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Biographical Memoirs: V.58 (1989)

Chapter: Percival Bailey

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Suggested Citation:"Percival Bailey." National Academy of Sciences. 1989. Biographical Memoirs: V.58. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1645.
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Suggested Citation:"Percival Bailey." National Academy of Sciences. 1989. Biographical Memoirs: V.58. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1645.
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Suggested Citation:"Percival Bailey." National Academy of Sciences. 1989. Biographical Memoirs: V.58. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1645.
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Suggested Citation:"Percival Bailey." National Academy of Sciences. 1989. Biographical Memoirs: V.58. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1645.
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Suggested Citation:"Percival Bailey." National Academy of Sciences. 1989. Biographical Memoirs: V.58. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1645.
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Suggested Citation:"Percival Bailey." National Academy of Sciences. 1989. Biographical Memoirs: V.58. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1645.
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Suggested Citation:"Percival Bailey." National Academy of Sciences. 1989. Biographical Memoirs: V.58. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1645.
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Suggested Citation:"Percival Bailey." National Academy of Sciences. 1989. Biographical Memoirs: V.58. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1645.
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Suggested Citation:"Percival Bailey." National Academy of Sciences. 1989. Biographical Memoirs: V.58. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1645.
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Suggested Citation:"Percival Bailey." National Academy of Sciences. 1989. Biographical Memoirs: V.58. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1645.
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Suggested Citation:"Percival Bailey." National Academy of Sciences. 1989. Biographical Memoirs: V.58. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1645.
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Suggested Citation:"Percival Bailey." National Academy of Sciences. 1989. Biographical Memoirs: V.58. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1645.
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Suggested Citation:"Percival Bailey." National Academy of Sciences. 1989. Biographical Memoirs: V.58. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1645.
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Suggested Citation:"Percival Bailey." National Academy of Sciences. 1989. Biographical Memoirs: V.58. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1645.
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Suggested Citation:"Percival Bailey." National Academy of Sciences. 1989. Biographical Memoirs: V.58. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1645.
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Suggested Citation:"Percival Bailey." National Academy of Sciences. 1989. Biographical Memoirs: V.58. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1645.
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Suggested Citation:"Percival Bailey." National Academy of Sciences. 1989. Biographical Memoirs: V.58. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1645.
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Suggested Citation:"Percival Bailey." National Academy of Sciences. 1989. Biographical Memoirs: V.58. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1645.
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Suggested Citation:"Percival Bailey." National Academy of Sciences. 1989. Biographical Memoirs: V.58. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1645.
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Suggested Citation:"Percival Bailey." National Academy of Sciences. 1989. Biographical Memoirs: V.58. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1645.
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Suggested Citation:"Percival Bailey." National Academy of Sciences. 1989. Biographical Memoirs: V.58. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1645.
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Suggested Citation:"Percival Bailey." National Academy of Sciences. 1989. Biographical Memoirs: V.58. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1645.
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Suggested Citation:"Percival Bailey." National Academy of Sciences. 1989. Biographical Memoirs: V.58. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1645.
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Suggested Citation:"Percival Bailey." National Academy of Sciences. 1989. Biographical Memoirs: V.58. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1645.
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Suggested Citation:"Percival Bailey." National Academy of Sciences. 1989. Biographical Memoirs: V.58. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1645.
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Suggested Citation:"Percival Bailey." National Academy of Sciences. 1989. Biographical Memoirs: V.58. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1645.
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Suggested Citation:"Percival Bailey." National Academy of Sciences. 1989. Biographical Memoirs: V.58. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1645.
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Suggested Citation:"Percival Bailey." National Academy of Sciences. 1989. Biographical Memoirs: V.58. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1645.
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Suggested Citation:"Percival Bailey." National Academy of Sciences. 1989. Biographical Memoirs: V.58. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1645.
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Suggested Citation:"Percival Bailey." National Academy of Sciences. 1989. Biographical Memoirs: V.58. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1645.
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Suggested Citation:"Percival Bailey." National Academy of Sciences. 1989. Biographical Memoirs: V.58. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1645.
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Suggested Citation:"Percival Bailey." National Academy of Sciences. 1989. Biographical Memoirs: V.58. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1645.
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Suggested Citation:"Percival Bailey." National Academy of Sciences. 1989. Biographical Memoirs: V.58. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1645.
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Suggested Citation:"Percival Bailey." National Academy of Sciences. 1989. Biographical Memoirs: V.58. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1645.
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Suggested Citation:"Percival Bailey." National Academy of Sciences. 1989. Biographical Memoirs: V.58. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1645.
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Suggested Citation:"Percival Bailey." National Academy of Sciences. 1989. Biographical Memoirs: V.58. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1645.
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Suggested Citation:"Percival Bailey." National Academy of Sciences. 1989. Biographical Memoirs: V.58. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1645.
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Suggested Citation:"Percival Bailey." National Academy of Sciences. 1989. Biographical Memoirs: V.58. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1645.
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Suggested Citation:"Percival Bailey." National Academy of Sciences. 1989. Biographical Memoirs: V.58. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1645.
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Suggested Citation:"Percival Bailey." National Academy of Sciences. 1989. Biographical Memoirs: V.58. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1645.
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Suggested Citation:"Percival Bailey." National Academy of Sciences. 1989. Biographical Memoirs: V.58. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1645.
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Suggested Citation:"Percival Bailey." National Academy of Sciences. 1989. Biographical Memoirs: V.58. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1645.
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Suggested Citation:"Percival Bailey." National Academy of Sciences. 1989. Biographical Memoirs: V.58. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1645.
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Suggested Citation:"Percival Bailey." National Academy of Sciences. 1989. Biographical Memoirs: V.58. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1645.
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Suggested Citation:"Percival Bailey." National Academy of Sciences. 1989. Biographical Memoirs: V.58. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1645.
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Suggested Citation:"Percival Bailey." National Academy of Sciences. 1989. Biographical Memoirs: V.58. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/1645.
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PERCIVAL BAILEY May 9, 1892—August 10, 1973 BY PAUL C. BUCY THE BARREN CLAY HILLS of southern Illinois did not pro- duce gooc! corn or hogs, but they proclucect superb men. This southernmost section of Illinois is formecT by the Ohio River on the southeast, by the Mississippi River on the south- west, and by an indefinite, irregular line running from a few miles north of St. Louis, Missouri, east to the Wabash River. This triangle has long been known as "Little Egypt" anc! ap- propriately has Cairo, located at the apex of the triangle and the junction of the Ohio ant! Mississippi rivers, as its capital. The unproductiveness of Little Egypt lee] to poverty. It seems very likely that this poverty was the force that cirove many intelligent young people to head North (generally to Chicago) to become (listinguished judges, lawyers, scientists, and doctors. The direction of this migration was cletermined in considerable measure by the existence of the Illinois Cen- tral RailroacI, which ran from Little Egypt directly to Chi- cago. In other parts of the United States, notably in New En- gland, similar developments have been attributer! to parents' erudition and the excellence of educational opportunities. Certainly this explanation cloes not apply to skittle Egypt. The fathers of these young men, for the most part, ekect out a bare existence from the poor soil or otherwise worked daily 3

4 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS with their hands and were often drunk. Their harcI-working mothers hac! little time for anything but bearing children and caring for their large families. The people of L`ittIe Egypt had migrated into southern Illinois by way of Kentucky from Virginia, the Carolinas, and Tennessee. Percival Bailey's forebears only partly fit the pattern. His great-grandfather, Gebhard BoehIer, emigrated as a young man from Hinterstad] in Baden, Germany. He was a journeyman miller. Marrying upon his arrival in Illi- nois, BoehIer (later changed to Bailey) aclded a German strain to the English, Scots, and Irish stock common to south- ern Illinois. Percival Bailey's father, John Henry Bailey, never attracted his son's admiration or affection. A laborer seldom steadily employed, he cirank to excess and was irresponsible. Install- ing his family in a one-room log hut, he took oh for Cuba and the Spanish-American War. Bailey's mother- a kindly, uneducated, hard-working woman devoted her life to the rearing of her family. Born Mattie Orr, she married John Henry Bailey when she was seventeen years old. Percival Sylvester, her first chilct, was born on her eighteenth birthday, May 9, 1892. Percival had great affection for his mother, ant! her death in 1912, when he was nineteen years old, was a hard blow. Dr. Bailey was never happy with either of his given names. During his early years he went by the nickname "Ves." In later life he dropped the name Sylvester and the nickname Ves altogether and preferred to be callecl Percy. In 1906, when he was fourteen years old, Bailey left home after a violent quarrel with his father and went to live with his uncle, Gaphart Bailey, a farmer. His early schooling took place in a one-room country schoolhouse anct was something of a "hit and miss" proposition. The school year was short, confined largely to the winter months, because children were

PERCIVAL BAILEY 5 needed to help with planting in the spring, tilling in the sum- mer, and harvesting in the fall. Yet many apparently unrelated developments worked to shape Bailey for the future. Hard work on his uncle's farm turned the spindly boy into a sturdy, vigorous man. It also convinced Bailey that he would not earn his livelihood with his hands. At this same time he met a remarkable character, Dr. Arsen Artin Sissakian, a country doctor he describes in a paper entitled, "01' Doc Artin." This philosophical Armenian and another general practitioner, Dr. George W. Barrows, who cared for Bailey's mother in her final illness, did much to turn Percy's interest toward medicine. After completing the local country school, Bailey won a scholarship to the nearby normal school, Southern Illinois State Teachers College, now Southern Illinois University, in Carbondale. He proposed to become a country school- teacher, a goal that was never achieved, but his experience at Carbondale was the beginning of a long series of varied in- fluences that were to mold his future. Throughout his life various women appeared at the ap- propriate time to help ant! guide him. First it was his mother, then Martha Buck, an Englishwoman who taught grammar and etymology at Southern Illinois. Later Ethel Terry would help him to obtain a scholarship to The University of Chi- cago, while Sisters Leonardo and EtheIrita at the Mercy Hos- pital in Chicago would protect him and teach him much about life among charity patients. Most important of all was Yevnige Bashian, the beautiful Armenian air! that he would marry. Martha Buck was the first person to create in Bailey the realization that he was capable of being something more than a country teacher. She stimulated and fed his ambition, and, together with another teacher, Carlos Eben Allen, guided his footsteps to The University of Chicago, which he entered on

