification of the Albian hydrologic cycle. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 188: 51-71.

Ufnar, D.F., L.A. Gonzalez, G.A. Ludvigson, R.L. Brenner, and B.J. Witzke, B.J., 2004. Evidence for increased latent heat transport during the Cretaceous (Albian) greenhouse warming. Geology 32: 1049-1052.

Ufnar, D.F., G.A. Ludvigson, L. Gonzalez, and D.R. Grocke, 2008. Precipitation rates and atmospheric heat transport during the Cenomanian greenhouse warming in North America: Estimates from a stable isotope mass-balance model. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 266: 28-38.

Van der Voo, R., 1993. Paleomagnetism of the Atlantic, Tethys, and Iapetus Oceans. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 411 pp.

van de Wal, R.S.W., W. Boot, M.R. van den Broeke, C.J.P.P. Smeets, C.H. Reijmer, J.J.A. Donker, and J. Oerlemans, 2008. Large and rapid melt-induced velocity changes in the ablation zone of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Science 321: 111-113.

Vecchi, G.A., K.L. Swanson, and B.J. Soden, 2008. Whither hurricane activity? Science 322: 687-689.

Veizer, J., D. Ala, K. Azmy, P. Bruckschen, D. Buhl, F. Bruhn, G.A.F. Carden, A. Diener, S. Ebneth, Y. Godderis, T. Jasper, C. Korte, F. Pawellek, O.G. Podlaha, and H. Strauss, 1999. 87Sr/86Sr, δ13C, and δ18O evolution of Phanerozoic seawater. Chemical Geology 161: 59-88. Vitali, F., F.J. Longstaffe, P.J. McCarthy, A.G. Plint, and W.G.E. Caldwell, 2002. Stable isotopic investigation of clay minerals and pedogenesis in an interfluve paleosol from the Cenomanian Dunvegan Formation, N.E. British Columbia, Canada. Chemical Geology 192: 269-287.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2011. Understanding Earth's Deep Past: Lessons for Our Climate Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13111.
×

Veron, J.E.N., 2008. Mass extinctions and ocean acidification: Biological constraints on geological dilemmas. Coral Reefs 27: 459-472.

Wagner, J.D.M., J.E. Cole, J.W. Beck, P.J. Patchett, G.M. Henderson, and H.R. Barnett, 2010. Moisture variability in the southwestern United States linked to abrupt glacial climate change. Nature Geoscience 3: 110-113.

Wagner, T., S. Damsté, S. Japp, P. Hofmann, and B. Beckmann, 2004. Euxinia and primary production in Late Cretaceous eastern equatorial Atlantic surface waters fostered orbitally driven formation of marine black shales. Paleoceanography 19: PA3009, 13 pp.

Walker, J.C.G., and J.F. Kasting, 1992. Effect of forest and fuel conservation on future levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 97: 151-189.

Wang, Y.J., H. Cheng, R.L. Edwards, Z.S. An, J.Y. Wu, C.-C. Shen, and J.A. Dorale, 2001. A high-resolution absolute-dated Late Pleistocene monsoon record from Hulu Cave, China. Science 294: 2345-2348.

Wang, Y., H. Cheng, R.L. Edwards, Y. He, X. Kong, Z. An, J. Wu, M.J. Kelly, C.A. Dykoski, and X. Li, 2005. The Holocene Asian monsoon: Links to solar changes and North Atlantic climate. Science 308: 854-857.

Wang, Z., A. Cohen, G. Gaetani, R. Gabitov, and S. Hart, 2008. Mg isotope fractionation in corals: Developing a promising paleothermometer. Abstract, 11th International Coral Reef Symposium 2008, Fort Lauderdale, Florida.

Wara, M.W., A.C. Ravelo, and M.L. Delaney, 2005. Permanent El Niño-like conditions during the Pliocene warm period. Science 309: 758-761.

Wardlaw, B.R., and T.M. Quinn, 1991. The record of Pliocene sea-level change at Enewetak Atoll. Quarternary Science Reviews 10: 247-258.

Weiss, J.L., J.T. Overpeck, and B. Stein, 2011. Implications of recent sea level rise science for low-elevation areas in coastal cities of the U.S.A. Climatic Change 105(3-4): 635-645.

Weissert, H., 1989. C-isotope stratigraphy, a monitor of paleoenvironmental change: A case study from the early Cretaceous. Surveys in Geophysics 10: 1-61.

Weissert, H., and E. Erba, 2004. Volcanism, CO2 and palaeoclimate: A Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous carbon and oxygen isotope record. Journal of the Geological Society of London 161: 695-702.

