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83 There are many studies available that examine the competen- cies needed for successful performance in the learning organi- zation. Among the very best is this work on competencies from the ASTD. There is substantial additional information on the subject at ASTDâs website: www.astd.org. The website here takes the reader directly to the competency study. Access to this part of the website requires membership in ASTD. http://www.astd.org/astd/Research/competency_study/com- petency_doc.htm ROLES Roles are broad areas of responsibility within the WLP pro- fession that require a certain combination of competencies and Areas of Expertise (AOEs) to perform effectively. They are described in sensible, intuitive, and everyday language. Like competencies, roles can be demonstrated in the context of most WLP jobs. Roles are not the same as job titles; they are much more fluid, depending on the application or the proj- ect. For the WLP professional, playing the roles is analogous to maintaining a collection of hats when the situation calls for it; the professional slips out of one role and accepts another. This study has identified four unique roles within the work- place learning and performance profession: Learning Strate- gist, Business Partner, Project Manager, and Professional Specialist. These four roles are further defined as follows: Learning Strategist Determines how workplace learning and performance improvement can best be leveraged to achieve long-term business success and add value to meet organizational needs; leads in the planning and implementation of learning and per- formance improvement strategies that support the organiza- tion strategic direction and that are based on an analysis of the effectiveness of existing learning and performance improvement strategies. Business Partner Applies business and industry knowledge to partner with the client in identifying workplace performance-improvement opportunities; evaluates possible solutions and recommends solutions that will have a positive impact on performance; gains client agreement and commitment to the proposed solutions and collaboratively develops an overall implementation strat- egy that includes evaluating impact on business performance; uses appropriate interpersonal styles and communication meth- ods to build effective long-term relationships with the client. Project Manager Plans, resources, and monitors the effective delivery of learn- ing and performance solutions in a way that supports the overall business venture; communicates purpose, ensures effective execution of an implementation plan, removes bar- riers, ensures adequate support, and follows up. Professional Specialist Designs, develops, delivers, or evaluates learning and per- formance solutions; maintains and applies an in-depth work- ing knowledge in any one or more of the workplace learning and performance specialty areas of expertise, including Career Planning and Talent Management, Coaching, Deliv- ering Training, Designing Learning, Facilitating Organiza- tional Change, Improving Human Performance, Managing Organizational Knowledge, Managing the Learning Func- tion, and Measuring and Evaluating. Areas of Expertise Professional areas of expertise are the specific technical and professional skills and knowledge required for success in WLP specialty areas. Think of AOEs as the knowledge and skills an individual must have above and beyond the founda- tional competencies. To function effectively in a given AOE, a person must display a blend of the appropriate foundational competencies and unique technical/professional skills and knowledge. An individual may have expertise in one or more of the following specialty areas (listed alphabetically here): Career Planning and Talent Management Coaching Delivering Training Designing Learning Facilitating Organizational Change Improving Human Performance Managing Organizational Knowledge Managing the Learning Function Measuring and Evaluating. Designing Learning Designing, creating, and developing learning interventions to meet needs; analyzing and selecting the most appropriate APPENDIX D ASTD Competencies Study
strategy, methodologies; and technologies to maximize the learning experience and impact. Please note: This information is based in part on the IBSTPI (International Board of Standards for Training, Performance, and Instruction) competency study for instructional design competencies: The Standards [R. Richey, D.C. Fields, and M. Foxon, with R.C. Roberts, T. Spannaus, and J.M. Spector (2001)]. Improving Human Performance Applying a systematic process of discovering and analyz- ing human performance gaps, planning for future improve- ments in human performance, designing and developing cost-effective and ethically justifiable solutions to close performance gaps, partnering with the customer when identifying the opportunity and the solution, implementing the solution, monitoring the change, and evaluating the results. Please note: This information is based in part on ASTD Mod- els for Human Performance Improvement (Rothwell 1996 and 2000) Delivering Training Delivering learning solutions (e.g., courses and guided expe- rience) in a manner that both engages the learner and pro- duces desired outcomes, managing and responding to learner needs, and ensuring that the learning solution is made avail- able or delivered in a timely and effective manner. Measuring and Evaluating Gathering data to answer specific questions regarding the value or impact of learning and performance solutions, focusing on the impact of individual programs and creating overall measures of system effectiveness, and leveraging findings to increase effectiveness and provide recommenda- tions for change. Facilitating Organizational Change Leading, managing, and facilitating change within organizations. Please note: This information is based in part on the 20th edi- tion of the Organization Change and Development Compe- tency Effort. Contributors include ODN (Organization Development Network), ODI (Organization Development Institute), the Academy of Management Directors of OD uni- versity programs, Twin Cities ASTD Chapter, and more than 3,000 individuals from around the world. R. Sullivan, W.J. Rothwell, and C. Worley coordinated the ongoing research. 