6 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS graduating from Southern Illinois Normal University in 1912. He went on to obtain a B.S. in 1914 and a Ph.D. in 1918 from The University of Chicago and an M.D. degree from Northwestern University, also in 1918. At The University of Chicago Bailey's future began to un- foict. He found himself in an academic worm of which he hacl been totally ignorant. At The University, he came under the influence of such giants as Harvey Carr, professor of exper- imental psychology, who fostered! in him an inquiring mind and taught him to ask, "What is wrong with this argument?" George W. Bartelmez taught him scientific method. C. ~ucI- son Herrick opened the florid of neurology to him. Anton ("Ajax") J. CarIson taught him to ask, as Bailey expressed it, "Vat iss (lee efficlence?" Julius Grinker, not on the faculty, stimulated his interest in clinical neurology. Later, others, in- clucling Harvey Cushing, Pierre Marie, George Boris Hassin, Pierre Janet, and Gaetan Gatian de Clerambault, were also to be important in his development and training. But it was his mentors at The University of Chicago who molded Bailey into the scientist and clinician, anatomist, neurophysiologist, neuropathologist, clinical neurologist, neurological surgeon, and psychiatrist that he was to be. He became the outstanding catholic neurologist, recognized throughout the world as "Mister Neurology," a man without peer. Bailey's Ph.D. thesis dealt with the anatomy of the brain, and he later earned money to complete his medical education teaching anatomy at Northwestern University, in Evanston. He obtainer] his preclinical medical education at The Uni- versity of Chicago and his clinical education at Rush Medical College and at Northwestern University Medical School. Dur- ing these last two clinical years, his studying was done largely on the Chicago elevated trains running between Evan- ston, on the north, Rush Meclical College, on the west, and Northwestern University Medical School, on South Dearborn Street.

PERCIVAL BAILEY 7 The faculties of Rush Medical College and Northwestern Medical School made little impression upon Bailey, and he never mentioned them in later years. But he often spoke with great admiration and affection of Julius Grinker, of the Post- graduate Hospital in Chicago, from whom he first learned clinical neurology. Grinker was a very able neurologist, who wrote the section on neurology in Tice's Practice of Medicine, a popular encyclopedic work of that time. Caustic and hy- percritical, he was anything but cliplomatic in his clearings with others. Yet Grinker recognizect in Bailey an intelligent, inquiring young man whom he clelighted to teach. Bailey in turn liked Julius Grinker anct lover! to learn. After he graduatect from Northwestern University in June HIS, he began his internship at the Mercy Hospital in Chi- cago, completed nine months later. His impressions of Mercy Hospital ant! its staff were for the most part unfavorable, except for two nuns Sister Leonardo anct Sister EtheIrita, for whom he retained great affection and admiration. (Bailey related his experiences at the Mercy Hospital in a delightful chapter, "Sister EtheIrita," in Up From Little Egyptian As he was approaching the en(1 of his internship, Bailey wrote two letters, one to the surgeon Harvey Cushing, in Boston, and one to the psychiatrist Adolf Meyer, at Johns Hopkins. This has led to speculation that Bailey was a man who tract difficulty making up his mind and coul(1 not decide whether he wanted to be a neurosurgeon or a psychiatrist. Anyone who knew Bailey well would reject this interpreta- tion, for—even at this early date his interest was in the ner- vous system rather than in any one of its clisciplines. He wisher! to study the neurosciences and at the same time to be a clinician. He cared little whether his clinical activities were as a neurologist, a surgeon, or a psychiatrist, as was true for ' Percival Bailey, Up From Little Egypt (Chicago: The Buckskin Press, 1969) 265 PP

8 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS the rest of his life. Cushing replier! immediately, Meyer, in three months. Both accepted Bailey for training in their in- stitutions, but Bailey tract aIreacly accepted Cushing's over and was at work in Boston when he received Meyer's letter. 0~ and on, from April 1919 until July 192S, Bailey worked with Harvey Cushing at the Peter Bent Brigham Hos- pital in Boston. These were trying years. Bailey admired Cushing's ability as a surgeon ant! as a teacher of neurosur- geons. He recognized Cushing's unequaled contribution in salvaging brain surgery from a premature (leash, in devel- oping that specialty, and in showing how surgical lesions of the nervous system could be diagnosed ant! successfully treated. Yet he hacl nothing but contempt for Cushing as a man. In Up From Little Egypt (p. 209), Bailey wrote of Cush- ~ng: (1) he was very artistic and had a tendency to prettify his data, (2) he had a tart tongue, (3) he had a tendency to believe anything which he imagined was true and was not too careful about the conclusiveness of his proof, (4) he had never learned to spell or write English correctly, (5) his scholarship left much to be desired. Yet it was during his years with Cushing that Bailey be- came a neurosurgeon anti made what was probably his great- est single contribution to neurology his book Tumors of the Glioma Group, which he published with Cushing (Philaclel- phia: J. B. Lippincott Co., 1925, 175 pp., 108 illus.~. It rep- resents many years of hard work in which Bailey applied his knowlecige of neuroanatomy and neuropathology to the def- inition of the microscopic nature of gliomas, their relation to the normal glial cells of the developing and aclult nervous system, the clinical correlation of these tumors, and the pre- diction of their prognosis bases! on their microscopic ap- pearance. This book completely revolutionized the under- standing and diagnosis of these tumors anal still influences

PERCIVAL BAILEY 9 neurological anct neurosurgical thought. Its excellence and thoroughness are attested by the fact that the classification of gliomas that it proposed has changed but little over the ensuing fifty years. Nine months after arriving in Boston, Bailey—unhappy with Cushing's behavior returned to Chicago to work with George Boris Hassin in neuropathology at the Cook County Hospital. Hassin was one of the pioneers in neuropathology ant! was largely self-educatec3. He, too, was a clifficult person, but one whose keen sense of integrity Bailey acimirect. In October 1920, Bailey returnee! to Cushing ant! Boston, only to leave the following year for Paris. This year in France was undoubtedly one of the happiest in Bailey's life. He always recalled it with great pleasure ant! frequently regaled his lis- teners with lively tales of his life there. At La Salpetriere, he came under the influence of Pierre Marie, one of the greatest clinical neurologists of this century. Bailey also learned to speak French perfectly, without a trace of foreign accent, my French friends inform me. In 1922 Bailey returned from Paris to Boston and re- sume(1 his work with Cushing for the longest continuous pe- rioc! he was to spend with him. While he was still a student at The University of Chicago, Bailey had developed a friend- ship with an Armenian theological student, Antranig Becti- kian, who married Marie Bashian. At their Betiding Bailey met Marie's sister, Yevnige, who soon entrapped his heart. Cushing learned of their plans to marry. This was in those days of long ago when medical students, interns, residents, and even young associates ctid not marry. Cushing feared that marriage would so divert Bailey's inter- ests and efforts from the laboratory as to be catastrophic for his research. Learning that Yevnige Bashian's father was cleact and her two uncles, Armenian rug merchants in New York City, were the influential members of the family, he went to

10 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS New York to call on the uncles. They assumed that this dis- tinguished surgeon from Boston had come to buy rugs. Cof- fee was served, ant! after suitable courtesies were exchanged, they got down to business. Cushing toicI them of the out- standing young man whose career was about to be ruined by his marriage to their niece. He could not have chosen a more disastrous means of achieving his goal. Insteac] of convincing the uncles to prevent the marriage, Cushing had, by his ef- fusive description of Bailey's outstanding intelligence anct great future, convinced them that here was the ideal husbanc! for Yevnige. He returnee! to Boston empty-handec! no rugs, no agreement. Bailey's marriage further strengthened his contacts with ant} interests in things Armenian, begun early in life with his admiration for the southern Illinois cloctor, Arsen Sissakian. Yevnige's brother, Antranig, was to become one of his closest friends. In 1925 the book on gliomas came off the press and Bailey hac! already begun work on another monograph, Blood Vessel Tumors of the Brain. This clinicopathological study was far ahead of its time and, as a result, never attracted great atten- tion. In 1928 surgical techniques for treating vascular mal- formations were still many years away. In 1925 Bailey returne(1 to Paris, again following up his interest in psychiatry. On his first trip, Bailey had become acquainted with Pierre Janet, who worked at La Salpetriere. On this second trip he worked at L'Hospice de la Ste. Anne with Gaetan Gatian cle Clerambault. Janet had been influ- ential in the development of the career of Sigmund Freud when Freud workoct in Paris, but had later taken great ex- ception to Freucl's ideas, based more and more on- what pa- tients told him. Janet, wrote Bailey (Up From Little Egypt, p. 2 ~ 3), "(listrustecl memory and had no use for accounts of the sayings of patients unless recor(lecl at the time." De Cleram-

PERCIVAL BAILEY 11 bault, on the other hanct, was a firm believer in the organic nature of psychiatric clisorclers: "These phenomena Cler- ambault believer! to be clue to intracellular changes in the neurones of the cerebral cortex." (p. 214) Bailey had given evidence of his interest in psychiatry when he wrote Adolf Meyer requesting an opportunity to study uncler him. His work with Clerambault was a seconct manifestation of this interest, but it was not until many years later—when he accepted an appointment as director of the Illinois State Psychopathic Institute in 1951- that this inter- est was to come to the fore. In 1928 Bailey was selected by Dallas B. Phemister, pro- fessor of surgery at The University of Chicago, to develop neurological surgery at that institution. Bailey was thrilled with this opportunity. His earlier experiences at The Univer- sity, when he tract associated with such outstanding neuro- scientists as Charles Hudson Herrick, George W. Bartelmez, and Anton I. CarIson, hac! demonstratect that institution's cleclication to neurology. Franklin C. McLean, who tract close affiliations with the Rockefeller Institute, had been recruited by The University to organize this new medical school. McLean envisioned a new type of medical school in which clinical fields wouIcI have a close relationship, not only to basic medical sciences, but also to biological and physical sciences represented elsewhere in The University. Uncler such a system, both clinical and preclinical departments would engage in research. It was also McLean's plan that all members of the mecTical faculty be employed full time, supported entirely by salary. Phemister entertained similar views ant! had recruited—in acicTition to Bailey Lester R. Dragsteclt, heart of the Department of Physiology at Northwestern University, and George Curtis, heac! of the Department of Anatomy at the University of Louisville, as professors of surgery.