Wentz, F.J., L. Ricciardulli, K. Hilburn, and C. Mears, 2007. How much more rain will global warming bring? Science 317: 233-235.

Westerhold, T., U. Röhl, I. Raffi, E. Fornaciari, S. Monechi, V. Reale, J. Bowles, and H.F. Evans, 2008. Astronomical calibration of the Paleocene time. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 257: 377-403.

White, J.W.C., P. Ciais, R.A. Figge, R. Kenny, and V. Markgraf, 1994. A high-resolution record of atmospheric CO2 content from carbon isotopes in peat. Nature 367: 153-156.

White, T.S., L.A. Gonzalez, G.A. Ludvigson, and C. Poulsen, 2001. The mid-Cretaceous hydrologic cycle of North America. Geology 29: 363-366.

Whiteside, J.H., P.E. Olsen, T.I. Eglinton, M.E. Brookfield, and R.N. Sambrotto, 2010. Compound-specific carbon isotopes from Earth’s largest flood basalt province directly link eruptions to the end-Triassic mass extinction. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 107: 6721-6725.

Wignall, P.B., 2007. The end-Permian mass extinction—how bad did it get? Geobiology 5: 303–309.

Wilf, P., 1997. When are leaves good thermometers? A new case for leaf margin analysis. Paleobiology 23: 373-390.

Wilson, P.A., and R.D. Norris, 2001. Warm tropical ocean surface and global anoxia during the mid-Cretaceous period. Nature 412: 425-429.

Windley, B.F., 1995. The Evolving Continents. New York: Wiley, 544 pp.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2011. Understanding Earth's Deep Past: Lessons for Our Climate Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13111.
×

Wing, S.L., P.D. Gingerich, B. Schmitz, and E. Thomas (eds.), 2003. Causes and Consequences of Globally Warm Climates in the Early Paleogene. Special Papers 369. Boulder, Colo.: Geological Society of America.

Wing, S.L., G.J. Harrington, F.A. Smith, J.L. Bloch, D.M. Boyer, and K.H. Freeman, 2005. Transient floral change and rapid global warming at the Paleocene-Eocene boundary. Science 310: 993-996.

Winguth, A.M.E., and E. Maier-Reimer, 2005. Causes of marine productivity and oxygen changes associated with the Permian-Triassic boundary: A reevalution with ocean general circulation models. Marine Geology 217: 283-304.

Woods, A.D., D.J. Bottjer, and F.A. Corsetti, 2007. Deep-water seafloor calcite precipitates from east-central California: Sedimentology and paleobiological significance. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 252: 281-290.

Woodward, F.I., 1987. Stomatal numbers are sensitive to increases in CO2 from pre-industrial levels. Nature 327: 617-618.

Wolfe, J.A., 1993. A method of obtaining climatic parameters from leaf assemblages. U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 2040: 1-71.

Wolfe, J.A., 1995. Paleoclimatic estimates from Tertiary leaf assemblages. Annual Reviews in Earth and Planetary Science 23: 119-142.

Xie, S.-P., C. Deser, G.A. Vecchi, J. Ma, H. Teng, and A.T. Wittenberg, 2010. Global warming pattern formation: Sea surface temperature and rainfall. Journal of Climate 23: 966-986.

Yapp, C.J., 2000. Climatic implications of surface domains in arrays of δD and δ18O from hydroxyl minerals: Goethite as an example. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 64: 2009-2025.

Yapp, C.J., 2004. Fe(CO3)OH in goethite from a mid-latitude North American Oxisol: Estimate of atmospheric CO2 concentration in the Early Eocene “climatic optimum.” Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 68: 935-947.

Yapp, C.J., and H. Poths, 1992. Ancient atmospheric CO2 pressures inferred from natural goethites. Nature 355: 342-344.

Yuan, D., H. Cheng, R.L. Edwards, C.A. Dykoski, M.J. Kelly, M. Zhang, J. Qing, Y. Lin, Y. Wang, J. Wu, J.A. Dorale, Z. An, and Y. Cai, 2004. Timing, duration, and transitions of the Last Interglacial Asian monsoon. Science 304: 575-578.

Zachos, J.C., and L.R. Kump, 2005. Carbon cycle feedbacks and the initiation of Antarctic glaciation in the earliest Oligocene. Global and Planetary Change 47: 51-66.

Zachos, J.C., T.M. Quinn, and S. Salamy, 1996. High resolution (104 yr) deep-sea foraminiferal stable isotope records of the earliest Oligocene climate transition. Paleoceanography 9: 353-387.

