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TRANSPORTAT ION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2010 www.TRB.org A I R P O R T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M ACRP REPORT 25 Research sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Subject Areas Planning and Administration â¢ Aviation Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design Volume 2: Spreadsheet Models and Userâs Guide LANDRUM & BROWN Cincinnati, OH HIRSH ASSOCIATES, LTD. Ridgefield, CT PLANNING TECHNOLOGY, INC. Clearwater, FL PRESENTATION & DESIGN, INC. Algonquin, IL
AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in trans- portation of people and goods and in regional, national, and inter- national commerce. They are where the nationâs aviation system connects with other modes of transportation and where federal respon- sibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most airports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Coopera- tive Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the airport industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study spon- sored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The ACRP carries out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating agencies and are not being adequately addressed by existing federal research programs. It is modeled after the successful National Coopera- tive Highway Research Program and Transit Cooperative Research Pro- gram. The ACRP undertakes research and other technical activities in a variety of airport subject areas, including design, construction, mainte- nance, operations, safety, security, policy, planning, human resources, and administration. The ACRP provides a forum where airport opera- tors can cooperatively address common operational problems. The ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision 100-Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary partici- pants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Transportation with representation from airport oper- ating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations such as the Airports Council International-North America (ACI-NA), the American Association of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), and the Air Transport Association (ATA) as vital links to the airport community; (2) the TRB as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a contract with the National Academies formally initiating the program. The ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research orga- nizations. Each of these participants has different interests and respon- sibilities, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for the ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to the TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by iden- tifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel, appointed by the TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport pro- fessionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels pre- pare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooper- ative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the intended end-users of the research: airport operating agencies, service providers, and suppliers. The ACRP produces a series of research reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties, and industry associations may arrange for work- shops, training aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by airport-industry practitioners. ACRP REPORT 25, VOLUME 2 Project 07-04 ISSN 1935-9802 ISBN 978-0-309-11816-3 Library of Congress Control Number 2009943202 Â© 2010 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB or FAA endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Airport Cooperative Research Program conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the Governing Board of the National Research Council. Such approval reflects the Governing Boardâs judgment that the project concerned is appropriate with respect to both the purposes and resources of the National Research Council. The members of the technical advisory panel selected to monitor this project and to review this report were chosen for recognized scholarly competence and with due consideration for the balance of disciplines appropriate to the project. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied are those of the research agency that performed the research, and while they have been accepted as appropriate by the technical panel, they are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, or the Federal Aviation Administration of the U.S. Department of Transportation. Each report is reviewed and accepted for publication by the technical panel according to procedures established and monitored by the Transportation Research Board Executive Committee and the Governing Board of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research Council, and the Federal Aviation Administration (sponsor of the Airport Cooperative Research Program) do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturersâ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the clarity and completeness of the project reporting. Published reports of the AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore Printed in the United States of America