12 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Knowing this, Bailey was encouraged to hope that he would be able to develop an integrated department of neu- rosciences at Chicago and not just a division of neurological surgery. He might have had misgivings about his ability to handle the clinical side of his new position, for much of his time in Boston had been spent in the laboratory and his years in France had not trained him to perform neurosurgical op- erations. Ever helpful, Cushing, on learning that Bailey was going to Chicago, remarked "l don't know what is going to become of you. You will never be a neurosurgeon," (Up From Little Egypt, p. ~ 264.Even Max Peet,professorofneurological surgery at the University of Michigan and later Bailey's close friend and admirer, exclaimed to this author on learning of the appointment, "WhY. Bailev is not a neurosurgeon: he's a pathologist!" ~ , ~ ~ ~ If Bailey was forced to rely on his own evaluation of his surgical abilities, in the end, he was proven correct. He be- came a superb neurosurgeon, though he lacked the enthu- siasm for operating that characterizes most surgeons. Once he had demonstrated he could perform an operation well, he lost interest in repeating it and would turn successive op- erations of the same type over to me. Bailey arrived at The University of Chicago in the sum- mer of 1928 and immediately began organizing a depart- ment of neurosciences. As his neurosurgical assistant he re- cruited this author, Paul C. Bucy, then a young man. Trained in neuropathology by Samuel T. Orton, ~ had developed an interest in the pathology of brain tumors. He also brought in Roy R. Grinker, the son of Bailey's old teacher of neurology, Julius Grinker, as medical neurologist. Stephen Polyak was induced to come to Chicago from the University of Califor- nia, where he had recently completed the research that re- sulted in his publication Afferent Fiber Systems of the Cerebral Cortex (Berkeley: University of California Press,.1932, 370 pp.~. Bailey intended to recruit into his new department men

PERCIVAL BAILEY 13 with backgrounds in both neurochemistry ant! in neuro- physiology. At first all went well at Chicago. Bailey, together with a number of colleagues in other departments of The Univer- sity, formed a "neurology club." This group, very informal, with no dues, no bylaws ant! no officers, met monthly except cluring the summer. At each meeting one of the group pre- sentect the results of his own research, followed by a general discussion and free-swinging criticism. No notes were kept and there was no publication. In addition to Bailey, the neu- rology club included the famous physiologist Anton }. CarI- son; physiologist Arno B. Luckhardt, discoverer of the an- esthetic properties of ethylene and father of modern anesthesiology; Robert R. Bensley, heat] of the Department of Anatomy and expert on the islet cells of the pancreas; Charles Jucison Herrick, worIcl-renowned comparative neu- roanatomist and neurological philosopher; George W. Bar- telmez, embryologist, neuroanatomist, and experimental en- docrinologist; Roy R. Grinker, neuropathologist, medical neurologist, and later psychiatrist and psychoanalyst; Car} R. Moore, endocrinologist ant! chairman of the Department of Zoology; Karl S. LashIey and Heinrich Kluver, two of the worId's most distinguishes] experimental psychologists; Ralph S. I=illie, neurophysiologist; Nathaniel Kleitman, phys- iologist ant! authority on sleep; Paul Weiss, experimental neurologist later at The Rockefeller University; Ralph W. Gerard, electroneurophysiologist; Stephen Polyak, neuro- anatomist and clinical neurologist; Frederick C. Koch, bio- chemist; Paul C. Bucy, neurosurgeon; ant] A. Ear! Walker, in training in neurosurgery and studying the thalamocortical connections. It was a most stimulating group that established the scientific atmosphere for the development of the neuro- sciences, not only at The University, but in all of Chicago as well. Yet when The University of Chicago was approached

4 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS about receiving a large gift to create a neurological institute with Bailey as director, with The University to raise an equal sum of money from other sources, it informed the prospec- tive clonor that it was not interested. This seemed clear evi- clence that The University was not interested in becoming an outstanding center for the neurosciences. The Division of Neurology and Neurological Surgery, of which Bailey was head, was a hycira-heaclect monster. Bailey himself operated uncler heads of three separate depart- ments: Dallas B. Phemister, surgery; George F. Dick, medi- cine; and Frederick Schiutz, pecliatrics. Bailey found that he couIct rarely get all three men to agree about anything. On one occasion they could not even agree to accept a young man Bailey had selected for training in neurology and neu- rosurgery. When Bailey finally approached the president of The University, Robert Maynard Hutchins, and the dean of the Division of Biological Sciences, William Taliaferro, he found neither interested in cleveloping neuroscience at The University of Chicago. After years of trying, Bailey cliscontin- ued his efforts and resigned. It is not to be assumed, however, that the years Bailey spent at The University of Chicago were not fruitful. During this period! Bailey trainee! this author, who later became heact of the Division of Neurological Surgery at Northwestern Uni- versity Medical School. Another student, A. Ear} Walker be- came head of the Division of Neurological Surgery at the Johns Hopkins Mectical School, while William H. Sweet be- came professor anc! head of the Department of Neurological Surgery at Harvarc! University and the Massachusetts Gen- eral Hospital. Bailey was also largely responsible for training Clovis Vincent ant! his associates in neurosurgical techniques. Vincent was aIrea(ly a distinguishecl neurologist anct was rec- ognizecl as the father of modern neurological surgery in France. Marce} Davicl, a pupil of Vincent's and ultimately pro-

PERCIVAL BAILEY 15 fessor of neurological surgery in Paris, and Pierre Puech of Paris also worked with Bailey. Among Bailey's other distin- guishect pupils were Chisato Araki of Kyoto anct Kenji Tan- aka ant] Kentara Shimizu of Tokyo, who were to return to Japan and foster neurosurgery there. Other pupils were Cobb Pitcher, professor of neurosurgery at Vanderbilt; Sid- ney Gross, head of the Department of Neurosurgery at Mt. Sinai Hospital in New York City; Adolfo key Gracia, profes- sor of neurosurgery in Barcelona and the first neurosurgeon in Spain; Arist Stender, professor and head of the Depart- ment of Neurology and Neurological Surgery at the Free University in West Berlin; Jerzy Chorobski, professor and heat! of the Department of Neurosurgery in Warsaw; Wallace Hamby, professor of neurosurgery at the University of Buf- falo and later head of neurological surgery at the Cleveland Clinic; fess D. Hermann, head of neurosurgery at the Uni- versity of Oklahoma; John E. A. O'Connell, head of neuro- surgery at St. Bartholomew's Hospital, London; and Stephen Kornyey, professor and heat! of the Department of Neurol- ogy, Pecs, Hungary. There were many others—from Italy, Belgium, Argen- tina, and elsewhere—who later hac! distinguished careers in general surgery and who benefitted from a perioc! in Bailey's service. These included William E. Adams, professor and chairman of the Department of Surgery, The University of Chicago; Frederick E. Kredel, professor and chairman of the Department of Surgery, Medical University of South Caro- lina; and Henry Harkins, professor and head of the Depart- ment of Surgery, University of Washington, Seattle. What of research by and under Bailey at Chicago? His first major publication after arriving at Chicago was a book already starter] while he was in Boston, Blood Vessel Tumors of the Brain. In 1933, he published his classic clinical text on brain tumors, Intracranial Tumors. His many scientific papers

16 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS from this era inclucled: "Hemangiomas of the Cerebellum and Retina (Lindau's Disease)"; "Angioblastic Meningiomas"; "Intracranial Sarcomatous Tumors of Leptomeningeal Ori- gin"; "Oligodendrogliomas of the Brain"; "The Oxytocic Substance of the Cerebrospinal Fluid"; "Cavernous Heman- gioma of the Vertebrae"; "Contribution to the Study of Tu- mors in the Region of the Third Ventricle"; "Astroblastomas of the Brain"; "Origin ant! Nature of Meningeal Tumors"; duct _ _ ~ 1 _ _ ~ _ _ _ r .1_ _ '~ _ _ ~~ ~~~pongloolastomas ot the Drains; and "A Sensory Cortical Representation of the Vagus Nerve." In addition, with Bu- chanan and Bucy, he published Intracranial Tumors of Infancy and Childhood At this time A. Ear] Walker, uncler Bailey's supervision and the direction of Stephen Polyak, established the connec- tions between the various nuclei of the thalamus anti the clif- ferent parts of the cerebral cortex, published in the true cIas- sic, The Primate Thalamus (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1938. 321 pp.~. This author, also under Bailey, hac! demonstrated that abnormal involuntary movements, such as choreo-athetosis and tremor, conic! be abolished by specific destructive lesions in the brain. As a result of my work on neural control of the skeletal musculature, ~ began to for- mulate ideas that led to my demonstration that the so-called "pyramidal syndrome" floes not develop as the result of de- struction of the pyramidal tract and that the pyramidal tract can be destroyed in both man and monkey without causing paralysis. Theodore I. Case, working with equipment he built himself in Bailey's laboratories, was one of the first to dem- onstrate the changes in the electroencephalogram as the re- sult of a tumor of the brain. During the years from 1928 to 1939, while he was organ- izing neurology and neurological surgery at The University of Chicago, Bailey was actively teaching undergraduates and

PERCIVAL BAILEY 17 establishing The University Clinics as an outstanding insti- tution for the treatment of brain tumors and other neuro- logical disorders. After his resignation in 1939, Bailey accepted an appoint- ment as professor of neurology and neurological surgery at the University of Illinois, in Chicago. Here he was relieved of all administrative duties and had his own neuropatholog- ical laboratories, both for his own use anc! for the use of the many graduate students who came to him. He also taught medical students and cared for such patients as interested him, continuing the practice he had starter! at The University of Chicago, where, during the last several years, he hack en- trusted most of the neurological surgery to this author's hands. In 1937 Bailey's research interests were to take a some- what different turn. He took a leave of absence from The University of Chicago for a year and a half, going first to Belgium for several months with his old friend from Boston days Frederic Bremer, one of the leacling neurophysiologists of Europe. From there Bailey went to Yale to spend time with the noted Dutch neurophysiologist, J. G. Dusser de Barenne, for Bailey had long recognized that he could never achieve complete mastery of all phases of neurology unless he be- came involvecl in neurophysiology. At the University of Illi- nois he induced Eric Oldberg, head of the Department of Neurology and Neurological Surgery, to engage Warren S. McCulloch, a pupil of Dusser cle Barenne's at Yale, to take charge of the experimental neurophysiological laboratories in the new Illinois Neuropsychiatric Institute. In this labo- ratory, Bailey, McCulloch, Hugh Garol, and Gerhardt van Bonin investigated the cortico-cortical connections in the brain and the functions of these in monkeys and apes. After a few years McCulloch left Illinois to go to the Massachusetts

