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T R A N S P O R T A T I O N R E S E A R C H B O A R D WASHINGTON, D.C. 2008 www.TRB.org NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM NCHRP REPORT 525 SUBJECT AREAS Planning and Administration â¢ Operations and Safety â¢ Freight Transportation â¢ Security Surface Transportation Security Volume 13 A Guide to Traffic Control of Rural Roads in an Agricultural Emergency JERRY L. GRAHAM JESSICA M. HUTTON SHINIAN CAO MICHAEL FAGEL WILLIAM WRIGHT MIDWEST RESEARCH INSTITUTE Kansas City, MO Research sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration
NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Systematic, well-designed research provides the most effective approach to the solution of many problems facing highway administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local interest and can best be studied by highway departments individually or in cooperation with their state universities and others. However, the accelerating growth of highway transportation develops increasingly complex problems of wide interest to highway authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of cooperative research. In recognition of these needs, the highway administrators of the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials initiated in 1962 an objective national highway research program employing modern scientific techniques. This program is supported on a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of the Association and it receives the full cooperation and support of the Federal Highway Administration, United States Department of Transportation. The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies was requested by the Association to administer the research program because of the Boardâs recognized objectivity and understanding of modern research practices. The Board is uniquely suited for this purpose as it maintains an extensive committee structure from which authorities on any highway transportation subject may be drawn; it possesses avenues of communications and cooperation with federal, state and local governmental agencies, universities, and industry; its relationship to the National Research Council is an insurance of objectivity; it maintains a full-time research correlation staff of specialists in highway transportation matters to bring the findings of research directly to those who are in a position to use them. The program is developed on the basis of research needs identified by chief administrators of the highway and transportation departments and by committees of AASHTO. Each year, specific areas of research needs to be included in the program are proposed to the National Research Council and the Board by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. Research projects to fulfill these needs are defined by the Board, and qualified research agencies are selected from those that have submitted proposals. Administration and surveillance of research contracts are the responsibilities of the National Research Council and the Transportation Research Board. The needs for highway research are many, and the National Cooperative Highway Research Program can make significant contributions to the solution of highway transportation problems of mutual concern to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to complement rather than to substitute for or duplicate other highway research programs. Published reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at: http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore Printed in the United States of America NCHRP REPORT 525: VOLUME 13 Project 20-59 (22) ISSN 0077-5614 ISBN: 978-0-309-11749-4 Library of Congress Control Number 2006902911 Â© 2008 Transportation Research Board COPYRIGHT PERMISSION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FTA, or Transit Development Corporation endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the Governing Board of the National Research Council. Such approval reflects the Governing Boardâs judgment that the program concerned is of national importance and appropriate with respect to both the purposes and resources of the National Research Council. The members of the technical committee selected to monitor this project and to review this report were chosen for recognized scholarly competence and with due consideration for the balance of disciplines appropriate to the project. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied are those of the research agency that performed the research, and, while they have been accepted as appropriate by the technical committee, they are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, or the Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation. Each report is reviewed and accepted for publication by the technical committee according to procedures established and monitored by the Transportation Research Board Executive Committee and the Governing Board of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research Council, the Federal Highway Administration, the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, and the individual states participating in the National Cooperative Highway Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturersâ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of this report.