CRP STAFF FOR ACRP REPORT 25, VOLUME 2 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Michael R. Salamone, ACRP Manager Theresia H. Schatz, Senior Program Officer Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Natalie Barnes, Editor ACRP PROJECT 07-04 PANEL Field of Design Nadine S. Jones, Hillsborough County Aviation Authority, Tampa, FL (Chair) Donald G. Andrews, RS&H, Houston, TX Jon A. Cimperman, Port of Oakland, Oakland International Airport, Oakland, CA Danielle J. Rinsler, San Francisco Airport Commission, Oakland, CA Doug Wendt, City of Atlanta Department of Aviation, College Park, GA James D. Wilson, HOK, Chicago, IL Elisha Novak, FAA Liaison Thomas Wade, FAA Liaison Christine Gerencher, TRB Liaison AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This research report was prepared under ACRP Project 07-04 by Landrum & Brown; Hirsh Associates, Ltd.; Planning Technology, Inc.; and Presentation & Design, Inc. Landrum & Brown was the prime con- tractor while Hirsh Associates, Planning Technology, and Presentation & Design served as subcontractors. Matthew Lee of Landrum & Brown and Joel Hirsh of Hirsh Associates served as co-principal investi- gators for the research and spreadsheet model development. Brian Poe of Landrum & Brown performed the major portion of the detailed spreadsheet model development and the initial drafting of the Userâs Guide. Shane Wirth of Landrum & Brown provided initial model testing and critiques for all of the indi- vidual models and documentation. Jerry Roberts of Planning Technology prepared the interactive CD-ROM, integrating the spreadsheet files with the electronic versions of the Userâs Guide and the Guidebook. The authors are very grateful for the guidance by the panel for ACRP Project 07-04 and for the guid- ance and help provided by the panel for ACRP Project 07-05. The research team would also like to acknowledge the invaluable contribution of the research team for ACRP Project 07-05 led by Bruce Anderson of Landrum & Brown. Mr. Anderson provided overall lead- ership of the contractor team for both ACRP projects 07-05 and 07-04. His quality control and guidance assured that the content of both projects will provide consistent guidance. Finally, the authors are grateful for the time and dedication of numerous Landrum & Brown staff members in the overall production of the Spreadsheet Models and the Userâs Guide. C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S
ACRP Report 25: Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design comprises a Guide- book, Spreadsheet Models, and a Userâs Guide in two volumes and a CD-ROM to provide guidance in planning and developing airport passenger terminals and assist users in analyz- ing common issues related to airport terminal planning and design. Volume 1 describes the passenger terminal planning process and provides, in a single reference document, the important criteria and requirements needed to address emerging trends and create solu- tions for airport passenger terminals. This comprehensive Guidebook addresses the airside, terminal building, and landside components of the terminal complex. Volume 2 consists of (1) a CD containing 11 spreadsheet models, which include practical learning exercises and several airport-specific sample data sets to assist users in determining appropriate model inputs for their situations, and (2) a Userâs Guide to assist the user in the correct use of each model. The models on the CD include such aspects of terminal planning as design hour determination, gate demand, check-in and passenger and baggage screening, which require complex analyses to support planning decisions. The Guidebook and Spreadsheet Models will be beneficial for airport operators, plan- ners, designers, and other stakeholders involved in planning functional and cost-effective airport passenger terminals by providing tools that can be used immediately. Planners and designers for all sizes of airports are struggling with how to design passenger terminals that provide good value and level-of-service efficiency that meet the criteria of many aspects of airport terminals, from security requirements and procedures to the needs of low- cost carriers and concessionaires. Practical information is needed not only to address current issues but also to provide the flexibility to accommodate emerging trends and issues. Airport passenger terminal planners and designers need up-to-date information on how to provide good value and efficiency to meet the needs of stakeholders and accommodate changing tech- nologies, materials, regulations, and operational factors for both large and small airports. ACRP Report 25 is the result of two separate research projectsâACRP 07-04, âSpread- sheet Models for Terminal Planning and Design,â and ACRP 07-05, âAirport Passenger Ter- minal Planning Guidebook.â Both projects were performed by Landrum & Brown as the prime contractor with the assistance of a variety of subcontractors: Hirsh Associates, Ltd.; Kimley-Horn and Associates, Inc.; Jacobs Consultancy; The S-A-P Group; TranSecure, Inc.; Steven Winter Associates, Inc.; Star Systems, LLCâA Subsidiary of Five Star Airport Alliance; Planning Technology, Inc.; and Presentation & Design, Inc. ACRP Report 25 provides a foundation for understanding and using the results of related ACRP research projects on airport terminal planning. For a list of related projects and published reports, see Appendix B of Volume 1. F O R E W O R D By Theresia H. Schatz Staff Officer Transportation Research Board
1 Introduction 2 Model Overview and Format 4 Summary of Terminal Planning Spreadsheet Models 5 Excel Help 9 Design Hour Determination Model 9 Analysis Techniques 9 Design Hour Demand 14 Factor Analyses 15 Passengers: Originating versus Connecting 17 Gate Demand Model 17 Methodologies without Design Day Flight Schedules 20 Remain Overnight Aircraft Parking 20 Gate Equivalents 23 Curb Requirements Model 23 Curb Vehicle Facilities 25 Process for Estimating Curb Length 26 Further Explanation of the Process for Estimating Curb Length 28 Check-in/Ticketing Model 29 Model Overview 30 Analysis Technique 33 Other Analysis Techniques 35 Space Allocation 39 Security Screening Model 39 Estimating Demand 40 Typical Equipment 42 Queuing 43 Baggage Screening Model 46 Baggage Make-up Model 48 Holdrooms Model 49 Single Holdroom Approach 50 Other Functions 50 Typical Dimensions of Holdroom Areas 52 Baggage Claim Model 52 Total Design Hour Demand 53 Single Aircraft Arrival 54 Baggage Claim Time in Use 54 Baggage Claim Unit Types C O N T E N T S
56 Odd-Sized and Oversized Baggage 56 Retrieval and Peripheral Areas 58 Concourse Circulation Model 58 Secure Circulation 58 FIS Sterile Arrivals Circulation 62 Moving Walkways 64 Federal Inspection Services/U.S. Customs and Border Protection Model 64 Sterile Corridor System 66 CBP Primary 70 Baggage Claim 72 Compendium of Available Simulation Models 74 Acronym Guide