18 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Institute of Technology and was succeedect by Ralph Gerard, who became director of the neurophysiological laboratories for a short time. Bailey hac! serious doubts about whether the minute par- celIation of the cerebral cortex Cecile and Oskar Vogt and their pupils had described was either accurate or meaningful. Collaborating with Gerhardt von Bonin, professor of neu- roanatomy at the University of Illinois, he concluded that only major cytoarchitectonic areas in the cerebral cortex couIct be clocumentecI. From these studies came two books, The Neocortex of Macaca Mulatta (1947) and The Isocortex of Man (19511. Bailey conclucted some investigations on the physiology of the midbrain with Eclward W. Davis, but prob- ably the most significant of his studies at that time were macle with Frederick A. Gibbs on temporal lobe epilepsy. After the new Illinois Neuropsychiatric Institute was opened ant! Bailey's laboratory establishect, graduate stu- dents from all over the worm came to work with him. Some of these, like John R. Green, director of the Barrow Neuro- logical Institute in Phoenix, Arizona, took their residency training in neurological surgery at the University of Illinois. Others came to work with Bailey for only a few months, or a few years. Among these were Car] Graf, professor of neu- rosurgery at the University of Iowa; CarIos Oliveras de la Riva, professor of neurology, Barcelona, Spain; B. Gripo- nissiotis, professor of neurosurgery, Thessaloniki, Greece; H. R. Oberhill, associate professor of surgery (neurosur- gery), Northwestern University; Ruclolf Petr, professor of neurosurgery, Hradec Kralove, Czechoslovakia; Roman Ar- ana Iniguez, director of the Neurological Institute, Monte- vicleo, Uruguay; Joseph G. Chusict, associate clinical pro- fessor of neurology, Columbia University; F. E. NuIsen, professor ant! head of the Department of Neurological Sur- gery, Case Western Reserve University, Clevelancl; John D.

PERCIVAL BAILEY 19 French, director of the Brain Research Institute, University of California, Los Angeles; Oscar Sugar, professor and heacl of the Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Il- linois, Chicago; lose G. Albernaz, professor and head of the Department of Neurology and Neurological Surgery, Uni- versity of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil; Bernard Per- tuisset, professor of neurological surgery, Paris; OrIanclo Andy, professor and heat! of the Department of Neurosur- gery, University of Mississippi. Bailey was also the editor for ten years (1946-1956) of the neurosurgical section of The Year Book of Neurology, Psy- chiatry and Neurosurgery He participated in the translation of his books Intracranial Tumors and Tumors of the Glioma Group into several cli~erent languages and in the publication of new editions of Intracranial Tumors anct Intracranial Tumors of In- fancy and Childhood He became very interested! in the possi- bility of stereotactic surgery in man but realized that such operations could not be performed satisfactorily without an accurate atlas of the human brain. Bailey recognizes! the practically insuperable difficulty of obtaining suitable fresh specimens of human brains in the United States. He securect the cooperation of an oIct friend from Boston days, Georg Schaltenbrand, who was professor of neurology at the Uni- versity of Wurzburg, in Germany. Schaltenbrand was able to obtain one huncirec! and eleven brains and have them prop- erly fixed, sectioned in various planes, stainecl, and photo- graphed. The result was Introduction to Stereotaxis with an Atlas of the Human Brain, publisher! in three volumes (Stuttgart: G. Thieme, 1959~. This atlas was promptly accepted because of its accuracy ant! the excellence of the photographs of the brain. But Bailey's interest in neurology ant! neurological sur- gery was lagging, ant! he returned to a former interest- psychiatry. Bailey had long been interested in the relation-

20 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS ship of the brain to human mentation and human behavior ant! was convinced that many psychiatric problems resulted from organic disturbances in the structure ant! functioning of the brain. He was also convinces! that psychiatry tract been "lect down the primrose path" by Sigmunc! Freud and that psychoanalysis was the principal stumbling block in the way of scientific progress in psychiatry. In Sigmund the Unserene ~ ~ 965), he wrote: My animus is not directed toward Freud. My animus is directed toward the overweening, hypertrophied and distorted influence which his move- ment has attained in these United States, as he foresaw and feared. In this way, it has, in my opinion, done great damage to psychiatry, as well as to our civilization in general.... (p. xiii) There is no conclusive evidence that, as a method of therapy, psychoanaly- sis is more elective than others, and it is costly beyond its merits; as a philosophy it is chaotic, contradictory and circular; as a science it is unes- tablished; and as a religion it is inadequate. (p. 103) When, in 195 I, he was offerer! positions as director of the Illinois Neuropsychiatric Institute, research and educational consultant to the Illinois Department of Public Welfare, ant] director of the Illinois State Psychopathic Institute, Bailey saw the opportunity to do something for psychiatry. In these positions he had the onerous responsibility of visiting and reporting on the care of patients in various state psychiatric hospitals in Illinois. He was also the advisor to the governor of Illinois in psychiatric matters. He very shortly realized that no worthy psychiatric research existed in Illinois, that there was no psychiatric training in state institutions, that state in- stitutions were very unclerstaffect, and that what staff there was were poorly trained. He also noted that care of patients in the Illinois state psychiatric institutions was woefully in- adequate. He also recognizes! that, even if better-traine(1 per- sonne] were available in sufficient numbers for these state

PERCIVAL BAILEY 21 institutions, therapeutic knowledge in psychiatry was so ter- ribly deficient that they would not be able to do much for these unfortunate patients. Adequate, effective therapy is de- penclent upon understancting the cause of disease and its pathology. This information was, and in large measure still is, sorely lacking. Bailey learned that over $8 million was lying unused in the treasury of the state of Illinois, money that had been paid over the years by patients' relatives for their care. Under the laws of the state this money could only be used to improve the care of patients in the state psychiatric institutions, yet surprisingly, up until this time, no one had had the imagi- nation necessary to use it. Bailey was able to convince Gov- ernor AcIlai Stevenson and the state legislature to use these funcis to create and maintain an Illinois Psychiatric Training and Research Authority, which was modeler! after the Na- tional Institute of Mental Health. Its purpose was to support psychiatric training and research within the state. Bailey was named executive (Erector of this Authority. As long as Bailey was in good health and able to protect it from politicians eager to control it, it continued to function in an exemplary fashion. At the same time that the Authority was created, Bailey convinced the governor and the legislature of Illinois to build the Illinois State Psychiatric Institute in Chicago. This insti- tute of 500 becis was to be organized and staffer! by the five medical schools in Chicago. It housed patients and facilities for research for the training of young psychiatrists, primarily for the staffs of the other state psychiatric institutions. Bailey was named director of research at the new institute (1958- 19671. In 1964 he was also appointed director, Division of Research Services, Department of Mental Health, State of Illinois, a position he held until 1967. It would be toying with the facts not to report the failure of these efforts to improve

22 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS psychiatry and psychiatric patient care in the state of Illinois, a great disappointment to Bailey. He did not accomplish what he had envisioned, but he dicl do much to stimulate a re- evaluation of psychiatric concepts and what passer! for psy- chiatric knowledge and to reorient psychiatry in the direction of science. Bailey also "took oh" after Freud, believing that Freud's deification and the conversion of psychoanalysis into a reli- gious creed to be accepted! on faith- was a roadblock to the proper unclerstancling and effective treatment of psychiatric ctisorclers. He explorer! Freuct's writings in the original Ger- man, reading ant} citing 3 IS articles—26 by Freud himself in the Norman Wait Harris Lectures cleliverec3 at Northwest- ern University in April 1963 and in his book Sigmund the Unserene: A Tragedy in Three Acts Springfield, 111.: Charles C Thomas, 1965), later translated into French under the title Sigmund le Tourmente. Bailey says in his introduction to this book (p. xi), "To- clay no intelligent man can avoid coming to grips with his EFreud's] powerful, more baneful than beneficial, influence." It is not to be supposed that the pernicious influence of the Freudian doctrine was limited to the understancling anct practice of psychiatry. As Alajouanine, professor of neurol- ogy at the University of Paris, says in the preface to Sigmund le Tourmente, "Dens les spheres intellectuelles, beaucoup croient avoir trouve clans les conceptions freudiennes une psychologie nouvelle qui va permettre de penetrer dans les profondeurs do l'inconscient et, ale la, pour certains, va stedi- fier une philosophic de la vie et une interpretation du monde basee sur la metapsychologie de Freud. Dans le Romaine lit- teraire, le reman, le theatre, la critique et meme l'histoire vent de plus en plus largement impregnes (le concepts tires des doctrines freudiennes." Bailey's psychiatric friends and teachers in Paris tract been

PERCIVAL BAILEY 23 impressed that Freud was little concerned with fact and quite prepared to accept as fact the fanciful, often imaginary, fre- quently inaccurate statements of his neurotic and psycholog- ically disturbed patients. This was not only apparent to these men—many of whom had come to know Freud during his stay in Jean Martin Charcot's clinic (October 13, 1885, to Feb- ruary 28, 1886)—but was also known from Freud's own writ- ings. Freud states in his autobiography (1952) in referring to "childhood scenes" that his patients related to him, "I be- lieved these stories, and consequently, supposed that ~ had discovered the roots of the subsequent neurosis ... when, however, ~ was at last obliged to recognize that these scenes of seduction had never taken place, and that they were only phantasies which my patients had made up, or which ~ myself had perhaps forced upon them." as quoted in Sigmund the Unserene, p. 19. It is not to be supposed that Bailey's lectures or books about Freud abolished his "baneful influence" on psychiatry, literature, and thought, but it is fair to say that Bailey's efforts in the field of psychiatry were a major force in diverting psy- chiatric thinking back into scientific channels. Bailey was un- happy with what he had been able to do in psychiatry, just as he had been unhappy years before with the failure of his efforts to bring neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, neuro- chemistry, neuropathology, medical neurology, and neuro- logical surgery together into one discipline in our universi- ties. Bailey was ahead of his time. Bailey was a scientist—a seeker after truth by the estab- lishment of facts and intolerant of dishonesty. On one occa- sion ~ was in his office when he was reading a scientific article in which a distinguished neuroanatomist described intracel- lular inclusions he was attempting to correlate with certain functional activities. A puzzled look came over Bailey's face and he reached in his desk for a magnifying glass to examine

