National Academies Press: OpenBook
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Assuring a Future U.S.-Based Nuclear and Radiochemistry Expertise. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13308.
×

ASSURING A FUTURE U.S.-BASED

Nuclear and Radiochemistry Expertise

Committee on Assuring a Future U.S.-Based Nuclear Chemistry Expertise

Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology

Nuclear and Radiation Studies Board

Division on Earth and Life Studies

Board on Higher Education and Workforce

Division on Policy and Global Affairs


NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
                      OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, D.C.
www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Assuring a Future U.S.-Based Nuclear and Radiochemistry Expertise. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13308.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS   500 Fifth Street, NW   Washington, DC 20001

NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under contract number DE-PI0000010, Task Order #18/DE-DT0002224; the National Science Foundation under grant number CHE-1049500; and the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Office of Nuclear Physics, and Office of Nuclear Energy, and the U.S. Department of Homeland Security Domestic Nuclear Detection Office Center under award number DE-PI0000010, Task Order# 12/DE-DT0001917.

The report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, make any warranty, express or implied, or assume any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represent that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or any agency thereof.

Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project.

International Standard Book Number 13: 978-0-309-22534-2
International Standard Book Number 10: 0-309-22534-5

Additional copies of this report are available for sale from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu/.

Cover art: Images show the range of applications that utilize nuclear and radiochemistry expertise, clockwise from bottom right; nuclear energy (Cherenkov radiation), medical imaging (Positron Emission Tomography abdominal scan), nuclear security (atmospheric testing), and in the center, environmental management (chart of radionuclides).
Courtesy: Los Alamos National Laboratory Omega West reactor (Cherenkov radiation); Abdominal Imaging (Positron Emission Tomography scan); National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (atmospheric testing); and Brookhaven National Laboratory (chart of radionuclides).

Copyright 2012 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Printed in the United States of America

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Assuring a Future U.S.-Based Nuclear and Radiochemistry Expertise. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13308.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering.

The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine.

The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council

www.national-academies.org

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Assuring a Future U.S.-Based Nuclear and Radiochemistry Expertise. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13308.
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COMMITTEE ON ASSURING A FUTURE U.S.-BASED NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY EXPERTISE

Members

C. BRADLEY MOORE (Chair), University of California, Berkeley

CAROLYN J. ANDERSON, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

TRISH BAISDEN, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA

CAROL J. BURNS, Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico

RONALD A. CHRZANOWSKI, Exelon Nuclear, Warrenville, Illinois

SUE B. CLARK, Washington State University, Pullman

RICHARD B. FREEMAN, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA

HOWARD L. HALL, University of Tennessee, Knoxville

LESTER R. MORSS, University of Maryland, Columbia

GRAHAM PEASLEE, Hope College, Holland, Michigan

GEORGINE M. PION, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee

HENRY VANBROCKLIN, University of California, San Francisco, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley

JOHN F. WACKER, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington

National Research Council Staff

Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology

DOROTHY ZOLANDZ, Director,

TINA M. MASCIANGIOLI, Responsible Staff Officer

AMANDA CLINE, Administrative Assistant

ANGELA OLSON, Christine Mirzayan S&T Policy Fellow (January-April 2011)

SHEENA SIDDIQUI, Associate Program Officer

RACHEL YANCEY, Senior Program Assistant

Other Boards

GAIL GREENFIELD, Senior Program Officer, Board on Higher Education and Workforce

MIRSADA KARALIC-LONCAREVIC, Senior Program Associate, Division on Earth and Life Studies Executive Office

HEIDI MURRAY-SMITH, Program Officer, Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology

KAMWETI MUTU, Research Associate, Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources

JAMES VOYTUCK, Senior Program Officer, Board on Higher Education and Workforce (retired)

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Assuring a Future U.S.-Based Nuclear and Radiochemistry Expertise. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13308.
×

BOARD ON CHEMICAL SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGY

Members

PABLO DEBENEDETTI (Co-chair), Princeton University, New Jersey

C. DALE POULTER (Co-chair), University of Utah, Salt Lake City

ZHENAN BAO, Stanford University, California

ROBERT BERGMAN, University of California, Berkeley

HENRY BRYNDZA, E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Company, Wilmington, Delaware

EMILY CARTER, Princeton University, New Jersey

MARY JANE HAGENSON, Chevron Phillips Chemical Company, LLC, The Woodlands, Texas

CAROL J. HENRY, The George Washington University, Washington, D.C.