84 Managing the Learning Function Providing leadership in developing human capital to execute the organizationâs strategy; and planning, organizing, moni- toring, and adjusting activities associated with the adminis- tration of workplace learning and performance. Coaching Using an interactive process to help individuals and organi- zations develop more rapidly and produce more satisfying results; and improving othersâ ability to set goals, take action, make better decisions, and make full use of their natural strengths. Please note: This information is based on the ICF (Interna- tional Coach Federation) Credentialing Process Examina- tion. Managing Organizational Knowledge Serving as a catalyst and visionary for knowledge sharing; developing and championing a plan for transforming the organization into a knowledge-creating and knowledge- sharing entity; and initiating, driving, and integrating the organizationâs knowledge management efforts. Career Planning and Talent Management Ensuring that employees have the right skills to meet the strategic challenges of the organization; ensuring the align- ment of individual career planning and organization talent management processes to achieve an optimal match between individual and organizational needs; and promoting individ- ual growth and organizational renewal. Competencies Competencies are clusters of skills, knowledge, abilities, and behaviors required for job success. Managers need to know about competencies to make appropriate personnel decisions and guide employeesâ performance. Employees need to know about competencies because they provide a road map of how to succeed on the job. The study identified the following set of competenciesâpresented here in alphabetical orderâthat are considered important and necessary for the majority of individuals in the workplace learning and performance profession: Analyzing Needs and Proposing Solutions Applying Business Acumen Building Trust Communicating Effectively Demonstrating Adaptability
85 Driving Results Influencing Stakeholders Leveraging Diversity Modeling Personal Development Networking and Partnering Planning and Implementing Assignments Thinking Strategically. These competencies are grouped into clusters (Business/ Management, Interpersonal, and Personal) to facilitate under- standing. The competencies are listed alphabetically under each cluster. Business/Management Competencies Analyzing Needs and Proposing Solutions Applying Business Acumen Driving Results Planning and Implementing Assignments Thinking Strategically. Interpersonal Competencies Building Trust Communicating Effectively Influencing Stakeholders Leveraging Diversity Networking and Partnering. Personal Competencies Demonstrating Adaptability Modeling Personal Development. Interpersonal Competencies BUILDING TRUST Interacting with others in a way that gives them confidence in oneâs intentions and those of the organization. Key Actions Operates with Integrity Demonstrates honesty and behaves according to ethical prin- ciples; ensures that words and actions are consistent; walks the talk; and behaves dependably across situations. Discloses Position Shares thoughts, feelings, and rationale so that others understand positions and policies. Maintains confidential- ity; keeps private or sensitive information about others con- fidential. Leads by Example Serves as a role model for the organizationâs values, takes responsibility for delivering on commitments, gives proper credit to others, and acknowledges own mistakes rather than blaming others. Treats People Fairly Treats all stakeholders with dignity, respect, and fairness; listens to others without prejudging; objectively considers othersâ ideas and opinions, even when they conflict with prescribed policies, procedures, or commonly held beliefs; champions the perspectives of different partners even in the face of resistance; and engages in effective conflict resolution. Ensures Compliance with Legal, Ethical, and Regulatory Requirements Ensures that processes and results comply with relevant legal, ethical, and regulatory requirements; and monitors compliance and creates reports if needed. Communicating Effectively Expressing thoughts, feelings, and ideas in a clear, concise, and compelling manner in both individual and group situa- tions; actively listening to others; adjusting style to capture the attention of the audience; developing and deploying targeted communication strategies that inform and build support. Influencing Stakeholders Selling the value of learning or the recommended solution as a way of improving organizational performance; and gaining commitment to solutions that will improve individual, team, and organizational performance. Leveraging Diversity Appreciating and leveraging the capabilities, insights, and ideas of all individuals; working effectively with individuals having diverse styles, abilities, motivations, and back- grounds (including cultural differences). Networking and Partnering Developing and using a network of collaborative relation- ships with internal and external contacts to leverage the workplace learning and performance strategy in a way that facilitates the accomplishment of business results.
