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Recommended Dietary Allowances: 10th Edition (1989)

Chapter: Front Matter

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1989. Recommended Dietary Allowances: 10th Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1349.
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Recommended Dietary Allowances

10th Edition

Subcommittee on the Tenth Edition of the RDAs 
Food and Nutrition Board 
Commission on Life Sciences 
National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS

Washington, D.C. 1989

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1989. Recommended Dietary Allowances: 10th Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1349.
×

Page ii

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS   •   2101 CONSTITUTION AVE., NW   •·   WASHINGTON, DC 20418

NOTICE:  The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine.

The study summarized in this report was supported by funds from the National Institutes of Health, United States Public Health Service, through Contract Nos. NO 1AM-0-2204 and NO1-I)K-8-2236.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication

National Research Council (U.S.). Subcommittee on the Tenth Edition of the RDAs.
Recommended dietary allowances / Subcommittee on the Tenth Edition of the RDAs, Food and Nutrition Board, Commission on Life Sciences, National Research Council.—10th rev. ed.
p.    cm.
Rev. ed. of: Recommended dietary allowances / Committee on Dietary Allowances, Food and Nutrition Board, Division of Biological Sciences, Assembly of Life Sciences. National Research Council, 9th rev. ed. 1980.
Supported by funds from the National Institute of Health, United States Public Health Service, contract no: NO1-DK-8-2236.
Includes bibliographical references.
ISBN 0-309-04633-5, paperbound
ISBN 0-309-04041-8 (1989), hardbound with jacket
I. Nutrition. 2. Diet. I. National Institutes of Health (U.S.)
II. National Research Council (U.S.). Committee on Dietary
Allowances. Recommended dietary allowances. III. Title.
1X551.N393     1989
613.2'8-dc20
DN LM/DLC
for library of Congress                    89-13176

                    CIP

Copyright © 1989 by the National Academy of Sciences

No part of this book may be reproduced by any mechanical, photographic, or electronic process, or in the form of a phonographic recording, nor may it be stored in a retrieval system, transmitted, or otherwise copied for public or private use, without written permission from the publisher, except for the purposes of official use by the U.S. government.

Printed in the United States of America

First Printing, October 1989

Sixth Printing, July 1992

Second Printing, July 1990

Seventh Printing, January 1993

Third Printing, September 1991

Eighth Printing, April 1995

Fourth Printing, January 1992

Ninth Printing, September 1998

Fifth Printing, June 1992

Twelfth Printing, March 1999

This report is available online at http://www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1989. Recommended Dietary Allowances: 10th Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1349.
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Page iii

FOOD AND NUTRITION BOARD SUBCOMMITTEE ON THE TENTH EDITION OF THE RDAS

RICHARD J. HAVEL (Chairman), Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco, California

DORIS H. CALLOWAY, Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, California

JOAN D. GUSSOW, Department of Nutrition Education, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, New York

WALTER MERTZ, Human Nutrition Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland

MALDEN C. NESHEIM, Provost, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York

Food and Nutrition Board Staff

SUSHMA PALMER, Director
PAUL R. THOMAS, Program Officer
FRANCES M. PETER, Editor
ALDON GRIFFIS, Research Assistant
MARIAN F. MILLSTONE, Research Assistant

The Food and Nutrition Board wishes to acknowledge the contributions of the Committee on Dietary Allowances that worked on the tenth edition from 1980 to 1985. The committee was chaired by the late Henry Kamin of Duke University Medical Center. Other members of the committee were Philip Farrell (University of Wisconsin, Madison), Helen A. Guthrie (Pennsylvania State University), Victor Herbert (Veterans Administration Medical Center, Bronx, New York), Robert Hodges (University of California, Irvine Medical Center), Max K. Horwitt (St. Louis University School of Medicine), Orville Levander (U.S. Department of Agriculture), Hellen Linkswiler (deceased; University of Wisconsin, Madison), James A. Olson (Iowa State University), and Peter L. Pellett (University of Massachusetts, Amherst). The Food and Nutrition Board staff included Myrtle L. Brown (executive secretary until August 1983), Sushma Palmer (director from July 1983), Linda D. Myers (project director), Frances M. Peter (editor), Marianne E. La Veille (research associate), and secretaries Susan Barron, Shirley E. Cole, Avis I. Harris, and Janie B. Marshall.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1989. Recommended Dietary Allowances: 10th Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1349.
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Page iv