JILL HRUBY, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

CHARLES E. KOLB, Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, Massachusetts

JOSEF MICHL, University of Colorado, Boulder

MARK A. RATNER, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois

ROBERT E. ROBERTS, Institute for Defense Analyses, Washington, D.C.

DARLENE J. S. SOLOMON, Agilent Technologies, Inc., Santa Clara, California

ERIK J. SORENSEN, Princeton University, New Jersey

JEAN TOM, Bristol-Myers Squibb, West Windsor, New Jersey

WILLIAM C. TROGLER, University of California, San Diego

DAVID WALT, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts

National Research Council Staff

DOROTHY ZOLANDZ, Director

AMANDA CLINE, Administrative Assistant

DOUGLAS FRIEDMAN, Program Officer

KATHRYN HUGHES, Program Officer

TINA M. MASCIANGIOLI, Senior Program Officer

SHEENA SIDDIQUI, Associate Program Officer

RACHEL YANCEY, Senior Program Assistant

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Assuring a Future U.S.-Based Nuclear and Radiochemistry Expertise. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13308.
×

NUCLEAR RADIATION STUDIES BOARD

Members

JAY C. DAVIS (Chair), Hertz Foundation, Livermore, California

BARBARA J. MCNEIL (Vice Chair), Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts

JOONHONG AHN, University of California, Berkeley

JOHN S. APPLEGATE, Indiana University School of Law, Bloomington

MICHAEL L. CORRADINI, University of Wisconsin-Madison

PATRICIA J. CULLIGAN, Columbia University, New York, New York

ROBERT C. DYNES, University of California, San Diego

JOE GRAY, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland

DAVID G. HOEL, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston

HEDVIG HRICAK, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York

THOMAS H. ISAACS, Stanford University, Palo Alto, California

ANNIE B. KERSTING, Glenn T. Seaborg Institute, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California

MARTHA S. LINET, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland

FRED A. METTLER, JR., New Mexico VA Health Care System, Albuquerque

BORIS F. MYASOEDOV, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow

RICHARD VETTER, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (Retired)

RAYMOND G. WYMER, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (Retired)

National Research Council Staff

KEVIN CROWLEY, Senior Board Director

SARAH CASE, Senior Program Officer

JENNIFER HEIMBERG, Senior Program Officer

OURANIA KOSTI, Program Officer

TONI GREENLEAF, Financial and Administrative Associate

LAURA LLANOS, Financial and Administrative Associate

SHAUNTEE WHETSTONE, Senior Program Assistant

ERIN WINGO, Senior Program Assistant

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Assuring a Future U.S.-Based Nuclear and Radiochemistry Expertise. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13308.
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BOARD ON HIGHER EDUCATION AND WORKFORCE

Members

WILLIAM E. KIRWAN (Chair), University System of Maryland, Adelphi

F. KING ALEXANDER, California State University, Long Beach

SUSAN K. AVERY, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts

CARLOS CASTILLO-CHAVEZ, Arizona State University, Tempe

JEAN-LOU CHAMEAU, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena

RITA COLWELL, The Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland

PETER EWELL, National Center for Higher Education Management Systems, Boulder, Colorado