BUSINESS/MANAGEMENT COMPETENCIES Analyzing Needs and Proposing Solutions Identifying and understanding business issues and client needs, problems, and opportunities; comparing data from different sources to draw conclusions; using effective approaches for choosing a course of action or developing appropriate solutions; and taking action that is consistent with available facts, constraints, and probable consequences. Key Actions Gathers Information About Client Needs Collects information to better understand client needs, issues, problems, and opportunities; reviews organizational informa- tion and human performance outcomes; studies organiza- tional systems to better understand the factors affecting per- formance; integrates information from a variety of sources; and asks internal and external partners for input and insight. Diagnoses Learning and Performance Issues Uses research methods to isolate the causes of human learn- ing and performance problems; proposes theories to under- stand and explain the factors affecting performance; detects trends, associations, and causeâeffect relationships. Generates Multiple Alternatives Gathers information about best practices; thinks expansively and brainstorms multiple approaches; generates relevant options for addressing problems and opportunities and achieving desired outcomes; and maintains a database or bank of possible solutions and their effectiveness. Searches for Innovative Solutions Challenges paradigms and looks for innovative alternatives; and draws upon diverse sources for ideas and inspiration in creative problem-solving activities. Chooses Appropriate Solution(s) Formulates clear decision criteria; evaluates options by con- sidering implications, risks, feasibility, and consequences on the client system and on other parts of the organization; and prioritizes and chooses an effective option. Recognizes Impact Considers the implications of learning and performance deci- sions, solutions, and strategies in other contexts; and makes 86 decisions using a broad range of knowledge that extends beyond the limitations of the organization and its immediate needs. Proposes Solution(s) Recommends a plan or process for making changes; and clearly explains rationale for the recommended solution and how it will address the performance gap or opportunity. Applying Business Acumen Understanding the organization business model and finan- cial goals; utilizing economic, financial, and organiza- tional data to build and document the business case for investing in workplace learning and performance solu- tions; and using business terminology when communicat- ing with others. Driving Results Identifying opportunities for improvement and setting well- defined goals related to learning and performance solutions; orchestrating efforts and measuring progress; and striving to achieve goals and produce exceptional results. Planning and Implementing Assignments Developing action plans, obtaining resources, and complet- ing assignments in a timely manner to ensure that workplace learning and performance goals are achieved. Thinking Strategically Understanding internal and external factors that impact learning and performance in organizations; keeping abreast of trends and anticipating opportunities to add value to the business; and operating from a systems perspective in devel- oping learning and performance strategies and building alignment with business strategies. PERSONAL COMPETENCIES Demonstrating Adaptability Maintaining effectiveness when experiencing major changes in work tasks, the work environment, or conditions affecting the organization (e.g., economic, political, cul- tural, or technological); remaining open to new people, thoughts, and approaches; and adjusting effectively to work within new work structures, processes, requirements, or cultures.
87 Key Actions Seeks to Understand Changes Seeks to understand changes in work tasks, situations, and environment as well as the logic or basis for change; and actively seeks information about new work situations and withholds judgment. Approaches Change Positively Treats changes as opportunities for learning or growth; focuses on the beneficial aspects of change; and speaks pos- itively and advocates the change when it helps promote orga- nizational goals and strategy. Remains Open to Different Ideas and Approaches Thinks expansively by remaining open to different lines of thought and approaches; and readily tries new and different approaches in changing situations. Adjusts Behavior Quickly modifies behavior to deal effectively with changes in the work environment; acquires new knowledge or skills to deal with the change; does not persist with ineffective behaviors; and shows resiliency and maintains effectiveness even in the face of uncertainty or ambiguity. Adapts to Handle Implementation Challenges Effectively handles global, cultural, economic, social, and polit- ical challenges to the effective implementation of learning and performance solutions; and works to overcome barriers and deal constructively with nontraditional or challenging situations. Modeling Personal Development Actively identifying new areas for onesâ own personal learning; regularly creating and taking advantage of learning opportuni- ties; and applying newly gained knowledge and skill on the job. http://www.astd.org/astd/Research/competency_study/com- petency_doc.htm