National Academies Press: OpenBook

Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: Examining the Evidence to Define Benefit Adequacy (2013)

Chapter: Appendix A: Acronyms, Abbreviations, and Terms

« Previous: 6 Conclusions and Recommendations
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Acronyms, Abbreviations, and Terms." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2013. Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: Examining the Evidence to Define Benefit Adequacy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13485.
×

Appendix A

Acronyms, Abbreviations, and Terms

ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS

AHEI

Alternate Healthy Eating Index

AI

Adequate Intake

ARRA

American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009

ATUS

American Time Use Survey

BLS

Bureau of Labor Statistics

BMI

body mass index

BRR

benefit reduction rate

CACFP

Child and Adult Care Food Program

CFSM

Core Food Security Module

CNPP

Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion, U.S. Department of Agriculture

CPI

Consumer Price Index

CPS

Current Population Survey

DGA

Dietary Guidelines for Americans

DRIs

Dietary Reference Intakes

EAR

Estimated Average Requirement

EBT

Electronic Benefit Transfer

EFNEP

Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program

ERS

Economic Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Acronyms, Abbreviations, and Terms." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2013. Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: Examining the Evidence to Define Benefit Adequacy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13485.
×

FNS

Food and Nutrition Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture

FSP

Food Stamp Program

FY

fiscal year

HEI

Healthy Eating Index

HHS

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

HIP

Healthy Incentives Pilot

IOM

Institute of Medicine

mg

milligram

NHANES

National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

NSLP

National School Lunch Program

RDA

Recommended Dietary Allowance

RFS

Recommended Food Score

SBP

School Breakfast Program

SNAP

Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program

SNAP-Ed

Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education

SoFAS

solid fats and added sugars

SSB

sugar-sweetened beverage

SSI

Supplemental Security Income

TANF

Temporary Assistance for Needy Families

TFP

Thrifty Food Plan

USDA

U.S. Department of Agriculture

WIC

Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children

TERMS

Allotment

The amount of the SNAP benefit issued to a certified eligible participant.

Benefit reduction rate

The rate at which the maximum SNAP allotment is reduced per dollar of income.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Acronyms, Abbreviations, and Terms." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2013. Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: Examining the Evidence to Define Benefit Adequacy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13485.
×

Body mass index (BMI)

An indirect measure of body fat, calculated as the ratio of a person’s body weight in kilograms to the square of a person’s height in meters. In children and youth, assessment of BMI is based on growth charts for age and gender and is referred to as BMI for age.

Cost-of-living adjustment

Adjustment of SNAP maximum allotments, deduc-tions, resources, and income eligibility standards at the beginning of each federal fiscal year based on changes in the cost of living.

Dependent care deduction

The deduction received by a household with expenses related to caring for a dependent while other household members attend school, work, or seek employment.

Dietary Guidelines for Americans

A federal report of the latest dietary guidance for the American public based on current scientific evidence and medical knowledge. The Dietary Guidelines are issued jointly by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and the U.S. Department of Agriculture and revised every 5 years.

Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs)

A set of nutrient reference values established by the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine. They include the Estimated Average Requirement, the Recommended Dietary Intakes, the Adequate Intake, and the Tolerable Upper Intake Level.

Earned income deduction

To account for the cost of being employed (e.g., transportation and clothing), 20 percent of earned income is disregarded in calculations of a household’s net income on which the benefit level is based.

Economies of scale

Food costs for the Thrifty Food Plan are based on individuals in the context of a reference four-person family. For households that are larger or smaller than the reference, per person food costs are adjusted using an adjustment factor.

Electronic Benefit Transfer (EBT)

An electronic system that allows recipients to authorize transfer of their government benefits from a federal account to a retailer’s account to pay for products received.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Acronyms, Abbreviations, and Terms." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2013. Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: Examining the Evidence to Define Benefit Adequacy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13485.
×

Energy density

The ratio of calories (energy) to total nutrients in a food. An energy-dense food has a high number of calories relative to its nutrient content.

Excess shelter deduction

The deduction received by households that spend 50 percent or more of their income on housing costs (e.g., rent/mortgage, taxes, interest, utilities) after other deductions have been calculated. The deduction was capped at $459 in fiscal year 2012 for households in the 48 contiguous states that do not contain an elderly or disabled member.

Food coupon

Any coupon, stamp, or type of certificate issued pursuant to the provisions of the Food Stamp Act of 1964; its use was restricted to purchases of food (no tobacco or alcohol products) from retail food stores approved for participation in the Food Stamp Program. The Electronic Benefit Transfer card has replaced food coupons.

Food desert

Defined by the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Economic Research Service as a low-income census tract with a substantial number or share of residents with low levels of access to retail outlets selling healthy and affordable foods.

Food Security Supplement

A national survey of a sample of households derived from those eligible for the basic Current Population Survey (CPS). Its purpose is to obtain information about household food expenditures, food program participation, food sufficiency, ways of coping with food insecurity, and concerns about food security.

Gross income

A household’s total monthly income before deductions are applied.

Gross income limit

An amount of monthly gross income below which households are eligible to receive SNAP benefits, determined by household size. The limit must be equal to or less than 130 percent of the national poverty threshold.