Zachos, J., M. Pagani, L. Sloan, E. Thomas, and K. Billups, 2001a. Trends, rhythms, and aberrations in global climate 65 Ma to present. Science 292: 686-693.

Zachos, J.C., N.J. Shackleton, J.S. Revenaugh, H. Pälike, and B.P. Flower, 2001b. Climate response to orbital forcing across the Oligocene-Miocene boundary. Science 292: 274-278

Zachos, J.C., M.W. Wara, S. Bohaty, M.L. Delaney, M.R. Petrizzo, A. Brill, T.J. Bralower, and I. Premoli-Silva, 2003. A transient rise in tropical sea surface temperature during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum. Science 302: 1551-1554.

Zachos, J.C., U. Röhl, S.A. Schellenberg, A. Sluijs, D.A. Hodell, D.C. Kelly, E. Thomas, M. Nicolo, I. Raffi, L.J. Lourens, H. McCarren, and D. Kroon, 2005. Rapid acidification of the ocean during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum. Science 308: 1611-1615.

Zachos, J.C., S. Schouten, S. Bohaty, T. Quattlebaum, A. Sluijs, H. Brinkhuis, S.J. Gibbs, and T.J. Bralower, 2006. Extreme warming of mid-latitude coastal ocean during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum: Inferences from TEX86 and isotope data. Geology 34: 737-740.

Zachos, J.C., G.R. Dickens, and R.E. Zeebe, 2008. An early Cenozoic perspective on greenhouse warming and carbon-cycle dynamics. Nature 451: 279-283.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2011. Understanding Earth's Deep Past: Lessons for Our Climate Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13111.
×

Zanazzi, A., and M.J. Kohn, 2008. Ecology and physiology of White River mammals based on stable isotope ratios of teeth. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 257: 22-37.

Zeebe, R.E., 1999. An explanation of the effect of seawater carbonate concentration on foraminiferal oxygen isotopes. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 63: 2001-2007.

Zeebe, R.E., and K. Caldeira, 2008. Close mass balance of long-term carbon fluxes from ice-core CO2 and ocean chemistry records. Nature Geoscience 1: 312-315.

Zeebe, R.E., and J.C. Zachos, 2007. Reversed deep-sea carbonate ion basin gradient during Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum. Paleoceanography 22: PA3201.

Zeebe, R.E., J.C. Zachos, K. Caldeira, and T. Tyrrell, 2008. Carbon emissions and acidification. Science 321: 51-52.

Zeebe, R.E., J.C. Zachos, and G.R. Dickens, 2009. Carbon dioxide forcing alone insufficient to explain Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum warming. Nature Geoscience 2: 576-580.

Zhang, X., W. Lin, and M. Zhang, 2007. Toward understanding the double Intertropical Convergence Zone pathology in coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation models. Journal of Geophysical Research 112: D12102, 7 pp.

Zhang, P., H. Cheng, R.L. Edwards, F. Chen, Y. Wang, X. Yang, J. Liu, M. Tan, X. Wang, J. Liu, C. An, Z. Dai, J. Zhou, D. Zhang, J. Jia, L. Jin, and K.R. Johnson, 2008. A test of climate, sun, and culture relationships from an 1810-year Chinese cave record. Science 322: 940-942.

Zhou, J., C.J. Poulsen, D. Pollard, and T.S. White, 2008. Simulation of modern and middle Cretaceous marine δ18O with an ocean-atmosphere general circulation model. Paleoceanography 23: PA3223, 11 pp.

Ziegler, A.M., C.R. Scotese, and S.F. Barrett, 1983. Mesozoic and Cenozoic paleogeographic maps. Pp. 240-252 in P. Broche, and J. Sundermann (eds.), Tidal Friction and the Earth’s Rotation. II. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Ziegler, A., G. Eshel, P.M. Rees, T. Rothfus, D. Rowley, and D. Sunderlin, 2003. Tracing the tropics across land and sea: Permian to present. Lethaia 36: 227-254.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2011. Understanding Earth's Deep Past: Lessons for Our Climate Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13111.
×

