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48 Holdroom sizing is typically based on the average seating capacity of the largest aircraft expected to use each gate. Holdrooms are typically sized for LOS C, with some airports choosing to provide a higher LOS. However, LOS in holdrooms does not, at this time, have a formally accepted definition. LOS parameters have been derived from generally accepted industry practices and are a combination of the following three factors: â¢ Load factor for the aircraft typically expected to use the gate: Typical ranges are 80% (LOS B/C) to 90% (LOS A). The design load factor may be reduced, however, if a significant number of passengers are expected to be using close-by concessions or waiting in airline clubs and/or premium class lounges (international flights). â¢ Percentage of passengers to be seated in the holdroom versus standing: This percentage can range from 50% seated (LOS C) to 80% (LOS B), or even 100% (LOS A). Again, these are typical ranges and should take into consideration the same factors as the load factor discussed above. â¢ Area per seated and standing passenger: Area per passenger is typically 15 square feet seated and 10 square feet standing (LOS B/C). This guideline can be increased to 17 square feet seated and 12 square feet standing (LOS A) to provide wider aisles, and/or more flexible seating configurations. These factors that determine the total seating/standing lounge area of the holdroom are used in the Holdrooms model, where the user sets the LOS conditions and determines the suggested holdroom size. The area for gate check-in podium(s) and queue(s) should be added to the passenger seating area. The gate podium provides facilities for airline agents to check passengers in, change seat assignments, and provide other passenger services. The number of agent positions is a function of aircraft size and airline staffing policies, but are typically as follows: one for commuter aircraft, two for narrowbody (up to 150 seats), three for widebody and B757 aircraft, and four for jumbo aircraft (over 300 seats). In addition to the passenger seating area and check-in area, a boarding/deplaning corridor should be added to the lounge area which effectively acts as an extension of the loading bridge door. If a gate has multiple loading bridges, each bridge should have a separate boarding cor- ridor. Depending on the configuration of the holdroom and the proximity of the check-in podium queue to the loading bridge entrance, some additional queuing may be provided for the boarding process. However, few airports or airlines have seen a need for this additional queuing area. The Holdrooms model is organized like the other spreadsheet models with the same color-coded user cells and links to the Table of Contents and to the Userâs Guide as seen in Figure 61. Holdrooms Model
Holdrooms Model 49 Single Holdroom Approach The Holdrooms model shown in Figure 62 requires that the user input aircraft and load fac- tor information and, by using the LOS guidance in the cell comments, select the percentages and criteria that will determine the holdroom areas. By adjusting the factors that increase or decrease the suggested holdroom area, the user can observe the effects that properly accounting for the amenities, utilization, and sharing factors can have. Holdrooms are recommended to be paired or grouped to allow better flexibility of use. Group- ing makes it possible to reduce the total amount of holdroom space at many airports. One rule of thumb is to reduce the holdroom seating area by 5% for each gate in a common holdroom group. The amount of area reduction (for the passenger seating/standing area only) should be related to differences in departure times for adjacent gates, the estimated passenger arrival time distribution at the holdroom, and boarding time prior to departure. Thus, a reduction in seating area might not be recommended when near-simultaneous departures are expected. Examples would include a connecting hub airport, and some spoke airports, when all of the carriers schedule departures at the same time. If departure times are very well spaced, the area reduction may be greater than the rule of thumb. Figure 61. Holdrooms model. Figure 62. Example of single holdroom approach.
50 Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design This model is referred to as a âsingle holdroom approach.â However, the number of podium positions and boarding bridges or doors is variable. This allows the model to be used for a holdroom that may serve multiple gates, and therefore, serve different aircraft classes. Other Functions In addition to passenger seating and departure processing, some airports and airlines have added other amenities to holdrooms, such as work counters or desks, laptop/cell phone recharging areas, play areas for children, and Internet stations. Providing these amenities can take varying amounts of space and must be planned on a case-by-case basis. A general allowance, in the range of 5%, for amenities should be included where relevant. When gates have a high turnover rate, it is possible to have passengers from several flights wait- ing in the holdroom at about the same time. These cases are unique and only certain airports will have a need to apply this factor. If this is not an obvious case, this number should be entered as 0%, but in instances where the turnover is unusually high, such as with many of Southwest Airlines markets, this factor could be between 10% and 30%. Figure 63 shows that the high utilization factor will increase the suggested holdroom size as does the allowance for amenities factor. A table of holdrooms for single aircraft (without sharing reductions) is shown at the bottom of the spreadsheet. See Figure 64. These reflect the basic parameters selected by the user in terms of LOS, amenities, and utilization. Typical Dimensions of Holdroom Areas Seating Area Seating configurations are driven by the LOS factors discussed above, as well as the overall proportions of the holdroom. The distance between rows of seats is recommended to be a min- Figure 63. Example of factors that affect holdroom size. Figure 64. Example of typical single gate holdrooms.
imum of 5 feet to allow free movement of passengers when seats are occupied. The separation can be increased for higher LOS and/or when large numbers of carry-on bags are expected. Figure 65 illustrates a typical holdroom in a linear configuration along a concourse. The depth of the holdroom should be a minimum of 25 feet to allow some flexibility in seating arrangements. However, a 3-foot depth is recommended for most terminals to increase this flexibility and to allow circulation between seating and the loading bridge boarding corridor. For holdrooms serv- ing multiple gates located in a âcornerâ of a concourse, additional depth is recommended. Gate Check-in Podiums A typical two-position gate check-in podium is 8 to 10 feet wide. The depth of the podium counter and back wall is typically 8 feet, but can be deeper if storage or other equipment is housed in the back wall. An area should be provided in front of the podium to contain the queue within the holdroom and not block the adjacent corridor. A 15-foot depth is generally adequate. Boarding/Deplaning Corridor The corridor should provide as direct a path as possible from the loading bridge to the main concourse corridor. A minimum 6-foot width is recommended for deplaning. Most airlines have installed boarding pass readers at the entry to the loading bridge, which increases the required width at the loading bridge door. These readers can either be a simple stand-alone reader (as shown in Figure 65) or include a small work podium for agents. A wider area, or multiple queue paths, are generally required for enplaning due to the crowd of passen- gers which usually forms when an aircraft boards. For example, in Figure 65 the check-in podium queue and the internal circulation aisles supplement the boarding/deplaning corridor for enplaning activity. If the configuration does not allow such shared use of circulation, an 8-foot wide boarding/deplaning corridor is recommended. Holdrooms Model 51 Source: Hirsh Associates 8FT / 2.4M typical 15FT / 4.5M 6FT / 1.8M min. clear 25FT / 7.5M min. 30FT / 9M recommended minimum Boarding Pass Reader to loading bridge Check-In Podium Figure 65. Typical holdroom configuration.