CRP STAFF FOR NCHRP REPORT 525, VOLUME 13 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs S.A. Parker, Senior Program Officer Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Maria Sabin Crawford, Assistant Editor NCHRP PROJECT 20-59 (22) PANEL Field of Special ProjectsâArea of Safety Jamie C. Quarrelles, District of Columbia Homeland Security & Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DC (Chair) Steve Cain, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN Michelle S. Davis, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Philadelphia, PA William Finger, City of Charlotte DOT, Charlotte, NC David C. Hodgeboom, Washington Department of Agriculture, Olympia, WA Richard Knighten, U.S. Marshals Service, Louisville, KY Mark Krentz, Kansas DOT, Topeka, KS Edward P. Richards, III, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA William S. Smock, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY Marty Vanier, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS Regina McElroy, FHWA Liaison Kimberly Vasconez, FHWA Liaison William âBillâ Brownlow, AASHTO Liaison Casey Emmer, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office of Public Health Emergency Preparedness Liaison Tony Giancola, National Association of County Engineers Liaison Donald M. Lumpkins, Federal Emergency Management Agency Liaison Sheryl K. Maddux, U.S. Department of Agriculture Liaison Brian M. McGregor, U.S. Department of Agriculture Liaison Bethany OâBrien, U.S. Department of Agriculture Liaison Vincent P. Pearce, U.S. DOT Liaison Barbara Robinson, U.S. Department of Agriculture Liaison Richard A. Cunard, TRB Liaison C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S
There are concerns about the vulnerability of U.S. agriculture to the deliberate introduc- tion of animal and plant diseases (referred to as agroterrorism). Response to agricultural emergenciesâwhether attributed to agroterrorism or naturally occurring outbreaks of food contamination or animal diseaseâoften requires immediate (within hours) isolation and/or quarantine of potential infection or contamination areas. This guide provides recommended practices and procedures associated with traffic con- trol on local and state roads during agricultural emergencies. The guide should aid state and local officials in responding to agricultural emergencies. The guide was reviewed by many state and local agencies, and workshops were held in Dodge City, Kansas; Mankato, Min- nesota; West Plains, Missouri; and Athens, Tennessee. Scenarios of agricultural emergen- cies were included in these workshops to gauge how useful the guide was in aiding local agencies in establishing and maintaining traffic control in quarantine situations. The guide contains traffic control plans for three levels of traffic control based on the type of disease and location of the traffic control point. The guide is supplemented online with a downloadable PowerPoint slide show and a detailed research report. The Midwest Research Institute prepared this volume of NCHRP Report 525 under NCHRP Project 20-59(22). Emergencies arising from terrorist threats highlight the need for transportation managers to minimize the vulnerability of travelers, employees, and physical assets through incident prevention, preparedness, mitigation, response, and recovery. Managers seek to reduce the chances that transportation vehicles and facilities will be targets or instruments of terrorist attacks and to be prepared to respond to and recover from such possibilities. By being pre- pared to respond to terrorism, each transportation agency is simultaneously prepared to respond to natural disasters such as hurricanes, floods, and wildfires, as well as human- caused events such as hazardous materials spills and other incidents. This is the thirteenth volume of NCHRP Report 525: Surface Transportation Security, a series in which relevant information is assembled into single, concise volumesâeach per- taining to a specific security problem and closely related issues. These volumes focus on the concerns that transportation agencies are addressing when developing programs in response to the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, and the anthrax attacks that fol- lowed. Future volumes of the reports will be issued as they are completed. To develop this volume in a comprehensive manner and to ensure inclusion of signifi- cant knowledge, available information was assembled from numerous sources, including a number of state departments of transportation. A topic panel of experts in the subject area F O R E W O R D By S. A. Parker Staff Officer Transportation Research Board
was established to guide the researchers in organizing and evaluating the collected data and to review the final document. This volume was prepared to meet an urgent need for information in this area. It records practices that were acceptable within the limitations of the knowledge available at the time of its preparation. Work in this area is proceeding swiftly, and readers are encouraged to be on the lookout for the most up-to-date information. Volumes issued under NCHRP Report 525: Surface Transportation Security may be found on the TRB website at http://www.TRB.org/SecurityPubs.
1 Chapter 1 Introduction 1 1.1 History of Agroterrorism in the United States 2 1.2 Purpose of the Guide 2 1.3 Organization of the Guide 3 1.4 Foreign Plant Diseases and Foreign Animal Diseases 4 Chapter 2 Phased Response to Agricultural Emergencies 4 2.1 Phase 1: Planning 7 2.2 Phase 2: Initial Response 8 2.3 Phase 3: Long-Term Response 9 Chapter 3 Components of Agricultural Emergency Response 9 3.1 Incident Command System 12 3.2 Resource Management 14 3.3 Communications 14 3.4 Emergency Management Assistance Compacts 15 3.5 Volunteers 15 3.6 Standard Operating Guidelines 16 Chapter 4 Traffic Control Issues 16 4.1 Levels of Traffic Control 17 4.2 Hypothetical Scenario 22 4.3 Detours 22 4.4 Public Information 22 4.5 Traffic Control Plans 30 Chapter 5 Conclusion 30 5.1 Recommended Biosecurity Procedures 31 5.2 Additional Resources 33 References 34 Appendix A Agroterrorism Policy Background 36 Appendix B Terminology C O N T E N T S