FOOD AND NUTRITION BOARD

RICHARD J. HAVEL (Chairman), Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco, California

HAMISH N. MUNRO (Vice Chairman), U.S. Department of Agriculture Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Tufts University, Boston, Massachusetts

EDWARD J. CALABRESE, Environmental Health Program, Division of Public Health, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts

DORIS H. CALLOWAY, Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, California

WILLIAM E. CONNOR, Department of Medicine, Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland, Oregon

DeWITT S. GOODMAN, Director, Institute of Human Nutrition, Columbia University, New York, New York

M.R.C. GREENWOOD, Department of Biology, Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, New York

JOAN D. GUSSOW, Department of Nutrition Education, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, New York

JOHN E. KINSELLA, Institute of Food Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York

LAURENCE N. KOLONEL, Cancer Research Center of Hawaii, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii

BERNARD J. LISKA, Department of Food Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana

REYNALDO MARTORELL, Food Research Institute, Stanford University, Stanford, California

DONALD B. McCORMICK, Department of Biochemistry, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia

WALTER MERTZ, Human Nutrition Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland

MALDEN C. NESHEIM, Provost, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York

J. MICHAEL McGINNIS (Ex Officio), Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, D.C.

ARNO G. MOTULSKY (Ex Officio), Center for Inherited Diseases, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington

Food and Nutrition Board Staff

SUSHMA PALMER, Director

FRANCES M. PETER, Deputy Director

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1989. Recommended Dietary Allowances: 10th Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1349.
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Page v

COMMISSION ON LIFE SCIENCES

BRUCE M. ALBERTS (Chairman), Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco, California

PERRY L. ADKISSON, Office of the Chancellor, The Texas A&M University System, College Station, Texas

FRANCISCO J. AYALA, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Irvine, California

J. MICHAEL BISHOP, The G.W. Hooper Research Foundation, University of California, San Francisco, California

FREEMAN J. DYSON, School of Natural Sciences, The Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, New Jersey

NINA V. FEDOROFF, Department of Embryology, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Baltimore, Maryland

RALPH W.F. HARDY, Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research (Cornell), Ithaca, New York

RICHARD J. HAVEL, Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco, California

LEROY E. HOOD, Division of Biology, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California

DONALD F. HORNIG, Interdisciplinary Programs in Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts

ERNEST G. JAWORSKI, Division of Biological Sciences, Monsanto Company, St. Louis, Missouri

SIMON A. LEVIN, Ecosystems Research Center, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York

HAROLD A. MOONEY, Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California

STEVEN P. PAKES, Division of Comparative Medicine, Southwestern Medical School, University of Texas, Dallas, Texas

JOSEPH E. RALL, Intramural Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland

RICHARD D. REMINGTON, Office of Academic Affairs, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa

PAUL G. RISSER, Office of the Vice President, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico

RICHARD B. SETLOW, Biology Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York

TORSTEN N. WIESEL, Laboratory of Neurobiology, Rockefeller University, New York, New York

Commission on Life Sciences Staff

JOHN E. BURRIS, Executive Director

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1989. Recommended Dietary Allowances: 10th Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1349.
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Page vi

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Frank Press is president of the National Academy of Sciences.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering.

The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education.  Dr. Samuel O. Thier is president of the Institute of Medicine.

The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine.  Dr. Frank Press and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1989. Recommended Dietary Allowances: 10th Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1349.
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Page vii

Preface

This tenth edition of the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) reflects the work of two panels of the Food and Nutrition Board. The first, the Committee on Dietary Allowances, was appointed in 1980 and by 1985 had prepared a draft of this edition that, after an outside review overseen by the Report Review Committee of the National Research Council (NRC), was postponed for further consideration (Press, 1985). The second panel, a subcommittee of the Food and Nutrition Board (FNB) itself, was appointed in 1987 to complete this, the tenth edition of the RDAs.

The FNB subcommittee began work in June 1987 under sponsorship of the National Institute of Diabetes, Digestive, and Kidney Diseases. Throughout its efforts, the subcommittee was keenly aware of the breadth of expertise needed to address its charge. Accordingly, after establishing criteria for developing RDAs that would be applied across nutrients, the subcommittee held special meetings with invited experts on several nutrients and consulted widely on difficult-to resolve issues and on the importance of new scientific data. Although the subcommittee sought the advice of others and considered the critiques of outside reviewers, it takes full responsibility for the recommendations and for any errors that may have escaped its attention.