SYLVIA HURTADO, University of California, Los Angeles

WILLIAM KELLEY, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia

EARL LEWIS, Emory University, Druid Hills, Georgia

PAULA STEPHAN, Georgia State University, Atlanta

National Research Council Staff

PETER H. HENDERSON, Director

GAIL GREENFIELD, Senior Program Officer

SABRINA E. HALL, Program Associate

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Assuring a Future U.S.-Based Nuclear and Radiochemistry Expertise. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13308.
×

Preface

The critical U.S. need for nuclear and radiochemistry expertise in areas such as nuclear medicine, nuclear power, nuclear security, and radioactive waste clean-up and disposal, combined with a past decline in the number of students graduating in this field drove the request for this comprehensive examination of the current and anticipated supply and demand for expertise, including types and levels of skills, in the United States for medicine, energy, defense, and environment.

The Committee on Assuring a Future U.S.-Based Nuclear Chemistry Expertise was charged (Appendix A) with examining the demand for nuclear chemistry expertise in the United States compared with the production of experts with these skills, and to discuss possible approaches for ensuring adequate availability of these skills, including necessary science and technology training platforms.

The committee of 13 members (Appendix B) was convened from approximately January 2011 through December 2011, and met in person four times (Appendix C). Expertise included those with experience in nuclear and radiochemistry, including backgrounds in nuclear medicine, nuclear power, nuclear security, and environmental management and in research management, university administration, scientific workforce and training indicators, and development of advanced educational programs.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Assuring a Future U.S.-Based Nuclear and Radiochemistry Expertise. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13308.
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Acknowledgment of Reviewers

This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process.

We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report:

Burt Barnow, The George Washington University, Washington, D.C.

Bruce Bursten, University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Jonathan R. D. Earnhart, GE-Hitachi Nuclear Energy, Wilmington, North Carolina

Charles Folden, Texas A&M, College Station

Graham Kalton, Westat, Inc., Rockville, Maryland

Annie Kersting, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, California

Robert Latiff, R. Latiff Associates, Alexandria, Virginia

Paul Mantica, Michigan State University, East Lansing

Michael Phelps, University of California, Los Angeles

Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Edward B. Perrin, University of Washington, Seattle, and Charles P. Casey, University

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Assuring a Future U.S.-Based Nuclear and Radiochemistry Expertise. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13308.
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of Wisconsin, Madison. Appointed by the National Research Council, they were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

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Acronyms

AAAS American Association for the Advancement of Science
AAS Associates of Applied Science Degree
AAU American Association of Universities
ACA Arms Control Association
ACC American Chemistry Council
ACS American Chemical Society
ACTINET-I3 European Commission Integrated Infrastructure Initiative for Actinide Science
APS American Physical Society
ASTC Association of Science and Technology Centers
 
BER Office of Biological and Environmental Remediation
BES U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Basic Energy Sciences
BLS Bureau of Labor Statistics
BNFL British Nuclear Fuels Limited
BNL Brookhaven National Laboratory
BTSI Bio-tech Systems, Inc
 
CAES Center for Advanced Energy Studies
CEA Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique et aux Énergies Alternatives)
CEGB Central Electricity Generating Board
CFEN Council for Education and Training in Nuclear Energy (Conseil des Formations en Energie Nucléaire)
CIP Classification of Instructional Program
CMS Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services
COREs Centers of Research and Educations
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CRESP Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation
CRR Centre for Radiochemistry Research
CT Computerized Axial Tomography
CTBT Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty
CTBTO Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization
 
DATSD(NM) Deputy Assistant to the Secretary of Defense (Nuclear Matters)
DGR Directory of Graduate Research
DHS U.S. Department of Homeland Security
DNCT Division of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology
DNDO DHS Domestic Nuclear Detection Office
DOD U.S. Department of Defense
DOE U.S. Department of Energy
DOE-EM DOE Office of Environmental Management
DOE-LM DOE Office of Legacy Management
DOE-NP DOE Office of Nuclear Physics
DSB Defense Science Board
DTC Doctoral Training Centre
DTRA Defense Threat Reduction Agency
 