24 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS the photomicrograph carefully. Finally, he straightened up and said, "That photomicrograph has been retouched." Bai- ley promptly wrote to the author, whom he knew well, asking if the photomicrograph had been retouched. Receiving a let- ter back saying that it had not, Bailey concluded: "He has lied," and he never referred favorably to that man again. So far as ~ know he never saw him, spoke to him, or corre- sponded with him. Yet, on another plane, one of Bailey's favorite quotations was from Mark Twain, that one should never spoil a good story by telling the absolute truth. Bailey was a delightful raconteur, and the reader is well advised to refer to Up From Little Egypt. To one who heard and enjoyed these stories on many occasions, it was obvious that, from time to time, the stories varied and one could never be sure of the "absolute truth." Yet Bailey's intense striving for scientific truth in himself and in others led at times to difficulties. He was not popular with many of his contemporaries and was feared because he was so blunt and outspoken. Early in his career he attended a meeting of the American Neurological Association with his chief, Harvey Cushing. He sat near the front of the room. Three prominent members from New York City gave papers. First Frederick Tilney presented a paper on the pituitary gland, a subject with which Bailey was very familiar. When Tilney sat down, Bailey (not yet a member) rose to his feet to say that he die! not believe what had been said. Shortly there- after, Walter Timme gave a paper on the pineal body, which in Bailey's opinion was even worse than the first. He got up a second time to say so. The third paper was by Smith Ely Teliffe, who reported that he had "cured" a boy with a sar- coma of the thigh with psychoanalysis. Bailey promptly rose to his feet a third time, but felt a tap on his shoulder. Harvey Cushing beckoned him out of the room, and when they got

PERCIVAL BAILEY 25 to the hallway, said to him agitatedly, "What are you trying to do? Ruin your career? You will never become a member of this organization if you keep this up. Those three men are the most influential members of the American Neurological Association." Bailey subsided for the moment, but it would be an exaggeration to say that he, too, had been "cured." Bailey loved his family—his wife Yevnige, his daughter, Irene, and his son, Norman. During the last several years of his life, Yevnige devoted almost every hour of her life to his care. In her own right Yevnige was a distinguished musician, yet she subjugated her talent and interests to being Percival Bailey's companion and helpmate. This did not go unappre- ciated. On many occasions Bailey spoke of how fortunate he had been to have her as his wife. Following his marriage on October 25, 1923, one of Bai- ley's principal interests was the Armenian people and their history. For many years he longed to go with his wife to visit Armenia, a state in the Soviet Union bordering on Turkey. One attempt was frustrated at the Yugoslav border. Finally, he received an invitation from the Armenian Academy of Science to lecture at the All Soviet Physiological Congress in Yerevan, the capital of Armenia. This was the opportunity for which Percy and Yevnige had been waiting, and the trip proved to be all they had anticipated. Not only did Bailey lecture at the Congress, but he and his wife also took advan- tage of the opportunity to visit historical sites and other parts of the country. In acidition to his immediate family, Bailey had a second family those who had trained with him. Without exception these men, whether they had spent a few weeks, months, or many years under his tutelage, greatly admired and re- spected him. Bailey never tried to take credit for the work of his associates, as heads of other departments not infrequently do. He was always generous with his time and would help his

26 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS men with their investigations, spenct hours with them over the microscope, and help them with their writing. He was always available to discuss personal problems and to advise about many matters, particularly about plans for the future. If he thought that one of his men was considering a position that offerect less opportunity than the man deserved, he saic! so. He was careful in his letters of reference and recommen- dation, lavish with praise when it was deservect, but never misleading. He taught his men in two ways—by his own ex- ample and by giving them the opportunity to find out for themselves. Perhaps more than anyone else who was associated with him, ~ hac! the opportunity to see and appreciate all of these things. We were associated closely from the late summer of 1928 until his death in 1973. ~ was particularly privileged in this respect. For years we shared the same office, with our desks on opposite sides of the same room. Although our ages were not very different he was twelve years older than ~ our relationship at first was more that of father and son. Later our relationship became that of two brothers. In ad- dition to being generous with his time and his knowledge, he was also at times generous with his money. His salary at The University of Chicago was always minimal. Yet on one occa- sion, when he was unable to obtain the agreement of the three department hearts under whom he was supposed to work regarding the selection of a new resident and the pay- ment of his salary, Bailey took the money from his own small salary to pay the man. Bailey, in addition to being an excellent raconteur, wrote well of subjects other than science and medicine. He was a popular dinner guest at many fraternities and was invited to many student meetings. His tales of his life in Paris were enthusiastically welcomed throughout the campus. For many years he was a member of the Chicago Literary Club, of

PERCIVAL BAILEY 27 which he was president from 1954 to 1955. The Club met every Monday night, except during the summer months. Bai- ley attencle(1 religiously and presented papers on many oc- casions. The quality of the papers and the enjoyment of the hearers could be judges! by the size of the audiences. When Bailey spoke, the club rooms were crowdecI. Bailey's literary abilities are further evidenced in Up From Little Egypt, a col- lection of autobiographical vignettes. It is not an autobiog- raphy, nor was one ever written. Fond of quoting Mark Twain, he was often heard to remark, "As Mark Twain saicI, 'if no man ever yet told the truth about himself, it was because no one ever could."' Politically Bailey was a liberal and a Democrat. It is not surprising then that he often found fault with the American Medical Association and what it ctict and what it clid not do. It was once pointer! out to him that the policies and actions of the Association could not be changed unless men like him- self were willing to participate actively in its affairs. He re- plied, "How could ~ possibly have anything to say which would influence the American Medical Association?" It was pointed out to him that it would be a simple matter to get him elected to the House of Delegates of the Association ant] that once there he could exert his influence. He was dubious but agreed to serve if elected. He was elected as the delegate of the Section on Nervous and Mental Diseases, a fact which he omitted from his curriculum vitae, though he clid list his chairmanship of the Section on Nervous and Mental Diseases (19444. After one term as delegate, he had tract all he wanted of medical politics ant! refused to be reelected. One term, however, gave him little opportunity to influence the course of the Association. As the director of the National Institute for Neurological and Communicative Disorders anct Strokes (NINCDS) in- formed me, Bailey was never appointed to a position of im-

28 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS portance in the National Institutes of Health because the FB! clisapprovecl of his liberal ideas. No greater error of judg- ment could have been macle. Bailey was a dyocI-in-the-woo] Midwesterner, loyal to the United States and proud] of his country. Even more important, he couic3 have maple valuable contributions to NTH and to the NINCDS. Percival Bailey's neurological interests were broad and included neuroanatomy, neuropathology, neurophysiology, medical neurology, neurological surgery, and psychiatry. In the United States he was elected! president of the leading neurological ant! neurosurgical societies—the American Neurological Association ant! the Society of Neurological Surgeons. He also held honorary membership in some twenty-five foreign medical and scientific societies. He was frequently invited to speak anti cleliverect, among others, the Hughlings Jackson Lecture of the Montreal Neurological In- stitute and the Otfric! Foerster Lecture of the German Neu- rosurgical Society. He served as visiting professor at many universities, both in this country anct abroad. He was macle an Honorary Doctor of Science by two of his alma maters' Southern Illinois University and The University of Chicago. The honor of which he was most Proust was docteur honoris causa de I'Universite de Paris, bestowed on him in 1949. His other numerous degrees, honors, and society memberships are listec! at the end of this memoir. Throughout the worIc! Bailey was recognizes] as the man with the broadest grasp of the nervous system. In every part of the field, he was Mr. Neurology. Bailey's international recognition as an outstanding teacher, scientist, ant! neurosurgeon is well illustrated by a quotation from Clovis Vincent, professor of neurological sur- gery in Paris. In his inaugural lecture, Vincent paict the fol- lowing tribute to his frienct and colleague: .

PERCIVAL BAILEY 29 Bailey est mon ami. Grace a lui, en quelque jours, j'ai compris la neuro- chirurgie america~ne; grace a lui je n'en al pas vu settlement le dessus, mais aussi le dessous. A lui, j'ai pu poser des questions auxquelles il a repondu avec conscience et amitie, comme quelqu'un qui vent vous apprendre quel- que chose. On pent dire que Bailey a ete le trait Bunion entre la neuro- . . . . . ch~rurg~e amer~ca~ne et mob. During the last few years of his life, Bailey suffered from two distressing illnesses. Neither the cause nor an effective treatment was ever found for either. Without warning he would have recurring bouts of chills ant! fever and, on oc- casion, would become delirious spells that wouIc! last for days and incapacitate him. The possibility that this might rep- resent an obscure form of malaria was consiclered but never proved. Quinine, for a short time, seemed to help, but it soon became apparent that this optimism was false. From time to time he also suffered from severe anc! extremely painful sto- matitis. This would last for days, or even for a week or two. Here again the cause remained obscure anct no treatment proved effective. Another disability that plagued Bailey greatly was the loss of all useful vision in one eye and some blurring in the other, the result of a retinal degeneration. For a man who had spent a good share of his life at a binocular microscope, this was a severe blow. It greatly impaired his ability to continue with his pathological stuclies, although he still had an eagle eve for details that escaped many others. , ~ , In February of 1967, a real tragedy struck. It was a cold, windy, icy day in Chicago, and Bailey went to his office at the Illinois State Psychiatric Institute by taxicab. As he was walk- ing from the cab to the builcling, he slipped on the ice and fell. He hac! some pain in his hip but did not believe that he hac! been seriously hurt. He remained at work, but when he returned home late in the afternoon he was so confused that