This report has been approved by the Food and Nutrition Board and the NRC Report Review Committee. Both are satisfied that the tenth edition reflects a concurrence of scientific opinion and will be appropriate for use by governmental and private agencies as a basis for developing nutrition programs and policies pertaining to public health.

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1989. Recommended Dietary Allowances: 10th Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1349.
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Page viii

The subcommittee thanks the many consultants who provided advice and help in revising the draft report: Drs. John G. Bieri, Gladys Block, George M. Briggs (deceased), C. Wayne Callaway, Kenneth J. Carpenter, Frank Chytil, William E. Connor, Steven Cummings, Peter R. Dallman, Stanley N. Gershoff, DeWitt S. Goodman, J.-P. Habicht, Phillip Harvey, Michael N. Kazarinoff, Janet C. King, Orville A. Levander, Sheldon Margen, Velimir Matkovic, Donald B. McCormick, Dennis Miller, Curtis D. Morris, Suzanne Murphy, Susan M. Oace, Robert R. Recker, Floyd C. Rector, Jerry M. Rivers, Howerde E. Sauberlich, Ruth Schwartz, Barry Shane, E.L. Robert Stokstad, John W. Suttie, Barbara A. Underwood, Robert H. Wasserman, and Regina Ziegler. We also wish to thank the members of the Board's Committee on Nutritional Status During Pregnancy and Lactation and its three subcommittees, whose members reviewed and commented on this report.

The subcommittee is also grateful to Dr. Alvin G. Lazen of the Commission on Life Sciences and to the staff of the Food and Nutrition Board for their help during various phases of our work: Dr. Sushma Palmer, Frances Peter, Aldon Griffis, Marian Millstone, Marion Ramsey Roberts, Sandra Johnson, Molly McGlade, and especially Dr. Paul R. Thomas for his able support to the subcommittee throughout the study.

Richard J. Havel, Chairman
Food and Nutrition Board and the Subcommittee on the Tenth Edition of the RDAs

REFERENCE

Press, F. 1985. Postponement of the 10th edition of the RDAs. J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 85:1644-1645.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1989. Recommended Dietary Allowances: 10th Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1349.
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Page ix

Contents

1 SUMMARY

1

2  DEFINITION AND APPLICATIONS

10

3  ENERGY

24

4  CARBOHYDRATES AND FIBER

39

5  LIPIDS

44

6  PROTEIN AND AMINO ACIDS

52

7  FAT-SOLUBLE VITAMINS

78

Vitamin A

78

Vitamin D

92

Vitamin E

99

Vitamin K

107

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1989. Recommended Dietary Allowances: 10th Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1349.
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Page x

8  WATER-SOLUBLE VITAMINS

115

Vitamin C

115

Thiamin

125

Riboflavin

132

Niacin

137

Vitamin B6

142

Folate

150

Vitamin B12

158

Biotin

165

Pantothenic Acid,

169

9  MINERALS

174

Calcium

174

Phosphorus

184

Magnesium

187

10  TRACE ELEMENTS

195

Iron

195

Zinc

205

Iodine

213

Selenium

217

Copper

224

Manganese

230

Fluoride

235

Chromium

241

Molybdenum

243

11  WATER AND ELECTROLYTES

247

12  OTHER SUBSTANCES IN FOOD

262

INDEX

273

SUMMARY TABLE

284

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1989. Recommended Dietary Allowances: 10th Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1349.
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Since its introduction in 1943 Recommended Dietary Allowances has become the accepted source of nutrient allowances for healthy people.

These Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) are used throughout the food and health fields. Additionally, RDAs serve as the basis for the U.S. Recommended Daily Allowances, the Food and Drug Administration's standards for nutrition labeling of foods.

The 10th Edition includes research results and expert interpretations from years of progress in nutrition research since the previous edition and provides not only RDAs but also "Estimated Safe and Adequate Daily Dietary Intakes"--provisional values for nutrients where data were insufficient to set an RDA.

Organized by nutrient for ready reference, the volume reviews the function of each nutrient in the human body, sources of supply, effects of deficiencies and excessive intakes, relevant study results, and more.

The volume concludes with the invaluable "Summary Table of Recommended Dietary Allowances," a convenient and practical summary of the recommendations.

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