EDF Electricity of France (Electricité de France)
EFRC Energy Frontier Research Center
EIA Energy Information Administration
EM environmental management
EPA U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
 
FDG Fluorodeoxyglucose
FDA U.S. Food and Drug Administration
FIU Florida International University
FRIB Facility for Rare Isotope Beams
 
GAO Government Accountability Office
 
HEGIS Higher Education General Information Survey
 
IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency
IMV Medical Information Division
INEST Institute of Nuclear Energy Science and Technology
INL Idaho National Laboratory
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Assuring a Future U.S.-Based Nuclear and Radiochemistry Expertise. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13308.
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IOM Institute of Medicine
IPEDS Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System
IRP integrated research projects
ITWG International Technical Working Group on Nuclear Smuggling
IUP integrated university program
 
J-ACTINET Japan Integrative Infrastructure Initiative for Actinide Science
 
LANL Los Alamos National Laboratory
LEP lifetime extension program
LLNL Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
 
MARLAP Multi-Agency Radiological Laboratory Analytical Protocols
MRI Magnetic Resonance Imaging
MU University of Missouri
 
NAE National Academy of Engineering
NAMP National Analytical Management Program
NCES National Center for Education Statistics
NCSL National Conference of State Legislatures
NEI Nuclear Energy Institute
NEUP Nuclear Energy University Program
NIF National Ignition Facility
NIH National Institutes of Health
NNL National Nuclear Laboratory
NNSA National Nuclear Security Administration
NP Office of Nuclear Physics
NPT Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty
NRC National Research Council
NSAC Nuclear Science Advisory Committee
NSB National Science Board
NSF National Science Foundation
NSTC National Science and Technology Council
NTNF National Technical Nuclear Forensics
NTNFC National Technical Nuclear Forensics Center
NUCL Global Nuclear Energy Index Fund
 
OMB Office of Management and Budget
ORISE Oak Ridge Institute for Scientific Education
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 2012. Assuring a Future U.S.-Based Nuclear and Radiochemistry Expertise. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13308.
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OTID Office of Technology Innovation and Development
 
PET Positron Emission Tomography
PQDT ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Database
 
QMU quantification of margins and uncertainties
 
R&D research and development
RHIC Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider
RII Radiochemistry and Imaging Instrumentation
RPSC Radiopharmaceutical Sciences Council
 
SED Survey of Earned Doctorates
S&E science and engineering
SJSU San José State University
SNM Society of Nuclear Medicine
SOC Standard Occupational Classifications
SPECT Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography
SRS Society of Radiopharmaceutical Sciences
SSP Stockpile Stewardship Program
 
TNF Technical Nuclear Forensics
 
UKAEA United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority
USNRC U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission
 
WNA World Nuclear Association
WSU Washington State University
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The growing use of nuclear medicine, the potential expansion of nuclear power generation, and the urgent needs to protect the nation against external nuclear threats, to maintain our nuclear weapons stockpile, and to manage the nuclear wastes generated in past decades, require a substantial, highly trained, and exceptionally talented workforce. Assuring a Future U.S.-Based Nuclear and Radiochemistry Expertise examines supply and demand for expertise in nuclear chemistry nuclear science, and radiochemistry in the United States and presents possible approaches for ensuring adequate availability of these skills, including necessary science and technology training platforms.

Considering a range of reasonable scenarios looking to the future, none of these areas are likely to experience a decrease in demand for expertise. However, many in the current workforce are approaching retirement age and the number of students opting for careers in nuclear and radiochemistry has decreased dramatically over the past few decades. In order to avoid a gap in these critical areas, increases in student interest in these careers, in the research and educational capacity of universities and colleges, and sector specific on-the-job training will be needed. Concise recommendations are given for actions to avoid a shortage of nuclear chemistry, nuclear scientists, and radiochemists in the future.

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