30 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS he could not tell Yevnige what had happenecl. She was not aware that he tract fallen or had pain in his hip, only that he was incoherent. She took him to the hospital, anc! for clays his physicians despaired of his life. It was not until a week after the accident that he became able to tell his wife and his physicians about the pain in his hip. X-ray examination then revealed that he had impacted the head of his femur into the pelvis, but his general concli- tion was too poor to permit any attempt to reduce this fracture-disIocation. The joint ultimately became ankylosed, ant! when he was better, the disability with his hip greatly limited his ability to get about. For the rest of his life, this hip was his greatest burden. Slowly he improved. At first he was able to move only with the help of his wife, who spent every moment, awake or asleep, with him. Later he mastered the use of two crutches and finally was able to get out of his house for short periods. Fortunately he remained alert and intensely interested in everything. For several years he welcomecI my neurosurgical residents from Northwestern University to his home for an evening. On these occasions he wouIct entertain them for hours about his own experiences, with vignettes from neu- rosurgical history, or with tales about such outstanding fig- ures as Harvey Cushing or Pierre Marie. It was also during this perioc! of enforced inactivity that he compilecI autobio- graphical sketches into a book, Up From Little Egypt. One chapter is missing from that book. "Pepper Pot" is about Harvey Cushing and Bailey's associations with him and was deliverer! before the Chicago Literary Club.2 With his usual candor and consideration, Bailey sent a copy of "Pep- per Pot" to Cushing's (daughters, asking their approval for its publication. To his surprise he got back a letter threatening 2 A text can be found in the Club's archives at The Newberry Library, Chicago.

PERCIVAL BAILEY 31 him with a lawsuit if it were ever published. Advised by sev- eral distinguishecl legal friends that such a suit could never succeed, Bailey yet elected not to publish "Pepper Pot." As he said, "They have much more money than ~ do." During the six years from 1967 until his death in 1973 (ages seventy-five to eighty-one), his greatest burden was his enforced inactivity and his (lepenclence on his loving wife. There were market] fluctuations in his condition cluring this period, but the general level of his mental and physical health remained about the same. But in June of 1973 he became persistently less alert, at times confused, at others lethargic. The overall trend was now definitely (lownhill until August 10, 1973, when he became confused, then semicomatose, and died within a couple of hours. The worIcl ha(1 lost one of its most outstanding men a man of catholic interests, both general and scientific a truly renaissance man, the likes of which we shall probably never see again. And ~ lost a close personal friend and second fa- ther.

32 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 1916 Morphology of the roofplate of the forebrain and the lateral cho- roid plexuses in the human embryo. I. Comp. Neurol., 26:79. The morphology and morphogenesis of the choroid plexuses, with especial reference to the development of the lateral telence- phalic plexus in chrysemys marginata. I. Comp. Neurol., 26:507. 1919 A case of thoracic stomach. Anat. Rec., 17:107. 1920 Cruveilhier's "tumeurs perles." Surg. Gynecol. Obstet., 31:390. Contribution to the histopathology of "pseudo-tumor cerebri." Arch. Neurol. Psychiatry, 4:401. 1921 Concerning the clinical classification of intracranial tumors. Arch. Neurol. Psychiatry, 5:418. With G. B. Hassin and Stangl. Two cases of atypical epidemic (le- thargic) encephalitis with a histopathologic report. J. Nerv. Ment. Dis., 53:217. With F. Bremer. Experimental diabetes insipidus and adiposogen- ital dystrophy. Endocrinology, 5:761. With F. Bremer. Experimental diabetes insipidus. Arch. Intern. Med., 28:773. Cytological observations on the pars buccalis of the hypophysis cer- ebri of man, normal and pathological. {. Med. Res., 42:349. Note concerning keratin and keratohyalin in tumors of the hypo- physial duct. Ann. Surg., 74:501. 1922 With H. C. Stevens. The nature and treatment of muscular dystro- phy. J. Lab. Clin. Med., 7:746-50. With F. Bremer. Recherches experimentales sur le diabete insipide et le syndrome adiposogenitale. C. R. Seances Soc. Biol. Paris, May 6, 1922:925.

PERCIVAL BAILEY 33 With P. Marie. Degenerescence combinee subaigue de la moelle. Rev. Neurol., 38: 305-6. With P. Marie and H. Bouttier. La Planotopokinesie. Etude sur les erreurs d'execution de certains mouvements dans leurs rap- ports avec la representation spatiale. Rev. Neurol., 38:505. With P. Marie and H. Bouttier. A propos de fan's decrits sons le nom d'apraxie ideomotrice. Rev. Neurol., 38:973. With P. Marie and H. Bouttier. Les supino-reflexes du membre superieur. Rev. Neurol., 38:451-2. Concerning the microscopic evidence of hypophysial secretion. (Discussion.) Rev. Neurol., 38:638-9. Die funktion der hypophysis cerebri. Ergeb. Physiol., 20:163. 1923 Recent developments in electrodiagnosis. Arch. Neurol. Psychiatry, 9:436. A new principle applied to the staining of the fibrillary neuroglia. ~. Med. Res., 44:73. With S. B. Wolbach. The histology of tumors of the cerebrum and cerebellum. i. Med. Res., 44:194-206. 1924 A study of tumors arising from ependymal cells. Arch. Neurol. Psychiatry, 11:1. Concerning the cerebellar symptoms produced by suprasellar tu- mors. Arch. Neurol. Psychiatry, 11:137. Further observations on pearly tumors. Arch. Surg., 8:524. With G. Hiller. The interstitial tissues of the central nervous sys- tem: A review. J. Nerv. Ment. Dis., 59:337. A contribution to the study of aphasia and apraxia. Arch. Neurol. Psychiatry, 11:501. A progressive staining method for mitochondria. }. Med. Res., 44:535-38. 1925 Sur un cas de myokymie. Rev. Neurol., T.1, No. 1, {an. 1925. The results of roentgen therapy on brain tumors. Am. J. Roent- genol. Radium Ther., 13:48.

34 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS With L. Davidoff. Concerning the microscopic structure of the hy- pophysis cerebri in acromegaly. Am. J. Pathol., 1: 185. With Horrax. Tumors of the pineal body. Arch. Neurol. Psychiatry, 13:433. With H. Cushing. Microchemical color reactions as an aid to the identification and classification of brain tumors. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 11:82. With H. Cushing. Medulloblastoma cerebelli. Arch. Neurol. Psy- chiatry, 14:192. Concerning the results of sympathectomy. (Discussion.) Arch. Neu- rol. Psychiatry, 13:641. With Dott. Hypophysial adenomata. Br. l. Surg., 13:314-66. Quelques nouvelles observations de tumeurs ependymaires. Ann. Anat. Pathol. Anat. Norm. Med. Chir., 2:481-512. With H. Cushing. Tumors of the Glioma Group. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott. 175 pp. 1927 Some remarks concerning the platinum chloride method of W. Ford Robertson for the "mesoglia." Arch. Neurol. Psychiatry, 17:420-22. The syndrome of mental automatism and its role in the formation of the chronic systematized psychoses. J. Nerv. Ment. Dis., 65:345-59. Further remarks concerning tumors of the glioma group. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp., 40:354-90. With G. Schaltenbrand. Die mukose degeneration der oligoden- droglia. Dtsch. Z. Nervenheilkd., 97:231-37. With G. Schaltenbrand. Anatomy, physiology and pathology of the perivascular pia-glia membrane of the brain. Trans. Am. Neu- rol. Assoc., 279-380. Sobre el diagnostico de los tumores intracraneales. Rev. Medica Barcelona, 8:506-21. Histologic atlas of gliomas. Arch. Path. Lab. Med., 4:871-921. 1928 The structure of the hypophysis cerebri of man and of the com- mon laboratory mammals. In: Special Cytology, ed. W. Penfield, vol. 1, pp. 485-99. N.Y.: Hoeber.

PERCIVAL BAILEY 35 The psychology of human conduct: A review. Am. J. Psychiatry, 8:209-34. With Horrax. Pineal pathology: Further studies. Arch. Neurol. Psychiatry, 19:394-415. With H. Cushing. The microscopic structure of the adenomas in aeromegalic dyspituitarism. Am. I. Pathol., 4:545-65. With H. Cushing. Blood Vessel Tumors of the Brain. Springfield, Ill.: Charles C Thomas. 219 pp. With Schaltenbrand. Die perivasculare pia-glia membran des ge- hirns. I. Psychol. Neurol., 35:199-278. With Sosman and Van Dessel. Roentgen therapy of gliomas of the brain. Am. I. Roentgenol Radium Ther., 1 9:203 -365 . With Murray. A Case of pinealoma with symptoms suggestive of compulsion neurosis. Arch. Neurol. Psychiatry, 19:932-45. With H. Cushing. Hemangiomas of cerebellum and retina (Lin- dau's disease) with report of a case. Arch. Ophthalmol.,57:447- 63. Tumors in the region of the third ventricle. Bull. N. Y. Acad. Med.. 4:646-55. With H. Cushing and Eisenhardt. Angioblastic Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med., 6:953-90. . . menlnglomas. A propos des remarques de M. G. Roussy sur la classification des gliomes. Rev. Neurol., 11:684-86. Metastatic tumor in the left third frontal convolution without aphasia. Arch. Neurol. Psychiatry, 20:1359-61. 1929 Intracranial sarcomatous tumors of leptomeningeal origin. Arch. Surg., 18: 1359-1402. Wounds of the superior longitudinal sinus. Surg. Clin. North Am., 9:395-405. With P. Bucy. Oligodendrogliomas of the brain: Preliminary note. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med., 7:939-40. Remarks concerning tumors in the region of the third ventricle. Arch. Neurol. Psychiatry, 22:837-38. With Van Dyke and P. Bucy. The oxytocic substance of the cere- brospinalfluid. I. Pharmacol. Exp.Ther., 36:595-610. With Bagdassar. Intracranial chordoblastomas. Am. I. Pathol., 5:439-49.