This page intentionally left blank.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2011. Understanding Earth's Deep Past: Lessons for Our Climate Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13111.
×
Page 149
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2011. Understanding Earth's Deep Past: Lessons for Our Climate Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13111.
×
Page 150
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2011. Understanding Earth's Deep Past: Lessons for Our Climate Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13111.
×
Page 151
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2011. Understanding Earth's Deep Past: Lessons for Our Climate Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13111.
×
Page 152
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2011. Understanding Earth's Deep Past: Lessons for Our Climate Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13111.
×
Page 153
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2011. Understanding Earth's Deep Past: Lessons for Our Climate Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13111.
×
Page 154
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2011. Understanding Earth's Deep Past: Lessons for Our Climate Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13111.
×
Page 155
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2011. Understanding Earth's Deep Past: Lessons for Our Climate Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13111.
×
Page 156
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2011. Understanding Earth's Deep Past: Lessons for Our Climate Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13111.
×
Page 157
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2011. Understanding Earth's Deep Past: Lessons for Our Climate Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13111.
×
Page 158
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2011. Understanding Earth's Deep Past: Lessons for Our Climate Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13111.
×
Page 159
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2011. Understanding Earth's Deep Past: Lessons for Our Climate Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13111.
×
Page 160
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2011. Understanding Earth's Deep Past: Lessons for Our Climate Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13111.
×
Page 161
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2011. Understanding Earth's Deep Past: Lessons for Our Climate Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13111.
×
Page 162
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2011. Understanding Earth's Deep Past: Lessons for Our Climate Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13111.
×
Page 163
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2011. Understanding Earth's Deep Past: Lessons for Our Climate Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13111.
×
Page 164
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2011. Understanding Earth's Deep Past: Lessons for Our Climate Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13111.
×
Page 165
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2011. Understanding Earth's Deep Past: Lessons for Our Climate Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13111.
×
Page 166
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2011. Understanding Earth's Deep Past: Lessons for Our Climate Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13111.
×
Page 167
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2011. Understanding Earth's Deep Past: Lessons for Our Climate Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13111.
×
Page 168
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2011. Understanding Earth's Deep Past: Lessons for Our Climate Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13111.
×
Page 169
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2011. Understanding Earth's Deep Past: Lessons for Our Climate Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13111.
×
Page 170
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2011. Understanding Earth's Deep Past: Lessons for Our Climate Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13111.
×
Page 171
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2011. Understanding Earth's Deep Past: Lessons for Our Climate Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13111.
×
Page 172
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2011. Understanding Earth's Deep Past: Lessons for Our Climate Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13111.
×
Page 173
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2011. Understanding Earth's Deep Past: Lessons for Our Climate Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13111.
×
Page 174
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2011. Understanding Earth's Deep Past: Lessons for Our Climate Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13111.
×
Page 175
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2011. Understanding Earth's Deep Past: Lessons for Our Climate Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13111.
×
Page 176
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2011. Understanding Earth's Deep Past: Lessons for Our Climate Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13111.
×
Page 177
Suggested Citation:"References." National Research Council. 2011. Understanding Earth's Deep Past: Lessons for Our Climate Future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13111.
×
Page 178
Next: Appendixes »
Understanding Earth's Deep Past: Lessons for Our Climate Future Get This Book
×
Buy Paperback | $34.00 Buy Ebook | $27.99
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

There is little dispute within the scientific community that humans are changing Earth's climate on a decadal to century time-scale. By the end of this century, without a reduction in emissions, atmospheric CO2 is projected to increase to levels that Earth has not experienced for more than 30 million years. As greenhouse gas emissions propel Earth toward a warmer climate state, an improved understanding of climate dynamics in warm environments is needed to inform public policy decisions. In Understanding Earth's Deep Past, the National Research Council reports that rocks and sediments that are millions of years old hold clues to how the Earth's future climate would respond in an environment with high levels of atmospheric greenhouse gases.

Understanding Earth's Deep Past provides an assessment of both the demonstrated and underdeveloped potential of the deep-time geologic record to inform us about the dynamics of the global climate system. The report describes past climate changes, and discusses potential impacts of high levels of atmospheric greenhouse gases on regional climates, water resources, marine and terrestrial ecosystems, and the cycling of life-sustaining elements. While revealing gaps in scientific knowledge of past climate states, the report highlights a range of high priority research issues with potential for major advances in the scientific understanding of climate processes. This proposed integrated, deep-time climate research program would study how climate responded over Earth's different climate states, examine how climate responds to increased atmospheric carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases, and clarify the processes that lead to anomalously warm polar and tropical regions and the impact on marine and terrestrial life.

In addition to outlining a research agenda, Understanding Earth's Deep Past proposes an implementation strategy that will be an invaluable resource to decision-makers in the field, as well as the research community, advocacy organizations, government agencies, and college professors and students.

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    Switch between the Original Pages, where you can read the report as it appeared in print, and Text Pages for the web version, where you can highlight and search the text.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  9. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!