Healthy Eating Index (HEI)

A measure of diet quality that assesses conformance to federal dietary guidance.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Acronyms, Abbreviations, and Terms." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2013. Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: Examining the Evidence to Define Benefit Adequacy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13485.
×

Maximum benefit

The benefit received by households whose net income is zero or negative. It varies by household size.

Medical deduction

The deduction received by households with a disabled member or member age 60 and over whose monthly out-of-pocket medical expenses exceeed $35.

Minimum benefit

In fiscal year 2012, $16 per month for one- and two-person households.

National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)

A comprehensive survey designed to assess the health and nutritional status of adults and children in the United States. The survey interview includes demo-graphic, socioeconomic, dietary, and health-related questions. The examination component consists of medical, dental, and physiological measurements, as well as laboratory tests administered by highly trained medical personnel.

National poverty threshold

Issued by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and used to determine the monthly net income limits for SNAP.

National School Lunch Program (NSLP)

The program under which participating schools operate a nonprofit lunch program in accordance with 7 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 210.

Net income

A household’s total monthly income after deductions are applied.

Net income limit

An amount of monthly net income below which households are eligible to receive SNAP benefits, determined by household size. The limit must be equal to or less than 100 percent of the national poverty threshold.

Price index

An index that tracks inflation by measuring price changes.

Reference family

Used as the basis for determining the maximum SNAP benefit, derived from the Thrifty Food Plan market basket for age-sex groups. The reference family comprises a male and female aged 19-50 and two children aged 6-8 and 9-11.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Acronyms, Abbreviations, and Terms." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2013. Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: Examining the Evidence to Define Benefit Adequacy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13485.
×

Resource limit

An amount of countable resources below which households are eligible for SNAP. Countable resources include cash on hand and resources that can easily be converted to cash (e.g., savings/checking accounts, stocks, bonds). In fiscal year 2012, the resource limit is $2,000, or $3,250 for households with at least one adult aged 60 or older or disabled.

School Breakfast Program (SBP)

The program under which participating schools operate a nonprofit breakfast program in accordance with 7 CFR Part 220.

Standard deduction

The deduction received by all households, intended to cover emergency and unusual household expenses. It varies by household size (e.g., in fiscal year 2012, $147 for households of one to three people, $155 for households of four or more).

Supplemental Security Income (SSI)

A federally funded, need-based disability program for adults and children that provides a monthly cash benefit to eligible participants.

Take-up rate

The percentage of eligible households that actually participate in SNAP.

Thrifty Food Plan

A minimal-cost model food plan that reflects currently applied nutrition standards and guidance, the nutrient content and cost of food, and the food consumption patterns of low-income Americans.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Acronyms, Abbreviations, and Terms." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2013. Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: Examining the Evidence to Define Benefit Adequacy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13485.
×
Page 187
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Acronyms, Abbreviations, and Terms." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2013. Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: Examining the Evidence to Define Benefit Adequacy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13485.
×
Page 188
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Acronyms, Abbreviations, and Terms." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2013. Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: Examining the Evidence to Define Benefit Adequacy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13485.
×
Page 189
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Acronyms, Abbreviations, and Terms." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2013. Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: Examining the Evidence to Define Benefit Adequacy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13485.
×
Page 190
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Acronyms, Abbreviations, and Terms." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2013. Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: Examining the Evidence to Define Benefit Adequacy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13485.
×
Page 191
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Acronyms, Abbreviations, and Terms." Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. 2013. Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: Examining the Evidence to Define Benefit Adequacy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/13485.
×
Page 192
Next: Appendix B: Open Session with Sponsors »
Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: Examining the Evidence to Define Benefit Adequacy Get This Book
×
Buy Paperback | $50.00 Buy Ebook | $40.99
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

For many Americans who live at or below the poverty threshold, access to healthy foods at a reasonable price is a challenge that often places a strain on already limited resources and may compel them to make food choices that are contrary to current nutritional guidance. To help alleviate this problem, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) administers a number of nutrition assistance programs designed to improve access to healthy foods for low-income individuals and households. The largest of these programs is the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), formerly called the Food Stamp Program, which today serves more than 46 million Americans with a program cost in excess of $75 billion annually. The goals of SNAP include raising the level of nutrition among low-income households and maintaining adequate levels of nutrition by increasing the food purchasing power of low-income families.

In response to questions about whether there are different ways to define the adequacy of SNAP allotments consistent with the program goals of improving food security and access to a healthy diet, USDA's Food and Nutrition Service (FNS) asked the Institute of Medicine (IOM) to conduct a study to examine the feasibility of defining the adequacy of SNAP allotments, specifically: the feasibility of establishing an objective, evidence-based, science-driven definition of the adequacy of SNAP allotments consistent with the program goals of improving food security and access to a healthy diet, as well as other relevant dimensions of adequacy; and data and analyses needed to support an evidence-based assessment of the adequacy of SNAP allotments.

Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: Examining the Evidence to Define Benefit Adequacy reviews the current evidence, including the peer-reviewed published literature and peer-reviewed government reports. Although not given equal weight with peer-reviewed publications, some non-peer-reviewed publications from nongovernmental organizations and stakeholder groups also were considered because they provided additional insight into the behavioral aspects of participation in nutrition assistance programs. In addition to its evidence review, the committee held a data gathering workshop that tapped a range of expertise relevant to its task.

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    Switch between the Original Pages, where you can read the report as it appeared in print, and Text Pages for the web version, where you can highlight and search the text.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  9. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!