36 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Tumor of septum lucidum and corpus callosum causing apraxia. Arch. Neurol. Psychiatry, 22:614-16. With P. Bucy. Cavernous hemangioma of the vertebrae. }. Am. Med. Assoc., 92: 1748-51. With Fulton. Contribution to the study of tumors in the region of the third ventricle: Their diagnosis and relation to pathological sleep. J. Nerv. Ment. Dis., 69:1-25, 145-65, 261-77. With P. Bucy. Oligodendrogliomas of the brain. l. Pathol. Bacte- riol.,32:735-51. (Reprinted in Nenrosurgi~cal Classics. New York: Johnson Reprint Corporation, 1965.) Zur diagnose und therapie intrakranieller tumoren. Wien. Med. Wochenschr., 79:505-97. The relationship of the structure of intracranial tumors to their biological activity. Cincinnati J. Med., 10:276 -79. Apropos d'une forme speciale de meningiome angioblastique. }. Neurol. Psych., 29:577 - 81. 1930 Further notes on the cerebellar medulloblastomas: The effect of roentgen radiation. Am. }. Pathol., 6:125-37. With P. Bucy. Astroblastomas of the brain. Acta Neurol. Psychiatr. Scand., 5 :439-61. Tumors in the spinal canal. Surg. Clin. North Am., 10:233-57. With H. Cushing. Die Gewebs-Verschiedenheit der Hirngliome and ibre Bedeutungfur die Prognose. Berlin: Fischer. 1931 Neuralgias of the cranial nerves. Surg. Clin. North Am., 2:61-77. With P. Bucy. Origin and nature of meningeal tumors. Am. J. Can- cer, 1:15-54. 1932 Histologic diagnosis of brain tumors. Arch. Neurol. Psychiatry, 1290-97. Cellular types in primary tumors of the brain. In: Cytology of the Nervous System, vol. 3, pp. 905-51. N. Y: Hoeber. Tumors of the hypophysis cerebri. In: Cytology of the Nervous System, vol. 3, pp. 1133-44. N.Y.: Hoeber.

PERCIVAL BAILEY 37 The pineal body. In: Special Cytology, vol. 2, pp. 791-96. N.Y.: Hoe- ber. With Eisenhardt. Spongioblastomas of the brain. I. Comp. Neurol., 56:391-430. Headrest for exposure of the cerebellum. l. Am. Med. Assoc. 98:1643. 1933 Intracranial Tumors. Springfield, Ill.: Charles C Thomas. 475 pp. 1934 Tumors of the spinal cord and peripheral nervous system. In: Neu- rology, ed. I. Grinker, pp. 229-54. Springfield, Ill.: Charles C Thomas. Instrument for hemostasis in craniotomies. I. Am. Med. Assoc., 103:562-63. The training of the neurologist. l. Nerv. Ment. Dis., 80:377-85. With Ley. Estudio anatomo-cl~nico de un cave de occurencia si- multanea de dos tumores (glioma y sarcoma) en el hemisferio cerebral de un nino. Arch. Neurobiol., 14: 1-18. Simultaneous occurrences of two tumors (glioma and sarcoma) in the cerebral hemisphere of a child. Trans. Pathol. Soc. Chicago, 14: 182-83. 1935 With Cid. Sobre el origen y estructura del glioblastoma multi- forme. Prensa Med. Argent., 22:215-30. Concerning diffuse pontine gliomas in childhood. Acta Neuro- pathol. Estoniana, 60:199-214. Osteoma of the frontal sinus. Trans. Pathol. Soc. Chicago, 14:249- 50. 1936 Variation in shape of the lateral cerebral ventricles due to differ- ences in the shape of the head. Arch. Neurol. Psychiatry, 35:932. Die Hirngeschwiilste. Stuttgart: Enke. 415 pp. The relationship of the pathologist to the clinic. (Presidential ad- dress.) Trans. Pathol. Soc. Chicago, 14:289-93.

38 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Tumors of the nervous system in infancy and childhood. In: Brenneman's Pediatrics, vol. 4, pp. 28. Hagerstown, Md.: Prior. With Foerster. A contribution to the study of gliomas of the spinal cord with special reference to their operability ~ Jubilee Volume of Dawidenkow), pp. 9-67. Leningrad: State Institute for the Publication of Biological and Medical Literature. 1937 Un nouveau precede d'exerese des tumeurs de l'acoustique. I. Chir. Ann. Soc. Beige Chir., 8:563-65. 1938 With Brunschwig. Erfahrungen mit der Roentgenbehandlung der Hirngliome. Z. Gesamte Neurol. Psychiatr., 161:214-17. With Hermann. The role of the cells of Schwann in the formation of tumors of the peripheral nerves. Am. I. Pathol., 41: 1-38. With Marie-Louise Ectors. Particularites des tumeurs intracran- iennes chez ltenfant. Bruxelles-Med., 38:1-13. With Bremer. A sensory cortical representation of the vagus nerve. With a note on the effects of low blood pressure on the cortical electrogram. J. Neurophysiol., 1 :405-12. With Leon Ectors. Les indications operatoires dans la chirurgie des tumeurs cerebrates. Rev. Neurol, 2:459-70. A review of modern conceptions of the structure and classification of tumors derived from the medullary epithelium. I. Beige Neurol. Psychiatr., 38:759-82. 1939 With Buchanan and P. Bucy. Ueber die Behandlung intrakranieller tumoren im Kindesalter. Nervenarzt., 12: 1-9. Concerning the technic of operation for acoustic neurinoma. Zen- tralbl. Neurochir., 4: 1-5. With Buchanan and P. Bucy. Intracranial Tumors of Infancy and Child- hood. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press. 598 pp. With P. Bucy and Tanaka. Concerning the treatment of intracranial tumors in infancy and childhood. Arch. Jpn. Chir., 16:378- 413.

PERCIVAL BAILEY 39 1940 Tumors involving the hypothalamus and their clinical manifesta- tions. Res. Publ. Assoc. Res. Nerv. Ment. Dis., 20:713-24. With Dusser de Barenne, Garol, and McCulloch. Sensory cortex of the chimpanzee. Am. J. Physiol., 129:303 -4. With W. H. Sweet. Effects on respiration, blood-pressure and gas- tric motility of stimulation of the orbital surface of the frontal lobe. J. Neurophysiol., 3:276-81. Indications for the surgical treatment of intracranial tumor. South. Surgeon, 9:539-52. With Haynes. Location of the respiratory inhibitory center in the cerebral cortex of the dog. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 45:686- 87. With Dusser de Barenne, Garol, and McCulloch. Sensory cortex of the chimpanzee. I. Neurophysiol., 3 :469-85. 1941 With Sweet. Experimental production of intracranial tumors in the white rat. Arch. Neurol. Psychiatry, 45:1(~47-49. With Garol and McCulloch. Cortical origin and distribution of cor- pus callosum and anterior commissure in the chimpanzee (Pan satyrus). J. Neurophysiol., 4:564-71. With Garol and McCulloch. Functional organization and inter- relation of cerebral hemispheres in the chimpanzee. Am. i. Physiol., 133:200. 1942 With McCulloch, Garol, and Bonin. The functional organization of the temporal lobe. Anat. Rec., 82:38-39. Differential diagnosis and treatment of pains about the head. Fort- night. Rev., 3: 13-18. The present state of American neurology. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol., 1: 111-17. Reflections aroused by an unusual tumor of the cerebellum. l. Mt. Sinai Hosp. NY, 9:299-311. Differential diagnosis of pontine tumors. I. Pediatr., 20:386-90. Sarcoma of the temporal lobe associated with abscess and invading

40 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS the subcutaneous extracranial tissues. l. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol., 1:442-44. 1943 With Davis. Effects of lesions of the periaqueductal gray matter in the cat. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 51:305-7. With Davis. The syndrome of obstinate progression in the cat. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 51:307-9. With Bonin and McCulloch. Long association fibers in the cerebral hemispheres of the monkey and chimpanzee. I. Neurophysiol., 6: 129-34. With Bonin, Garol, and McCulloch. The functional organizations of the temporal lobe of the monkey (Macaca mulatto) and chim- panzee (Pan satyrus). ]. Neurophysiol., 6: 121-28. With Davis. A modification of the Horsley-Clarke stereotaxic ap- paratus. I. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol., 2:99-101. With Bonin, David, et al. Functional organization of the medial aspect of the primate cortex. Anat. Rec., 85:296. 1944 The relationship of the motor cortex to the cerebellum. In: The Precentral Motor Cortex, pp. 279 - 91. Urbana, Ill.: Univ. of Ill~- nois Press. Psychiatry: Its relation to general surgery. In: Psychiatry and the War, pp. 38-50. Springfield, Ill.: Charles C Thomas. With Davis. Effects of lesions of the periaqueductal gray matter on the Macaca mulatto. ]. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol., 3:69-72. With Davis and Shimizu. Effects of implantation of methylcholan- threne in the brain of the dog. J. Neuropathol., 3: 184-88. With Bonin, Garol, McCulloch, Roseman, and Silveira. Functional organization of the medial aspect of the primate brain. }. Neu- rophysiol., 7:51-57. With Bonin, Davis, Garol, and McCulloch. Further observations on associational pathways in the brain of Macaca mulatto. ]. Neu- ropathol. Exp. Neurol., 3:413-15. 1945 With Sanchez. Neurinoma del nervio vago derecho en forma de reloj de arena. Arch. Mex. Neurol. Psiquiatr., 7:125-33.

PERCIVAL BAILEY 41 With Shimizu. Chronic leptomeningeal thickening following treat- ment of meningitis with sulfa drugs. Ann. Surg., 122:917-22. With Bonin. The cytoarchitecture of the cerebral cortex in the chimpanzee. Anat. Rec., 91:3-4. 1946 The practice of neurology in the United States of America. I. As- soc. Am. Med. Coll., 21:281-92. With Bonin. Concerning cytoarchitectonics. Proc. Am. Neurol. As- soc., 71 :89-93. 1947 With Bonin. The Neocortex of Macaca Mulatta. Urbana, Ill.: Univ. of Illinois Press. The training of the neurosurgeon. }. Int. Coll. Surg., 10:510-12. With Beiser. Concerning gagliogliomas of the brain. I. Neuro- pathol. Exp. Neurol., 6:24-34. 1948 Concerning the organization of the cerebral cortex. fames Green- wood Lecture, Univ. of Texas. Tex. Rep. Biol. Med., 6:34-57. Intracranial Tumors. 2d ed. Springfield, Ill.: Charles C Thomas. Disturbances of behavior produced in cats by lesions of the brain- stem. l. Nerv. Ment. Dis., 107:336-39. Organization of the cerebral cortex. Proc. Inst. Med. Chicago, 1 7:82-88. With Bonin and McCulloch. Associational fibers of the cerebral cortex. Proc. Am. Anat. Assoc., 100:5. Concerning the cytoarchitectonics of the frontal lobe of the chim- panzee (Pan satyrus) and man (Homo sapiens). Res. Publ. Assoc. Res. Nerv. Ment. Dis., 27:84-95. 1949 Recent developmentsinneurology.BrainNerve(Tokyo), 1:78-91. Concerning the functions of the cerebral cortex. I. Nerv. Ment. Dis., 110:369-78. Therapeutische ergebnisse nach hirnrindenexstirpation. Dtsch. Med. Wochenschr., 74:1517-21.

42 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 1950 Considerations sur la structure et les fonctions du cortex cerebral. Rev. Neurol., 82:1-20. On the organization and functions of the cerebral cortex. Brain Nerve (Tokyo), 2: 1 1 5-33. The therapeutic results of cortical extirpations. Brain Nerve (To- kyo),2:303-17. With Bonin and McCulloch. The Isocortex of the Chimpanzee. Urbana, Ill.: Univ. of Illinois Press. The place of neurology in undergraduate medical education. In: Proc. Forty-sixth Annual Congress on Medical Education and Licensure, pp. 29-31. Chicago: American Medical Assn. 1951 With F. A. Gibbs. The surgical treatment of psychomotor epilepsy. I. Am. Med. Assoc., 145:365-70. With Bonin. The Isocortex of Man. Urbana, Ill.: Univ. of Illinois Press. With Stein. A Stereotaxic Instrument for Man ~ Jubilee Volume for Rob't. Keeton), pp.40-49. Springfield, Ill.: Charles C Thomas. Die Hirngeschwiilste. 2 Aufl., Stuttgart: Enke. Considerazioni sull'organizzazioni e le funzioni delta corteccia ce- rebrale. Arch. Psicol. Neurol. Psichiatr. 12:91-107. 1952 Relation of structure to function in cortex. In: Symposium on the Biological Aspects of Mental Health and Disease, pp. 257-59. N.Y.: Paul B. Hoeber. L'acromegalie et son histoire. Rev. Neurol., 86:741-45. The history of the Illinois State Psychopathic Institute. The Wel- fare Bull., 43:17-20. 1953 Cortex and mind. In: Midcentury Psychiatry, ed. R. Grinker, pp. 8- 22. Springfield, Ill.: Charles C Thomas. (Reprinted in: Theories of the Mind, ed. i. Scher, pp. 3-14. Glencoe, N.Y.: Free Press, 1962.)

PERCIVAL BAILEY 43 Pierre Marie (1853-1940~. In: Founders of Neurology, ed. Haymaker, pp. 329-32. Springfield, Ill.: Charles C Thomas. 1954 Illinois Psychiatric Research Council. Welfare Bull., 45:5-14. With Arnold, Harvey, Haas, and Laughlin. Changes in the central nervous system following irradiation with 23 mev X-rays from the betatron. Radiology, 62:37-44. Betrachtungen uber die chirurgische Behandlung der psychomo- torischen Epilepsie. Zentralbl. Neurochir., 14:195-206. With Arnold and Laughlin. Effects of betatron radiation on the brain of primates. Neurology, 4: 165-79. With Arnold and Harvey. Intolerance of the primate brainstem and hypothalamus to conventional and high energy radiations. Neurology, 4:575-85. With Arnold. Alterations in the glial cells following irradiation of the brain in primates. Arch. Pathol., 57:383-91. 1955 With Arnold, Harvey, and Haas. The application of the betatron to the treatment of brain tumors. South. Med. I., 48:63-67. Concerning research in psychiatry. Welfare Bull., 462:3-6. 1956 Janet and Freud. Arch. Neurol. Psychiatry, 76:76-89. Concerning the localization of consciousness. Trans. Am. Neurol. Assoc., 80:1. The great psychiatric revolution. Am. I. Psychiatry, 113 :387-406. (Reprinted in: Critical Essays on Psychoanalysis. London: Perga- mon Press, 1963.) Reply to the foregoing. Am. J. Psychiatry, 113:847. Review of Delay: Aspects de la psychiatric moderne. Arch. Neurol. Psychiatry, 76: 565-66. Intracranial tumors. (Korean Translation.) Pusan: Kyali Publ., 430 PP 1957 With Bonin. Evolution of the cerebral cortex: Organ of the mind. What's New, 198: 13-19.

44 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Neurosurgical data on states of consciousness. Proc. First Intern. Congress of Neurological Sciences, Bruxelles, vol. 2, pp. 135- 40. Brussells: Acta Medica Belgica. Brain research in the mental health service of Illinois Department of Public Welfare. In: Biological Foundations of Psychiatry, ed. Himwich, pp. 7-12. Springfield, Ill.: State Publ. Service. Foreword. Zulch, Brain Tumors, Their Biology ~ Pathology. N.Y.: ~ . springer. Review: La psychoanalyse d~aujordhui. Arch. Neurol. Psychiatry, 78:327-28. Treatment of intracranial neoplasms. Am. I. Surg., 93:957-59. 1958 Foreword. D. L. Drabkin, Thudichum: Chemist of the Brain, pp. 9- 12. Philadelphia: Univ. of Pennsylvania Press. Evolution and disease of the brain. Perspect. Biol. Med., 2:62-74. (Reprinted in: Life and Disease, ed. D. Argyle. N.Y.: Basic Books, 1963.) Complications of anterior temporal lobectomy. In: Temporal Lobe Epilepsy, pp. 507-9. Springfield, Ill.: Charles C Thomas. Silas Weir Mitchell. In: Biographical Memoirs, 32:334-53. N.Y.: Co- lumbia Univ. Press for the National Academy of Sciences. La gran revolution psiquiatrica. Gac. Med. Caracas, 67:113-56. A grande revolucao psychiatrica. Neuronio, Sao Paulo. 1959 The seat of the soul. Perspect. Biol. Med., 2:417-41. (Reprinted, Midway, ~ 1 960~: 24-46.) With Century and Horwitt. Lipid factors in the production of en- cephalamalacia in the chick. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry, 1:90-92. With Horwitt. Cerebellar pathology in an infant resembling chick nutritional encephalomalacia. Arch. Neurol., 1 :312-14. With Schaltenbrand, editors. Introduction to Stereotaxis with an Atlas of the Human Brain. 3 vols. Stuttgart: Thieme. 1960 Contributions to basic science which have arisen in the psychiatric clinic. Lowell Lecture. In: Disease and the Advancement of Basic Science, pp. 315-35. Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Press.

PERCIVAL BAILEY 45 Modern attitudes toward the relationship of the brain to behavior. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry, 2:361-78. Review of Cossa, Approches pathogeniques des troubles mentaux. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry, 3:213-14. 1961 on(;ernlng one surgical treatment of psychomotor epilepsy: ilve- year follow-up. South. Med. I., 54:299-302. A rigged radio interview, with illustrations of various ego ideals. Perspect. Biol. Med., 4: 199-265. Anecdotes from the history of trephining. I. Int. Coll. Surg., 35:382-92. Review of Colby: Introduction to psychoanalytical research. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry, 5 :212-13. Extensive bilateral frontal lobe postoperative deficit: Eighteen-year study with autopsy data. In: Seventh Internal. Congress of Neu- rology, 2d book of proceedings, pp. 975-79. Roma: Societa Grafica Roma. 1962 Surgical trauma in treatment of neurologic disorders. Tex. State I. Med., 58:625-31. Modern developments in neuropathology. In: Frontiers in Brain Re- search, pp. 121-64. N.Y.: Columbia Univ. Press. Preface. In: N. P. Bekhtereva, Biopotentials of Cerebral Hemispheres in Brain Tumors. N.Y.: Consultants Bureau. 1963 Psychiatry in Armenia. I. Am. Psychiatr. Assoc., 119:796. Cerebellar encephalomalacia produced by diets deficient in toco- pherol. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 12:275-78. Sigmund Freud: Scientific period (1873 - 18971. In: The Condition- ing Therapies: The Challenge in Psychotherapy, pp. 83-96. N.Y.: Holt, Rinehart & Winston. Plight of education. Hoosharar, 50: 10-11. Review of Choisy: Sigmund Freud, a new appraisal. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry, 9:309-10. Review of Jung: Memories, dreams, reflections. Arch. Gen. Psy- chiatry, 9:189-90.

46 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS An Armenian pessa in the shadow of Ararat. Armenian Mirror- Spectator, 31:1-4. 1964 Herniation of the brain. In: Hernia, ed. Nylus and Harkins, pp. 795-96. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott. The organic substratum as a basis for understanding behavior. In: Unfinished Tasks in the Behavioral Sciences, ed. Abrams, pp. 1-11. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins. Illinois Psychiatric Training and Research Authori0: History of Its First Five Years. Springfield, Ill.: State Printing Office. 1965 Sigmund the Unserene: A Tragedy in Three Acts. Springfield, Ill.: Charles C Thomas. Eulogium magistrorum meorum. Perspect. Biol. Med., 8:31 1-335. Foreword. In: Cranial Hyperostoses (Perou)., pp. vii-viii. Springfield, Ill.: Charles C Thomas. Biological psychiatry. In: Horizons in Neurological Education and Re- search, pp. 49-58. Springfield, Ill: Charles C Thomas. Scholarship. In: Horizons in Neurological Education and Research, pp. 109-15. Springfield, Ill.: Charles C Thomas. Haroun al Rashid. Perspect. Biol. Med. Publ. Chicago Lit. Club. 32 PP 1970 Roy Richard Grinker, Sr. at 70, Editorial. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry, 23:1-2.

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Biographic Memoirs Volume 58 contains short biographies of deceased members of the National Academy of Sciences.

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